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"Clostridium difficile" "prevention"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914275/national-trends-2007-2013-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-septic-shock-impact-on-outcome
#1
Kshitij Chatterjee, Abhinav Goyal, Aditya Chada, Krishna Siva Kakkera, Howard L Corwin
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea and is associated with worse outcomes and higher cost. Patients with septic shock (SS) are at increased risk of acquiring C. difficile infections (CDIs) during hospitalization, but little data are available on CDI complicating SS. OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of CDI in SS between 2007-2013 and impact of CDI on outcomes in SS. METHODS: Outcomes were prevalence of CDI in SS, effect on mortality, length of stay (LOS), and 30-day readmission...
September 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903802/can-national-healthcare-associated-infections-hais-data-differentiate-hospitals-in-the-united-states
#2
Max Masnick, Daniel J Morgan, John D Sorkin, Mark D Macek, Jessica P Brown, Penny Rheingans, Anthony D Harris
OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website (http://medicare.gov/hospitalcompare) can use nationally reported healthcare-associated infection (HAI) data to differentiate hospitals. DESIGN Secondary analysis of publicly available HAI data for calendar year 2013. METHODS We assessed the availability of HAI data for geographically proximate hospitals (ie, hospitals within the same referral region) and then analyzed these data to determine whether they are useful to differentiate hospitals...
October 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894766/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-and-the-burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections
#3
Andrea L Lorden, Luohua Jiang, Tiffany A Radcliff, Kathleen A Kelly, Robert L Ohsfeldt
BACKGROUND: An estimated 4% of hospital admissions acquired healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and accounted for $9.8 (USD) billion in direct cost during 2011. In 2010, nearly 140 000 of the 3.5 million potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) may have acquired an HAI. There is a knowledge gap regarding the co-occurrence of these events. AIMS: To estimate the period occurrences and likelihood of acquiring an HAI for the PPH population. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using logistic regression analysis of 2011 Texas Inpatient Discharge Public Use Data File including 2...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890287/assessing-the-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-for-hospitals
#4
Elise Hebbinckuys, Jean-Pierre Marissal, Cristian Preda, Valérie Leclercq
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on the healthcare system. However, quantifying the burden raises many questions, ranging from the way to accurately estimate the extra length of stay at hospital to defining and costing the preventative methods among the different care providers. METHOD: We used multi state modeling based on Markov processes and bootstraping to derive individual estimates of the prolongation of stay at hospital associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885907/antibiotic-stewardship-why-we-must-how-we-can
#5
REVIEW
Arjun Srinivasan
Improving our antibiotic use is critical to the safety of our patients and the future of medicine. This can improve patient outcomes, save money, reduce resistance, and help prevent negative consequences such as Clostridium difficile infection. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is undertaking a nationwide effort to appropriately improve antibiotic use in inpatient and outpatient settings.
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878013/new-class-of-precision-antimicrobials-redefines-role-of-clostridium-difficile-s-layer-in-virulence-and-viability
#6
Joseph A Kirk, Dana Gebhart, Anthony M Buckley, Stephen Lok, Dean Scholl, Gillian R Douce, Gregory R Govoni, Robert P Fagan
There is a medical need for antibacterial agents that do not damage the resident gut microbiota or promote the spread of antibiotic resistance. We recently described a prototypic precision bactericidal agent, Av-CD291.2, which selectively kills specific Clostridium difficile strains and prevents them from colonizing mice. We have since selected two Av-CD291.2-resistant mutants that have a surface (S)-layer-null phenotype due to distinct point mutations in the slpA gene. Using newly identified bacteriophage receptor binding proteins for targeting, we constructed a panel of Avidocin-CDs that kills diverse C...
September 6, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870746/incidence-risk-factors-and-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-following-primary-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#7
Patawut Bovonratwet, Daniel D Bohl, Rohil Malpani, Denis Nam, Craig J Della Valle, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of Clostridium difficile is important as it is used as a measure of hospital quality and is associated with substantial morbidity. This study utilizes the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to determine the incidence, timing, risk factors, and clinical implications of C difficile colitis in patients undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA). METHODS: Patients who underwent primary THA or TKA as part of the 2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were identified...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865041/bezlotoxumab-a-review-in-preventing-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence
#8
Emma D Deeks
Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava™) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B indicated for the prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI) recurrence in patients with a high recurrence risk. It is the first agent approved for recurrence prevention and is administered as a single intravenous infusion in conjunction with standard-of-care (SoC) antibacterial treatment for CDI. In well-designed, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials (MODIFY 1 and 2), a single infusion of bezlotoxumab, given in combination with SoC antibacterial therapy for CDI in adults, was effective in reducing CDI recurrence in the 12 weeks post-treatment, with this benefit being seen mainly in the patients at high recurrence risk...
September 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863811/can-improving-patient-hand-hygiene-impact-clostridium-difficile-infection-events-at-an-academic-medical-center
#9
Marian Pokrywka, Michele Buraczewski, Debra Frank, Heather Dixon, Juliet Ferrelli, Kathleen Shutt, Mohamed Yassin
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene plays an important role in the prevention of Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI). Patient hand hygiene (PHH) may be a potentially underused preventative measure for CDI. Patient mobility and acuity along with a lack of education present obstacles to PHH for the hospitalized patient. Surveys of patients at our institution showed a need for increased PHH opportunities. The objective of this study was to increase PHH and to examine if PHH affected CDI at our hospital...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863256/bezlotoxumab-for-preventing-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections
#10
Jessica Rounds, Joe Strain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856119/characterization-of-chicken-igy-specific-to-clostridium-difficile-r20291-spores-and-the-effect-of-oral-administration-in-mouse-models-of-initiation-and-recurrent-disease
#11
Marjorie Pizarro-Guajardo, Fernando Díaz-González, Manuel Álvarez-Lobos, Daniel Paredes-Sabja
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are the leading cause of world-wide nosocomial acquired diarrhea. The current main clinical challenge in CDI is the elevated rate of infection recurrence that may reach up to 30% of the patients, which has been associated to the formation of dormant spores during the infection. We sought to characterize the effects of oral administration of specific anti-spore IgY in mouse models of CDI and recurrent CDI. The specificity of anti-spore IgY was evaluated in vitro. In both, initiation mouse model and recurrence mouse model, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of anti-spore IgY, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853357/infection-control
#12
(no author information available yet)
An infection prevention nurse has turned his hand to board game design to help health professionals understand and manage Clostridium difficile.
August 30, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851505/clostridium-difficile-on-youtube-a-need-for-greater-focus-on-prevention
#13
Corey H Basch, Grace Clarke Hillyer, Philip Garcia, Charles E Basch
The purpose of this study was to describe the content of the most popular YouTube videos related to Clostridium difficile. Across all sources, the kinds of content most likely to be included in the videos was general information, overuse of antibiotics, and symptomatic diarrhea. Health professionals can contribute to existing social media messages related to C. difficile with comprehensive messages that include means for prevention.
August 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844154/vancomycin-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence-in-renal-transplant-patients
#14
Lindsey E Splinter, Luiza Kerstenetzky, Margaret R Jorgenson, Jillian L Descourouez, Glen E Leverson, Christopher M Saddler, Jeannina A Smith, Nasia Safdar, Robert R Redfield
BACKGROUND: Incidence of primary and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is higher in solid-organ transplant recipients than in the average hospitalized patient. Strategies for preventing recurrent CDI are limited. Prophylaxis with oral vancomycin (VPPx) for preventing recurrent CDI may be beneficial, but there is limited evidence supporting its use. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of VPPx (125 mg twice daily) for the prevention of recurrent CDI in renal transplant recipients (RTX) receiving high-risk broad spectrum antibiotics (BSAs)...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842931/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-and-their-effects-on-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Rory M Shallis, Christopher M Terry, Seah H Lim
The human intestinal microbiota is essential for microbial homeostasis, regulation of metabolism, and intestinal immune tolerance. Rapidly evolving understanding of the importance of the microbiota implicates changes in the composition and function of intestinal microbial communities in an assortment of systemic conditions. Complications following allogeneic stem cell transplant now join the ever-expanding list of pathologic states regulated by intestinal microbiota. Dysbiosis, or disruption of the normal ecology of this microbiome, has been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of entities such as Clostridium difficile infections, graft-versus-host disease, and most recently disease relapse, all of which are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant...
August 26, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842504/functional-defects-in-clostridium-difficile-tcdb-toxin-uptake-identify-cspg4-receptor-binding-determinants
#16
Pulkit Gupta, Zhifen Zhang, Seiji N Sugiman-Marangos, John Tam, Swetha Raman, Jean-Philippe Julien, Heather K Kroh, D Borden Lacy, Nicholas Murgolo, Kavitha Bekkari, Alex G Therien, Lorraine D Hernandez, Roman A Melnyk
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen that produces two exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, with TcdB thought to be the primary determinant in human disease. TcdA and TcdB are large, multi-domain proteins, each harboring a cytotoxic glucosyltransferase domain that is delivered into the cytosol from endosomes via a translocation domain following receptor-mediated endocytosis of toxins from the cell surface. While there are currently no known host cell receptors for TcdA, three cell-surface receptors for TcdB have been identified: CSPG4, NECTIN3 and FZD1/2/7...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837182/bezlotoxumab-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea
#17
R Thakare, A Dasgupta, S Chopra
Diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is one of the major emerging threats to modern healthcare systems worldwide. Although C. difficile spores are present in the gut innocuously, because of repeated broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, the spores germinate with concomitant release of exotoxin A and B, resulting in mild to severe diarrhea. Antibiotic therapy is augmented by addition of the humanized antibodies actoxumab and bezlotoxumab to prevent the action of exotoxins A and B, respectively, since they provide passive immunity...
July 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827186/probiotics-and-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-children-a-review-and-new-evidence-on-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-during-and-after-antibiotic-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Cecilia Mantegazza, Paola Molinari, Enza D'Auria, Micol Sonnino, Lorenzo Morelli
Antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common complication in childhood in the outpatient and inpatient settings. This review provides up to date information on the use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AAD, including that from Clostridium Difficile, in children. The most recently systematic reviews and subsequently published randomized controlleds trials are considered. Different single and multistrain probiotics are described; a specific recommendation for the use of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) emerges...
August 18, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826428/what-makes-a-tweet-fly-analysis-of-twitter-messaging-at-four-infection-control-conferences
#19
Brett G Mitchell, Philip L Russo, Jonathan A Otter, Martin A Kiernan, Landon Aveling
OBJECTIVE To examine tweeting activity, networks, and common topics mentioned on Twitter at 4 international infection control and infectious disease conferences. DESIGN A cross-sectional study. METHODS An independent company was commissioned to undertake a Twitter 'trawl' each month between July 1, 2016, and November 31, 2016. The trawl identified any tweets that contained the official hashtags of the conferences for (1) the UK Infection Prevention Society, (2) IDWeek 2016, (3) the Federation of Infectious Society/Hospital Infection Society, and (4) the Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control...
August 22, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821215/implementation-of-global-strategies-to-prevent-hospital-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-targeting-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-probiotics
#20
Paul O Lewis, Timothy S Lundberg, Jennifer L Tharp, Clay W Runnels
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been identified as a significant risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Probiotics given concurrently with antibiotics have been shown to have a moderate impact on preventing CDI. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of hospital-wide interventions designed to reduce PPI use and increase probiotics and whether these interventions were associated with a change in the incidence of hospital onset (HO)-CDI...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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