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"Clostridium difficile" "prevention"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923419/clostridium-difficile-in-an-urban-university-affiliated-long-term-acute-care-hospital
#1
Jerry Jacob, Jingwei Wu, Jennifer Han, Deborah B Nelson
OBJECTIVES To describe the characteristics and impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH). DESIGN Retrospective matched cohort study. SETTING A 38-bed, urban, university-affiliated LTACH. METHODS The characteristics of LTACH-onset CDI were assessed among patients hospitalized between July 2008 and October 2015. Patients with CDI were matched to concurrently hospitalized patients without a diagnosis of CDI. Severe CDI was defined as CDI with 2 or more of the following criteria: age ≥65 years, serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dL, or peripheral leukocyte count ≥20,000 cells/μL...
December 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917075/management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Layth S Al-Jashaami, Herbert L DuPont
Since the discovery of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the 1970s, there has been an increase in the incidence, severity, and recurrence rate of the disease. We reviewed the recent CDI literature in PubMed published before February 28, 2016 that focused on advances in therapy. Despite a large number of studies describing methods for diagnosing the disease, there is currently no definitive test that identifies this infection with certainty, which complicates therapy. Recommended therapy for CDI includes oral metronidazole for mild cases and oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for moderate to severe cases, each given for 10 to 14 days...
October 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911804/familial-mediterranean-fever-mutations-lift-the-obligatory-requirement-for-microtubules-in-pyrin-inflammasome-activation
#3
Hanne Van Gorp, Pedro H V Saavedra, Nathalia M de Vasconcelos, Nina Van Opdenbosch, Lieselotte Vande Walle, Magdalena Matusiak, Giusi Prencipe, Antonella Insalaco, Filip Van Hauwermeiren, Dieter Demon, Delfien J Bogaert, Melissa Dullaers, Elfride De Baere, Tino Hochepied, Joke Dehoorne, Karim Y Vermaelen, Filomeen Haerynck, Fabrizio De Benedetti, Mohamed Lamkanfi
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic autoinflammatory disease worldwide. It is caused by mutations in the inflammasome adaptor Pyrin, but how FMF mutations alter signaling in FMF patients is unknown. Herein, we establish Clostridium difficile and its enterotoxin A (TcdA) as Pyrin-activating agents and show that wild-type and FMF Pyrin are differentially controlled by microtubules. Diverse microtubule assembly inhibitors prevented Pyrin-mediated caspase-1 activation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 from mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910000/a-review-of-experimental-and-off-label-therapies-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Alex Soriano, Josep Mensa
In spite of increased awareness and the efforts taken to optimize Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management, with the limited number of currently available antibiotics for C. difficile the halt of this increasing epidemic remains out of reach. There are, however, close to 80 alternative treatment methods with controversial anti-clostridial efficacy or in experimental phase today. Indeed, some of these therapies are expected to become acknowledged members of the recommended anti-CDI arsenal within the next few years...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878620/the-role-of-single-shot-metronidazole-in-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-following-ileostomy-reversal-surgery
#5
Roland Fernandes, Paul Robinson, Karan Rangarajan, Sophie Scott, Laura Angco
PURPOSE: Symptomatic infection with Clostridium difficile is strongly linked to antibiotic use and rates are higher for colorectal surgery. In February 2015, trust policy for antibiotic prophylaxis of ileostomy reversal surgery was changed from three doses of metronidazole plus cefuroxime to single-dose metronidazole, in a bid to reduce rates of Clostridium difficile infection. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single, large hospital trust between February 2014 and February 2016, before and after change in antimicrobial policy...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876075/chlorhexidine-bathing-and-health-care-associated-infections-among-adult-intensive-care-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Steven A Frost, Mari-Cris Alogso, Lauren Metcalfe, Joan M Lynch, Leanne Hunt, Ritesh Sanghavi, Evan Alexandrou, Kenneth M Hillman
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HAI) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and rates of hospital deaths (Kaye and Marchaim, J Am Geriatr Soc 62(2):306-11, 2014; Roberts and Scott, Med Care 48(11):1026-35, 2010; Warren and Quadir, Crit Care Med 34(8):2084-9, 2006; Zimlichman and Henderson, JAMA Intern Med 173(22):2039-46, 2013). Importantly, infections acquired during a hospital stay have been shown to be preventable (Loveday and Wilson, J Hosp Infect 86:S1-70, 2014)...
November 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864194/bezlotoxumab-approved-to-prevent-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#7
Kate Traynor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863462/liver-abscess-and-bacteremia-caused-by-lactobacillus-role-of-probiotics-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Muhammed Sherid, Salih Samo, Samian Sulaiman, Husein Husein, Humberto Sifuentes, Subbaramiah Sridhar
BACKGROUND: Lactobacilli are non-spore forming, lactic acid producing, gram-positive rods. They are a part of the normal gastrointestinal and genitourinary microbiota and have rarely been reported to be the cause of infections. Lactobacilli species are considered non-pathogenic organisms and have been used as probiotics to prevent antibiotic associated diarrhea. There are sporadic reported cases of infections related to lactobacilli containing probiotics. CASE PRESENTATION: In this paper we discuss a case of an 82 year old female with liver abscess and bacteremia from lactobacillus after using probiotics containing lactobacilli in the course of her treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis...
November 18, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862113/rethinking-strategies-to-select-antibiotic-therapy-in-cdi
#9
Teena Chopra, Ellie J C Goldstein, Sherwood L Gorbach
In recent years, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a global public health threat associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and economic burden, all of which are exacerbated with disease recurrence. Current guidelines informing treatment decisions are largely based on definitions of disease severity at diagnosis, with subjective components not well delineated across treatment algorithms and clinical trials. Furthermore, there is little evidence linking severity at onset to outcome. However, reducing the risk of recurrence may offer both a better outcome for the individual and decreased downstream economic impact...
November 9, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860531/two-clusters-of-fluoroquinolone-and-clindamycin-resistant-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-001-strain-recognized-by-capillary-electrophoresis-ribotyping-and-multilocus-variable-tandem-repeat-analysis
#10
Otakar Nyc, Renata Tejkalova, Zdenek Kriz, Filip Ruzicka, Lubos Kubicek, Jana Matejkova, Ed Kuijper, Marcela Krutova
AIM: To perform a retrospective analysis of the high occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection in the surgical department of a Czech tertiary care hospital and to identify weaknesses in C. difficile infection (CDI) prevention and control policies. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological data on eleven CDI cases were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized by capillary electrophoresis ribotyping, multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), gyrA gene fragment sequencing, and erm(B) fragment PCR amplification...
November 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825595/effect-of-a-national-4c-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-on-the-clinical-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-a-region-of-scotland-a-non-linear-time-series-analysis
#11
Timothy Lawes, José-María Lopez-Lozano, Cesar A Nebot, Gillian Macartney, Rashmi Subbarao-Sharma, Karen D Wares, Carolyn Sinclair, Ian M Gould
BACKGROUND: Whereas many antibiotics increase risk of Clostridium difficile infection through dysbiosis, epidemic C difficile ribotypes characterised by multidrug resistance might depend on antibiotic selection pressures arising from population use of specific drugs. We examined the effect of a national antibiotic stewardship intervention limiting the use of 4C antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, co-amoxiclav, and cephalosporins) and other infection prevention and control strategies on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of C difficile infections in northeast Scotland...
November 4, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821198/electronic-clostridium-difficile-infection-bundle-reduces-time-to-initiation-of-contact-precautions
#12
Courtney M Dewart, Natalia Blanco, Betsy Foxman, Anurag N Malani
The impact of computerized order-entry bundles on timing of contact precaution initiation for C. difficile infection (CDI) remains largely unexplored. Implementation of an electronic CDI prevention and management bundle that included an automatic isolation component significantly reduced time to initiation of contact precautions from 33.7 to 22.4 hours. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-3.
November 8, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817172/drug-utilization-review-of-cephalosporins-in-a-secondary-care-hospital-in-united-arab-emirates
#13
Mohammad Abou-Shaaban, Areeg Anwer Ali, Padma G M Rao, Asif Majid
Background Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antibiotics in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Few studies have been carried out to evaluate the antibiotic utilization pattern in UAE in spite of the obvious increase in cephalosporins resistance during the past decade. Objective To assess the prescriptions pattern of cephalosporins among physicians at a secondary care hospital in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. Method This observational prospective study was carried out during October 2013 to April 2014. The data of in patients were documented in the predesigned patient profile form and was analyzed for patient's, drug's and drug's therapy related parameters...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815923/clostridium-difficile-infection-due-to-pneumonia-treatment-mortality-risk-models
#14
M Chmielewska, Katarzyna Zycinska, B Lenartowicz, M Hadzik-Błaszczyk, M Cieplak, Z Kur, K A Wardyn
One of the most common gastrointestinal infection after the antibiotic treatment of community or nosocomial pneumonia is caused by the anaerobic spore Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess mortality due to C. difficile infection (CDI) in patients treated for pneumonia. We identified 94 cases of post-pneumonia CDI out of the 217 patients with CDI. The mortality issue was addressed by creating a mortality risk models using logistic regression and multivariate fractional polynomial analysis...
November 5, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780492/mechanisms-for-floor-surfaces-or-environmental-ground-contamination-to-cause-human-infection-a-systematic-review
#15
T Rashid, H Vonville, I Hasan, K W Garey
Shoe soles have been shown to transfer infectious microorganisms to floor and ground surfaces. However, the possible modes of transmission of infectious agents from floors or ground surfaces to human contact for infection have not been systematically reviewed. A systematic review was performed on articles indexed in medical databases (Medline, EMBASE, PubMed) using a pre-defined search strategy and MeSH terms (date of last search: 15 March 2016). Only primary research studies in English that investigated the transmission dynamics of infectious microorganisms from floor or ground surfaces to human infection were included...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776824/a-descriptive-case-study-of-the-changing-nature-of-nurses-work-the-impact-of-managing-infectious-diseases-requiring-isolation
#16
Alyshah Kaba, Andrea Baumann, Camille Kolotylo, Noori Akhtar-Danesh
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Clostridium difficile have increased in health care facilities worldwide. The complexity of caring for patients with infectious comorbidities has impacted nurses' daily work. A mixed-methods study at 1 community hospital in Ontario, Canada, demonstrated the cumulative effect of additional time spent on infection prevention and control measures resulted in trade-offs, cutting corners, and raised concerns about the quality and continuity of care...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771207/determining-the-cause-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#17
James Heng Chiak Sim, Cynthia Truong, Samuel S Minot, Nick Greenfield, Indre Budvytiene, Akshar Lohith, Victoria Anikst, Nader Pourmand, Niaz Banaei
Understanding the contribution of relapse and reinfection to recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has implications for therapy and infection prevention, respectively. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the relation of C. difficile strains isolated from patients with recurrent CDI at an academic medical center in the United States. Thirty-five toxigenic C. difficile isolates from 16 patients with 19 recurrent CDI episodes with median time of 53.5days (range, 13-362) between episodes were whole genome sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
October 5, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760583/utilization-of-health-services-among-adults-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-12-year-population-based-study
#18
Jennifer L Kuntz, Jennifer M Baker, Patricia Kipnis, Sherian Xu Li, Vincent Liu, Yang Xie, Stephen Marcella, Gabriel J Escobar
BACKGROUND Considerable efforts have been dedicated to developing strategies to prevent and treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI); however, evidence of the impact of rCDI on patient healthcare utilization and outcomes is limited. OBJECTIVE To compare healthcare utilization and 1-year mortality among adults who had rCDI, nonrecurrent CDI, or no CDI. METHODS We performed a nested case-control study among adult Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members from September 1, 2001, through December 31, 2013...
October 20, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759081/wall-teichoic-acids-are-involved-in-the-medium-induced-loss-of-function-of-the-autolysin-cd11-against-clostridium-difficile
#19
Xia Wu, Elena E Paskaleva, Krunal K Mehta, Jonathan S Dordick, Ravi S Kane
Bacterial lysins are potent antibacterial enzymes with potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections. Some lysins lose activity in the growth media of target bacteria, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we use CD11, an autolysin of Clostridium difficile, as a model lysin to demonstrate that the inability of this enzyme to kill C. difficile in growth medium is not associated with inhibition of the enzyme activity by medium, or the modification of the cell wall peptidoglycan...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757389/the-monoclonal-antitoxin-antibodies-actoxumab-bezlotoxumab-treatment-facilitates-normalization-of-the-gut-microbiota-of-mice-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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