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"Clostridium difficile" "prevention"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078087/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-an-uncommon-but-life-threatening-complication
#1
Francesco Piccolo, Anna Sze Tai, Hooi Ee, Siobhain Mulrennan, Scott Bell, Gerard Ryan
Adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) have significant rates of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage and are frequently exposed to risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite this, the rate of reported CDI in CF is low. We describe three cases of near fatal CDI in adults with CF and review the literature regarding presentation, management, and recurrence prevention. Early recognition is important as the clinical presentation may be atypical and the illness can be severe and even life-threatening...
January 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077203/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-older-adults-systematic-review-of-efforts-to-reduce-occurrence-and-improve-outcomes
#2
Leisa L Marshall, Samuel Peasah, Gregg A Stevens
OBJECTIVE: Provide a systematic review of the primary literature on efforts to reduce Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurrence and improve outcomes in older adults. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for research studies using search terms CDI, CDI prevention, reduction, control, management, geriatric, elderly, adults 65 years of age and older. The MeSH categories Aged and Aged, 80 and older, were used...
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057659/lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-in-the-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhoea-in-children-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Maciej Kołodziej, Hania Szajewska
INTRODUCTION: Administration of some probiotics appears to reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). The effects of probiotics are strain-specific, thus, the efficacy and safety of each probiotic strain should be established separately. We aim to assess the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 administration for the prevention of diarrhoea and AAD in children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 250 children younger than 18 years treated with antibiotics will be enrolled in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in which they will additionally receive L...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052855/syn-004-ribaxamase-an-oral-%C3%AE-lactamase-designed-to-protect-the-gut-microbiome-from-the-deleterious-effects-of-certain-intravenously-administered-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-degrades-ceftriaxone-excreted-into-the-intestine-in-phase-2a-clinical-studies
#4
John F Kokai-Kun, Tracey Roberts, Olivia Coughlin, Eric Sicard, Marianne Rufiange, Richard Fedorak, Christian Carter, Marijke H Adams, James Longstreth, Heidi Whalen, Joseph Sliman
SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a β-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous β-lactam antibiotics including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess β-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects including secondary infections like Clostridium difficile as well as other antibiotic-associated diarrheas...
January 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#5
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033143/probiotics-for-trauma-patients-should-we-be-taking-a-precautionary-approach
#6
Heather A Vitko, L Kathleen Sekula, Martin A Schreiber
The use of probiotics in the hospital setting is largely understudied and highly controversial. Probiotics are living organisms that, when taken internally, can produce an immunomodulating effect and improve the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier. Although used for centuries by healthy individuals for GI health, their use in the hospital setting is now gaining wide attention for the prevention of infectious complications such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infections, multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029400/diagnostic-testing-methods-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-statewide-survey-of-ohio-acute-care-hospitals
#7
Ken Koon Wong, Byungwoo Choi, Thomas G Fraser, Curtis J Donskey, Abhishek Deshpande
We surveyed Ohio acute care hospitals on laboratory testing used for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Of 146 hospitals surveyed, 109 (84%) used nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) as stand-alone diagnostic assays. Only 53 (42.4%) hospitals using NAATs had a mechanism in place to prevent repeat CDI testing.
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028434/infection-prevention-and-control-of-clostridium-difficile-a-global-review-of-guidelines-strategies-and-recommendations
#8
Evelyn Balsells, Teodora Filipescu, Moe H Kyaw, Camilla Wiuff, Harry Campbell, Harish Nair
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of health care-associated infections. Given the high incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) and the lack of primary prevention through immunization, health care professionals should be aware of the most current guidance, as well as strengths and limitations of the evidence base underpinning this guidance. METHODS: We identified publicly available national or organizational guidelines related to CDI infection and prevention control (IPC) published between 2000 and 2015 and for any health care setting through an internet search using the Google search engine...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024858/costs-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-pediatric-operations-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#9
Afif N Kulaylat, Dorothy V Rocourt, Abigail B Podany, Brett W Engbrecht, Marianne Twilley, Mary C Santos, Robert E Cilley, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Peter W Dillon
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this analysis was to assess the burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the hospitalized pediatric surgical population and to characterize its influence on the costs of care. METHODS: There were 313,664 patients age 1-18 years who underwent a general thoracic or abdominal procedure in the Kids' Inpatient Database during 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. Logistic regression was used to model factors associated with the development of C difficile infection...
December 23, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018885/lactobacillus-probiotics-in-the-prevention-of-diarrhea-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-a-systematic-review-and-bayesian-hierarchical-meta-analysis
#10
Alison Sinclair, Xuanqian Xie, Lama Saab, Nandini Dendukuri
BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses of the efficacy of probiotics for preventing diarrhea associated with Clostridium difficile have concluded there is a large effect favouring probiotics. We reexamined this evidence, which contradicts the results of a more recent large randomized controlled trial that found no benefit of Lactobacillus probiotics for preventing C. difficile-associated diarrhea. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the efficacy of treatment with Lactobacillus probiotics for preventing nosocomial C...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008787/a-review-of-dose-responses-of-probiotics-in-human-studies
#11
A C Ouwehand
The probiotic definition requires the administration of an 'adequate amount' in order to obtain a health benefit. What that amount should be is not indicated. Here, an overview is given of studies that investigated the dose-response relation of probiotics in human interventions. Studies were divided in; meta-analyses, meta-analyses on specific probiotic strains, and studies testing two or more doses of a probiotic (combination) in the same study. Meta-analyses on the effect of probiotics on antibiotic associated diarrhoea (AAD) suggest a dose-response effect; for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea on the other hand no dose-response was observed...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002256/risk-factors-for-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-pediatric-patients-with-cancer
#12
Atsuro Daida, Hiroki Yoshihara, Ikuko Inai, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yasushi Ishida, Kevin Y Urayama, Atsushi Manabe
Hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) may cause life-threatening colitis for children with cancer, making identification of risk factors important. We described characteristics of pediatric cancer patients with primary and recurring CDI, and evaluated potential risk factors. Among 189 cancer patients, 51 cases (27%) of CDI and 94 matched controls of cancer patients without CDI were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between CDI and several potential risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999606/traditional-chinese-medicine-qpyf-as-preventive-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-in-a-mouse-model
#13
Guo Ya-Nan, Wang Jun, Zhang Hao-Jun, Jia Hong-Bing, Li Ping, Liu Xin-Zhu
Traditional Chinese medicine QPYF has a good effect for treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to test its efficacy to prevent Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) in a mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Clostridium difficile VPI 10463 after exposure to antimicrobial mixture. QPYF was administered from 7 days prior to Clostridium difficile infection to 20 days after infection, and its effect was compared with no treatment and receiving placebo...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997976/the-microbiome-what-will-the-future-hold
#14
Howard Paul Monsour, Eamonn M M Quigley
Current research on the human microbiome has opened our eyes to the intimate relationship that we have with the bacteria that populate our gastrointestinal tract and its potential relationship to health and disease. To date, clinical research on the microbiome has identified intriguing associations between an altered microbiome and disease states, but proven therapeutic applications have been very limited. The ingestion of prebiotics, probiotics, and/or synbiotics is appealing to the general public and has significant commercial value, but as yet, solid evidence for clinical efficacy in liver disease has been lacking due, in large part, to the paucity of high-quality clinical trials...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988389/probiotics-and-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
E J C Goldstein, S J Johnson, P-J Maziade, C T Evans, J C Sniffen, M Millette, L V McFarland
The role of probiotics as adjunctive measures in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been controversial. However, a growing body of evidence has suggested that they have a role in primary prevention of CDI. Elements of this controversy are reviewed and the proposed mechanisms of action, the value and cost effectiveness of probiotics are addressed with a focus on three agents, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+)...
December 14, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943501/risk-factors-and-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-during-the-peritransplant-period
#16
Sol Del Mar Aldrete, Colleen S Kraft, Matthew J Magee, Austin Chan, Don Hutcherson, Amelia A Langston, Brian I Greenwell, Eileen M Burd, Rachel Friedman-Moraco
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients represent a high-risk group for developing Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI). We aimed to identify specific risk factors for CDI in an HSCT patient population during the peritransplant period. METHODS: We performed a case-control study within a cohort of HSCT patients who received a transplant from November 2010 to March 2013. Cases had a clinical presentation compatible with CDI and a positive stool sample Xpert(®) C...
December 10, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938986/reduction-in-hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-with-daily-chlorhexidine-gluconate-bathing-for-medical-inpatients
#17
Christopher F Lowe, Elisa Lloyd-Smith, Baljinder Sidhu, Gordon Ritchie, Azra Sharma, Willson Jang, Anna Wong, Jennifer Bilawka, Danielle Richards, Thomas Kind, David Puddicombe, Sylvie Champagne, Victor Leung, Marc G Romney
BACKGROUND: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings. METHODS: A prospective crossover study was conducted on 4 medical inpatient units in an urban, academic Canadian hospital from May 1, 2014-August 10, 2015. Intervention units used CHG over a 7-month period, including a 1-month wash-in phase, while control units used nonmedicated soap and water bathing...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923419/clostridium-difficile-in-an-urban-university-affiliated-long-term-acute-care-hospital
#18
Jerry Jacob, Jingwei Wu, Jennifer Han, Deborah B Nelson
OBJECTIVES To describe the characteristics and impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH). DESIGN Retrospective matched cohort study. SETTING A 38-bed, urban, university-affiliated LTACH. METHODS The characteristics of LTACH-onset CDI were assessed among patients hospitalized between July 2008 and October 2015. Patients with CDI were matched to concurrently hospitalized patients without a diagnosis of CDI. Severe CDI was defined as CDI with 2 or more of the following criteria: age ≥65 years, serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dL, or peripheral leukocyte count ≥20,000 cells/μL...
December 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917075/management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
Layth S Al-Jashaami, Herbert L DuPont
Since the discovery of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the 1970s, there has been an increase in the incidence, severity, and recurrence rate of the disease. We reviewed the recent CDI literature in PubMed published before February 28, 2016 that focused on advances in therapy. Despite a large number of studies describing methods for diagnosing the disease, there is currently no definitive test that identifies this infection with certainty, which complicates therapy. Recommended therapy for CDI includes oral metronidazole for mild cases and oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for moderate to severe cases, each given for 10 to 14 days...
October 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911804/familial-mediterranean-fever-mutations-lift-the-obligatory-requirement-for-microtubules-in-pyrin-inflammasome-activation
#20
Hanne Van Gorp, Pedro H V Saavedra, Nathalia M de Vasconcelos, Nina Van Opdenbosch, Lieselotte Vande Walle, Magdalena Matusiak, Giusi Prencipe, Antonella Insalaco, Filip Van Hauwermeiren, Dieter Demon, Delfien J Bogaert, Melissa Dullaers, Elfride De Baere, Tino Hochepied, Joke Dehoorne, Karim Y Vermaelen, Filomeen Haerynck, Fabrizio De Benedetti, Mohamed Lamkanfi
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic autoinflammatory disease worldwide. It is caused by mutations in the inflammasome adaptor Pyrin, but how FMF mutations alter signaling in FMF patients is unknown. Herein, we establish Clostridium difficile and its enterotoxin A (TcdA) as Pyrin-activating agents and show that wild-type and FMF Pyrin are differentially controlled by microtubules. Diverse microtubule assembly inhibitors prevented Pyrin-mediated caspase-1 activation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 from mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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