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"Clostridium difficile" "prevention"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136420/assessment-of-environmental-contamination-with-pathogenic-bacteria-at-a-hospital-laundry-facility
#1
Karen E Michael, David No, William E Daniell, Noah S Seixas, Marilyn C Roberts
Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132405/identifying-predictive-features-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence-before-during-and-after-primary-antibiotic-treatment
#2
Sepideh Pakpour, Amit Bhanvadia, Roger Zhu, Abhimanyu Amarnani, Sean M Gibbons, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm, Laura A Martello
BACKGROUND: Colonization by the pathogen Clostridium difficile often occurs in the background of a disrupted microbial community. Identifying specific organisms conferring resistance to invasion by C. difficile is desirable because diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based on the human microbiota have the potential to provide more precision to the management and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of adult patients diagnosed with their first CDI...
November 13, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128345/infectious-gastroenteritis-and-the-need-for-strict-contact-precaution-procedures-in-adults-presenting-in-the-emergency-department-a-danish-register-based-study
#3
Florence Skyum, Vibeke Andersen, Ming Chen, Court Pedersen, Christian Backer Mogensen
BACKGROUND: Acute infectious gastroenteritis requires contact precautions to prevent spreading. On acute admission the cause of diarrhoea is unknown, so the decision of whom to isolate has to be made on clinical information with a risk of inexpedient use of contact precautions. AIM: The aims of the study were to investigate how often gastroenteritis occurs, and thus the isolation indication has to be assessed, in Danish emergency departments, and how often patients have to remain on contact precaution according to the results of the faecal samples...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123385/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-elderly-an-update-on-management
#4
REVIEW
Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau
The burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is profound and growing. CDI now represents a common cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. CDI disproportionally affects the elderly, possibly explained by the following risk factors: age-related impairment of the immune system, increasing antibiotic utilization, and frequent health care exposure. In the USA, recent epidemiological studies estimate that two out of every three health care-associated CDIs occur in patients 65 years or older...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121673/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-key-bacterial-taxa-in-infant-microbiota-in-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#5
Chris E Talsness, John Penders, Eugène H J M Jansen, Jan Damoiseaux, Carel Thijs, Monique Mommers
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was determined at approximately the 36th week of pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112710/interventions-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-hospital-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-an-agent-based-modeling-approach-to-evaluate-clinical-effectiveness-in-adult-acute-care-hospitals
#6
Anna K Barker, Oguzhan Alagoz, Nasia Safdar
Background: Despite intensified efforts to reduce hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (C. difficile; HO-CDI), its clinical and economic impacts continue to worsen. Many institutions have adopted bundled interventions that vary considerably in composition, strength of evidence, and effectiveness. Considerable gaps remain in our knowledge of intervention effectiveness and disease transmission, which hinders HO-CDI prevention. Methods: We developed an agent-based model of C...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110105/recent-issues-in-pediatric-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
REVIEW
Jason A Clayton, Philip Toltzis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We focus on two recent aspects of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children, namely the emergence of community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) and the incidence and prevention of recurrent CDI. RECENT FINDINGS: Current surveys suggest that a large proportion of all pediatric CDI is acquired in the community. Risk factors and frequency estimates of pediatric CA-CDI, however, are confounded in babies and toddlers by a high rate of asymptomatic excretion, whose detection likely is exaggerated by the wide use of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests...
November 7, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106516/cost-effectiveness-of-bezlotoxumab-compared-with-placebo-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#8
Vimalanand S Prabhu, Erik R Dubberke, Mary Beth Dorr, Elamin Elbasha, Nicole Cossrow, Yiling Jiang, Stephen Marcella
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most commonly recognized cause of recurrent diarrhea. Bezlotoxumab, administered concurrently with antibiotics directed against C. difficile (standard of care [SoC]), has been shown to reduce the recurrence of CDI, compared with SoC alone. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of bezlotoxumab administered concurrently with SoC, compared with SoC alone, in subgroups of patients at risk of recurrence of CDI. Methods: A computer-based Markov health state transition model was designed to track the natural history of patients infected with CDI...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097028/the-effect-of-bezlotoxumab-for-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-in-japanese-patients
#9
Hiroshige Mikamo, Norihiro Aoyama, Miyuki Sawata, Go Fujimoto, Mary Beth Dorr, Tomoko Yoshinari
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is considered as a significant health care burden. The global study (MODIFY II) of antibody treatment (bezlotoxumab) for the prevention of recurrent C. difficile infection includes Japanese patients (95 subjects); The aim of this subgroup analysis is to report the data obtained from Japanese patients. Patients with C. difficile infection receiving standard of care antibiotic treatment and a single infusion of bezlotoxumab 10 mg/kg, actoxumab 10 mg/kg + bezlotoxumab 10 mg/kg or placebo...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095766/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-association-or-causation
#10
Javier A Villafuerte-Gálvez, Ciarán P Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) requires urgent identification of preventable risk factors. Observational studies suggest an association between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use and CDI risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Key historical literature on PPI and CDI associations is reviewed as a prelude to evaluating the plausibility of a causative association. Impactful literature from the past 18 months is examined in detail and critically appraised through the lens of the Bradford Hill Criteria for determination of causality...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058580/sleeping-with-the-enemy-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#11
REVIEW
Florian Prechter, Katrin Katzer, Michael Bauer, Andreas Stallmach
Over the last years, there was an increase in the number and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in all medical settings, including the intensive care unit (ICU). The current prevalence of CDI among ICU patients is estimated at 0.4-4% and has severe impact on morbidity and mortality. An estimated 10-20% of patients are colonized with C. difficile without showing signs of infection and spores can be found throughout ICUs. It is not yet possible to predict whether and when colonization will become infection...
October 22, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038278/fidaxomicin-and-op-1118-inhibit-c-difficile-toxin-a-and-b-mediated-inflammatory-responses-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity
#12
Hon Wai Koon, Jiani Wang, Caroline C Mussatto, Christina Ortiz, Elaine C Lee, Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Xinhua Chen, Ciaran P Kelly, Charalabos Pothoulakis
Objective:Clostridium difficile causes diarrhea and colitis by releasing toxin A and toxin B. In the human colon, both toxins cause intestinal inflammation and stimulate TNFα expression via activation of NF-κB. It is well established that the macrolide antibiotic fidaxomicin is associated with reduced relapses of C. difficile infection. We showed that fidaxomicin and its primary metabolite, OP-1118, significantly inhibited toxin A-mediated intestinal inflammation in mice in vivo and toxin A-induced cell rounding in vitro We aim to determine whether fidaxomicin and OP-1118 possess anti-inflammatory effects against toxin A and toxin B in the human colon and examine the mechanism of this response...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020328/early-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-improves-survival-in-severe-clostridium-difficile-infections
#13
Marie Hocquart, Jean Christophe Lagier, Nadim Cassir, Nadia Saidani, Carole Eldin, Jad Kerbaj, Marion Delord, Camille Valles, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
Background: Severe Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are associated with a high mortality rate despite medical and/or surgical treatment. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) prevents recurrences, but its effect on survival has been shown only in O27 ribotype CDI patients. Here, we investigated whether early FMT could improve survival in hospitalized CDI patients, particularly those with severe infection. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study between May 2013 and April 2016 at the infectious diseases department of the North University Hospital of Marseille, France...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020310/levofloxacin-prophylaxis-during-induction-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Joshua Wolf, Li Tang, Patricia M Flynn, Ching-Hon Pui, Aditya H Gaur, Yilun Sun, Hiroto Inaba, Tracy Stewart, Randall T Hayden, Hana Hakim, Sima Jeha
Background: Infection is the most important cause of treatment-related morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although routine in adults with leukemia, antibacterial prophylaxis is controversial in pediatrics because of insufficient evidence for its efficacy or antibiotic choice and concerns about promoting antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Methods: This was a single-center, observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed ALL, comparing prospectively collected infection-related outcomes in patients who received no prophylaxis, levofloxacin prophylaxis, or other prophylaxis during induction therapy on the total XVI study...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020222/antimicrobial-resistance-gene-acquisition-and-depletion-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-fmt-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Victor Leung, Caroline Vincent, Thaddeus Edens, Mark Miller, Amee R Manges
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be a novel approach to eliminate multidrug-resistant bacteria from the gut and to prevent future infections. Using whole metagenome sequencing data from eight FMT donor-recipient pairs, we identified 37 and 95 antimicrobial resistance genes that were acquired by or removed from FMT recipients, respectively.
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989528/outbreak-column-20-are-outbreaks-man-made-disasters-that-display-intertwined-errors-of-human-judgement-and-behaviour
#16
Evonne T Curran
Man-made disasters are reported to have five intertwined errors of human judgement and behaviour. As outbreaks are essentially man-made disasters, the cited intertwined errors of engineering overreach, smooth sailing fallacy, insider view, risk-seeking incentives and social-herding were looked for in five notable outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infection. Engineering overreach was found to be the most identifiable error. The purpose of this reflective exercise was to turn hindsight into foresight and determine the intertwined levels of safety behaviour needed to prevent any future pathogen emerging to produce healthcare disasters...
July 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989491/an-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-an-algorithm-intervention-in-reducing-inappropriate-faecal-samples-sent-for-clostridium-difficile-testing
#17
Irene Thompson, Colin Lavelle, Laurence Leonard
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitals. Sending faecal samples for testing expedites diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Clinical suspicion of C. difficile based on patient history, signs and symptoms is the basis for sampling. Sending faecal samples from patients with diarrhoea 'just in case' the patient has C. difficile may be an indication of poor clinical management. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention by an Infection Prevention and Control Team (IPCT) in reducing inappropriate faecal samples sent for C...
November 2016: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986313/impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-caused-by-the-nap1-rt027-strain-on-severity-and-recurrence-during-an-outbreak-and-transition-to-endemicity-in-a-mexican-tertiary-care-center
#18
Karla María Tamez-Torres, Pedro Torres-González, Francisco Leal-Vega, Ariana García-Alderete, Norma Irene López García, Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Miriam Bobadilla-Del Valle, Alfredo Ponce de León, José Sifuentes-Osornio
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to ribotype 027 (RT027) and recurrence, including an outbreak period, with transition to endemicity. METHODS: A case-control study was performed. Clinical and demographic data were collected for patients with CDI during the period January 2008 to December 2015. Ribotyping of the isolates and PCR for toxin A, B, and binary were performed...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980505/clostridium-difficile-infection-new-approaches-to-prevention-non-antimicrobial-treatment-and-stewardship
#19
Maria Adriana Cataldo, Guido Granata, Nicola Petrosillo
Despite the large amount of scientific publications exploring the epidemiology and the clinical management of Clostridium difficile (CD) infection, some issues remain unsolved or need further studies. The aim of this review is to give an update on the hot topics on CD prevention, including stewardship programs, and on the non-microbiological treatment of CD infection. Areas covered: This article will review the importance of minimizing the CD spore shedding in the healthcare environment for potentially reducing CD transmission...
October 5, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959143/surveillance-and-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-in-breast-oncologic-surgery-with-immediate-reconstruction
#20
Margaret A Olsen, Katelin B Nickel, Ida K Fox
Surgical site infection (SSI) after immediate breast reconstruction is much more common than would be expected after a clean surgical procedure. Although the SSI rates reported in individual studies are quite variable, there are no obvious explanations for the variation in infection rates between institutions. The microbiology of these SSIs is unusual, with higher proportions of infections caused by atypical Myobacterium species and Gram-negative bacilli than would be expected for this anatomic site. In an effort to prevent SSIs, many surgeons use a variety of different practices including irrigation and soaking of implants with antibiotic solutions and prolonged duration of prophylactic antibiotics, although the literature to support these practices is very sparse...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
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