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"Clostridium difficile" "prevention"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631639/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-the-patients-attending-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#1
Lavanya Segar, Joshy M Easow, Sreenivasan Srirangaraj, Mohammad Hanifah, Noyal M Joseph, K S Seetha
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile, a most important nosocomial enteric pathogen, is recognized globally as responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality due to widespread use of antibiotics. AIMS: The study was done to determine the prevalence of C. difficile infection (CDI) among the patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623367/bovine-antibodies-targeting-primary-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-disease-are-a-potent-antibiotic-alternative
#2
Melanie L Hutton, Bliss A Cunningham, Kate E Mackin, Shelley A Lyon, Meagan L James, Julian I Rood, Dena Lyras
The increased incidence of antibiotic resistant 'superbugs' has amplified the use of broad spectrum antibiotics worldwide. An unintended consequence of antimicrobial treatment is disruption of the gastrointestinal microbiota, resulting in susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Paradoxically, treatment of C. difficile infections (CDI) also involves antibiotic use, leaving patients susceptible to re-infection. This serious health threat has led to an urgent call for the development of new therapeutics to reduce or replace the use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607673/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-an-overview-of-the-evidence-base-and-challenges-in-data-synthesis
#3
Paul Eze, Evelyn Balsells, Moe H Kyaw, Harish Nair
BACKGROUND: Recognition of a broad spectrum of disease and development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and recurrent CDI (rCDI) in populations previously considered to be at low risk has renewed attention on differences in the risk profile of patients. In the absence of primary prevention for CDI and limited treatment options, it is important to achieve a deep understanding of the multiple factors that influence the risk of developing CDI and rCDI. METHODS: We conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on risk factors for CDI and rCDI published between 1990 and October 2016...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602273/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-acute-care-hospitals-long-term-care-facilities-and-outpatient-clinics-is-clostridium-difficile-infection-underdiagnosed-in-long-term-care-facility-patients
#4
Amar Krishna, Amina Pervaiz, Paul Lephart, Noor Tarabishy, Swapna Varakantam, Aditya Kotecha, Reda A Awali, Keith S Kaye, Teena Chopra
Clostridium difficile infection is a common cause of diarrhea in long-term care facility (LTCF) patients. The high prevalence of C difficile infection in LTCFs noted in our study calls for a critical need to educate LTCF staff to send diarrheal stool for C difficile testing to identify more cases and prevent transmission.
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592037/-a-prospective-control-study-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-in-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-the-older-inpatients
#5
D M Zhang, B B Xu, L Yu, L F Zheng, L P Chen, W Wang
Objective: To study the value of Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in older inpatients. Methods: A total of 163 older patients who were treated with wide-spectrum antibiotics at least three days during January 2014 to December 2015 were randomly divided into control and study group. In study group, 81 patients were administrated with oral Saccharomyces boulardii 500 mg twice a day for 21 days. The control group was of no intervention. Morbidity rate of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, frequency and duration of diarrhea were recorded...
June 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588767/effectiveness-of-various-cleaning-and-disinfectant-products-on-clostridium-difficile-spores-of-pcr-ribotypes-010-014-and-027
#6
N Kenters, E G W Huijskens, S C J de Wit, I G J M Sanders, J van Rosmalen, E J Kuijper, A Voss
BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, Clostridium difficile infections spread by transmission of bacterial spores. Appropriate sporicidal disinfectants are needed to prevent development of clusters and outbreaks. In this study different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested for their efficacy against spores of distinctive C. difficile PCR ribotypes. METHODS: Four different products were tested; 1) hydrogen peroxide 1.5%; 2) glucoprotamin 1.5%; 3) a mixture of ethanol, propane and N-alkyl amino propyl glycine; and 4) a mixture of didecyldimonium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, polyaminopropyl, biguanide and dimenthicone as active ingredients...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584140/safety-tolerability-systemic-exposure-and-metabolism-of-crs3123-a-methionyl-trna-synthetase-inhibitor-developed-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-a-phase-i-study
#7
Seema U Nayak, J McLeod Griffiss, Jeffrey Blumer, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Wesley Gray, Robin McKenzie, Robert A Jurao, Amanda T An, Melissa Le, Stacie J Bell, Urs A Ochsner, Thale C Jarvis, Nebojsa Janjic, Jonathan M Zenilman
Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic associated diarrhea and is a major public health concern. Current therapies disrupt the protective intestinal flora, do not reliably prevent recurrent infections and will be decreasingly effective should less susceptible strains emerge. CRS3123 is an oral agent that inhibits bacterial methionyl-tRNA synthetase, has potent activity against C. difficile and aerobic Gram positive bacteria, but little activity against Gram negative bacteria, including anaerobes. This first-in-human, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and systemic exposure of CRS3123 after a single oral dose in healthy adults...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580440/exploiting-a-host-commensal-interaction-to-promote-intestinal-barrier-function-and-enteric-pathogen-tolerance
#8
Virginia A Pedicord, Ainsley A K Lockhart, Kavita J Rangan, Jeffrey W Craig, Jakob Loschko, Aneta Rogoz, Howard C Hang, Daniel Mucida
Commensal intestinal bacteria can prevent pathogenic infection; however, limited knowledge of the mechanisms by which individual bacterial species contribute to pathogen resistance has restricted their potential for therapeutic application. Here, we examined how colonization of mice with a human commensal Enterococcus faecium protects against enteric infections. We show that E. faecium improves host intestinal epithelial defense programs to limit Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium pathogenesis in vivo in multiple models of susceptibility...
September 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558856/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-community-and-hospital-acquisition-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-tel-aviv-sourasky-medical-center
#9
Wasef Na'amnih, Amos Adler, Tamar Miller-Roll, Dani Cohen, Yehuda Carmeli
OBJECTIVES To estimate the incidence and identified risk factors for community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) METHODS We conducted 2 parallel case-control studies at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014. We identified persons with CDI, determined whether infection was community or hospital acquired, and calculated incidence rates from 2007 to 2014. We collected demographic, clinical, and epidemiological information for CDI cases and hospitalized control cases and estimated the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval using conditional logistic regression...
May 31, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540051/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-where-did-it-start-what-have-studies-taught-us-where-is-it-going
#10
REVIEW
Ryan M Chanyi, Laura Craven, Brandon Harvey, Gregor Reid, Michael J Silverman, Jeremy P Burton
The composition and activity of microorganisms in the gut, the microbiome, is emerging as an important factor to consider with regard to the treatment of many diseases. Dysbiosis of the normal community has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, diabetes and, most notoriously, Clostridium difficile infection. In Canada, the leading treatment strategy for recalcitrant C. difficile infection is to receive faecal material which by nature is filled with microorganisms and their metabolites, from a healthy individual, known as a faecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538249/norovirus-and-clostridium-difficile-outbreaks-squelching-the-wildfire
#11
Ann Fisher, Louise M Dembry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal outbreaks in the healthcare setting cause increased morbidity and mortality in an already vulnerable population. Optimization of infection prevention measures can be a challenge in healthcare settings. This review describes new literature that may change the traditional infection prevention approach to such outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: Asymptomatic carriers of both norovirus and Clostridium difficile can pose risk of transmission to others and the environment...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536258/erratum-for-hong-et-al-mucosal-antibodies-to-the-c-terminus-of-toxin-a-prevent-colonization-of-clostridium-difficile
#12
Huynh A Hong, Krisztina Hitri, Siamand Hosseini, Natalia Kotowicz, Donna Bryan, Fatma Mawas, Anthony J Wilkinson, Annie van Broekhoven, Jonathan Kearsey, Simon M Cutting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520994/gut-microbiota-mediated-protection-against-diarrheal-infections
#13
Stefanie L Vogt, B Brett Finlay
Background: The mammalian gut microbiota is a highly abundant and diverse microbial community that resides in the gastrointestinal tract. One major benefit that the gut microbiota provides to its host is colonization resistance-the ability to prevent colonization by foreign microbes, including diarrheal pathogens such as Clostridium difficile , Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . Methods: We conducted a literature review of the effects of the gut microbiota on infection by diarrheal pathogens...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520993/effects-of-short-and-long-course-antibiotics-on-the-lower-intestinal-microbiome-as-they-relate-to-traveller-s-diarrhea
#14
Lawrence Clifford McDonald
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics have profound and lasting effects on the lower intestinal (gut) microbiome that can both promote resistance and increase susceptibility to colonization and infection; knowledge of these changes is important to the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea. METHODS: Recent data from epidemiologic and modern metagenomics studies were reviewed in regard to how such findings could inform the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520953/evolving-insights-into-the-epidemiology-and-control-of-clostridium-difficile-in-hospitals
#15
Daniel A Caroff, Deborah S Yokoe, Michael Klompas
Typing studies suggest most cases of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection are unrelated to other cases of active disease in the hospital. New cases may instead be due to transmissions from asymptomatic carriers or progression of latent C.difficile present-on-admission to active infection. Direct exposure to antibiotics remains the primary risk factor for C.difficile infection but ward-level antibiotic use, antibiotic exposure of the prior room occupant, and C.difficile status of the prior room occupant increase risk for C...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512094/intrinsic-toxin-derived-peptides-destabilize-and-inactivate-clostridium-difficile-tcdb
#16
Jason L Larabee, Sarah J Bland, Jonathan J Hunt, Jimmy D Ballard
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of hospital-associated, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, which is largely mediated by the production of two large multidomain clostridial toxins, TcdA and TcdB. Both toxins coordinate the action of specific domains to bind receptors, enter cells, and deliver a catalytic fragment into the cytosol. This results in GTPase inactivation, actin disassembly, and cytotoxicity. TcdB in particular has been shown to encode a region covering amino acids 1753 to 1851 that affects epitope exposure and cytotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510584/identification-of-novel-risk-factors-for-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-spatial-statistics-and-geographic-information-system-analyses
#17
Deverick J Anderson, Leoncio Flavio Rojas, Shera Watson, Lauren P Knelson, Sohayla Pruitt, Sarah S Lewis, Rebekah W Moehring, Emily E Sickbert Bennett, David J Weber, Luke F Chen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: The rate of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is increasing. While receipt of antibiotics remains an important risk factor for CDI, studies related to acquisition of C. difficile outside of hospitals are lacking. As a result, risk factors for exposure to C. difficile in community settings have been inadequately studied. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To identify novel environmental risk factors for CA-CDI. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with CA-CDI from 1/1/2007 through 12/31/2014 in a 10-county area in central North Carolina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506028/comparison-of-the-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-risk-of-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-versus-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-stress-ulcers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Mohamed Azab, Loomee Doo, Daniel H Doo, Yousif Elmofti, Muazer Ahmed, John Jay Cadavona, Xibei B Liu, Amaan Shafi, Moon Kyung Joo, Ji Won Yoo
Background/Aims: Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers in hospital settings, there are concerns that PPIs increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, little is known about the risk of CDI following PPI and histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use. We evaluated the comparative hospital-acquired CDI occurrence risk associated with the concurrent use of PPIs versus H2RAs. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE/ Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and Google Scholar through August 19, 2016, identified 12 studies that reported the hospital-acquired CDI occurrence following H2RA and PPI use for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers...
May 17, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500042/carboxyl-analogue-of-mutacin-1140-a-scaffold-for-lead-antibacterial-discovery
#19
Jerome Escano, Akshaya Ravichandran, Bita Salamat, Leif Smith
Mutacin 1140 belongs to the epidermin group of lantibiotics. Epidermin class lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post translationally modified antibiotics with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, this class is effective at targeting drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, MRSA,Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Clostridium difficile A C-terminal S-[(Z)-2-aminovinyl]-D-cysteine (AviCys) residue is derived from a decarboxylation of a terminal cysteine that is involved in one of the lanthionine ring formation...
May 12, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497295/assessing-the-risk-and-disease-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-patients-with-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-at-a-university-hospital-in-central-china
#20
Chunhui Li, Juping Duan, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Chenchao Fu, Cui Zeng, Anhua Wu
PURPOSE: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) remains one of the major hospital-acquired infections in China. Antibiotic treatment of HAP may lead to subsequent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Baseline data on the occurrence of CDI among HAP patients in China are currently unavailable. This study examines the risk and disease burden of CDI among HAP hospitalized patients (HAP-CDI). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among ICU patients with HAP and hospital-onset diarrhea from January 2014 to December 2014 in a teaching hospital in China...
May 11, 2017: Infection
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