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"Clostridium difficile" "prevention"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520994/gut-microbiota-mediated-protection-against-diarrheal-infections
#1
Stefanie L Vogt, B Brett Finlay
Background: The mammalian gut microbiota is a highly abundant and diverse microbial community that resides in the gastrointestinal tract. One major benefit that the gut microbiota provides to its host is colonization resistance-the ability to prevent colonization by foreign microbes, including diarrheal pathogens such as Clostridium difficile , Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . Methods: We conducted a literature review of the effects of the gut microbiota on infection by diarrheal pathogens...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520993/effects-of-short-and-long-course-antibiotics-on-the-lower-intestinal-microbiome-as-they-relate-to-traveller-s-diarrhea
#2
Lawrence Clifford McDonald
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics have profound and lasting effects on the lower intestinal (gut) microbiome that can both promote resistance and increase susceptibility to colonization and infection; knowledge of these changes is important to the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea. METHODS: Recent data from epidemiologic and modern metagenomics studies were reviewed in regard to how such findings could inform the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520953/evolving-insights-into-the-epidemiology-and-control-of-clostridium-difficile-in-hospitals
#3
Daniel A Caroff, Deborah S Yokoe, Michael Klompas
Typing studies suggest most cases of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection are unrelated to other cases of active disease in the hospital. New cases may instead be due to transmissions from asymptomatic carriers or progression of latent C.difficile present-on-admission to active infection. Direct exposure to antibiotics remains the primary risk factor for C.difficile infection but ward-level antibiotic use, antibiotic exposure of the prior room occupant, and C.difficile status of the prior room occupant increase risk for C...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512094/intrinsic-toxin-derived-peptides-destabilize-and-inactivate-clostridium-difficile-tcdb
#4
Jason L Larabee, Sarah J Bland, Jonathan J Hunt, Jimmy D Ballard
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of hospital-associated, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, which is largely mediated by the production of two large multidomain clostridial toxins, TcdA and TcdB. Both toxins coordinate the action of specific domains to bind receptors, enter cells, and deliver a catalytic fragment into the cytosol. This results in GTPase inactivation, actin disassembly, and cytotoxicity. TcdB in particular has been shown to encode a region covering amino acids 1753 to 1851 that affects epitope exposure and cytotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510584/identification-of-novel-risk-factors-for-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-spatial-statistics-and-geographic-information-system-analyses
#5
Deverick J Anderson, Leoncio Flavio Rojas, Shera Watson, Lauren P Knelson, Sohayla Pruitt, Sarah S Lewis, Rebekah W Moehring, Emily E Sickbert Bennett, David J Weber, Luke F Chen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: The rate of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is increasing. While receipt of antibiotics remains an important risk factor for CDI, studies related to acquisition of C. difficile outside of hospitals are lacking. As a result, risk factors for exposure to C. difficile in community settings have been inadequately studied. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To identify novel environmental risk factors for CA-CDI. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with CA-CDI from 1/1/2007 through 12/31/2014 in a 10-county area in central North Carolina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506028/comparison-of-the-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-risk-of-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-versus-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-stress-ulcers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Mohamed Azab, Loomee Doo, Daniel H Doo, Yousif Elmofti, Muazer Ahmed, John Jay Cadavona, Xibei B Liu, Amaan Shafi, Moon Kyung Joo, Ji Won Yoo
Background/Aims: Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers in hospital settings, there are concerns that PPIs increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, little is known about the risk of CDI following PPI and histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use. We evaluated the comparative hospital-acquired CDI occurrence risk associated with the concurrent use of PPIs versus H2RAs. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE/ Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and Google Scholar through August 19, 2016, identified 12 studies that reported the hospital-acquired CDI occurrence following H2RA and PPI use for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers...
May 17, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500042/carboxyl-analogue-of-mutacin-1140-a-scaffold-for-lead-antibacterial-discovery
#7
Jerome Escano, Akshaya Ravichandran, Bita Salamat, Leif Smith
Mutacin 1140 belongs to the epidermin group of lantibiotics. Epidermin class lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post translationally modified antibiotics with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, this class is effective at targeting drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, MRSA,Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Clostridium difficile A C-terminal S-[(Z)-2-aminovinyl]-D-cysteine (AviCys) residue is derived from a decarboxylation of a terminal cysteine that is involved in one of the lanthionine ring formation...
May 12, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497295/assessing-the-risk-and-disease-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-patients-with-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-at-a-university-hospital-in-central-china
#8
Chunhui Li, Juping Duan, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Chenchao Fu, Cui Zeng, Anhua Wu
PURPOSE: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) remains one of the major hospital-acquired infections in China. Antibiotic treatment of HAP may lead to subsequent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Baseline data on the occurrence of CDI among HAP patients in China are currently unavailable. This study examines the risk and disease burden of CDI among HAP hospitalized patients (HAP-CDI). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among ICU patients with HAP and hospital-onset diarrhea from January 2014 to December 2014 in a teaching hospital in China...
May 11, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491889/infections-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-results-from-the-organ-transplant-infection-project-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Mindy G Schuster, Angela A Cleveland, Erik R Dubberke, Carol A Kauffman, Robin K Avery, Shahid Husain, David L Paterson, Fernanda P Silveira, Tom M Chiller, Kaitlin Benedict, Kathleen Murphy, Peter G Pappas
BACKGROUND: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our object was to better define the epidemiology and outcomes of infections after HCT. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HCT recipients and conducted from 2006 to 2011. The study included 4 US transplant centers and 444 HCT recipients. Data were prospectively collected for up to 30 months after HCT using a standardized data collection tool...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484801/optimal-control-of-vaccination-rate-in-an-epidemiological-model-of-clostridium-difficile-transmission
#10
Brittany Stephenson, Cristina Lanzas, Suzanne Lenhart, Judy Day
The spore-forming, gram-negative bacteria Clostridium difficile can cause severe intestinal illness. A striking increase in the number of cases of C. difficile infection (CDI) among hospitals has highlighted the need to better understand how to prevent the spread of CDI. In our paper, we modify and update a compartmental model of nosocomial C. difficile transmission to include vaccination. We then apply optimal control theory to determine the time-varying optimal vaccination rate that minimizes a combination of disease prevalence and spread in the hospital population as well as cost, in terms of time and money, associated with vaccination...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480750/bezlotoxumab-could-this-b-the-answer-for-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#11
Ryan W Chapin, Tiffany Lee, Christopher McCoy, Carolyn D Alonso, Monica V Mahoney
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and place in therapy of bezlotoxumab (BEZ), a novel monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was conducted for data between 1946 and April 2017 using MeSH terms bezlotoxumab, MK-6072, or MDX-1388 alone and the terms Clostridium difficile combined with monoclonal antibody or antitoxin. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The literature search was limited to English-language studies that described clinical efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in humans and animals...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480289/community-environmental-contamination-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile
#12
M Jahangir Alam, Seth T Walk, Bradley T Endres, Eugenie Basseres, Mohammed Khaleduzzaman, Jonathan Amadio, William L Musick, Jennifer L Christensen, Julie Kuo, Robert L Atmar, Kevin W Garey
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is often considered to result from recent acquisition of a C difficile isolate in a healthcare setting. However, C difficile spores can persist for long periods of time, suggesting a potentially large community environmental reservoir. The objectives of this study were to assess community environmental contamination of toxigenic C difficile and to assess strain distribution in environmental versus clinical isolates. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, we collected community environmental swabs from homes and public areas in Houston, Texas to assess C difficile contamination...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470456/-bezlotoxumab-for-the-secondary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-modify%C3%A2-i-and-modify%C3%A2-ii-studies
#13
C Lübbert, S Nitschmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465256/a-combination-of-the-probiotic-and-prebiotic-product-can-prevent-the-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-and-infection
#14
M Rätsep, S Kõljalg, E Sepp, I Smidt, K Truusalu, E Songisepp, J Stsepetova, P Naaber, R H Mikelsaar, M Mikelsaar
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prevalent healthcare associated infections in hospitals and nursing homes. Different approaches are used for prevention of CDI. Absence of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been associated with C. difficile colonization in hospitalized patients. Our aim was to test a) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains of different origin and the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Inducia (DSM 21379) to various antimicrobial preparations incl...
April 29, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461190/probiotics-for-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-is-the-jury-still-out
#15
EDITORIAL
Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456140/comparison-of-the-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-and-bacteremia-after-delaying-fluoroquinolone-prophylaxis-from-day-0-to-day-3-post-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Karin Koseck, Amir Steinberg, Gina Caliendo, Joanne Meyer, Sara S Kim
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic fluoroquinolones are routinely administered after stem cell transplantation (SCT) to prevent bacterial infection; however, fluoroquinolones may increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection, particularly in immunocompromised patients. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of a delay by 3 days in fluoroquinolone prophylaxis after autologous SCT (ASCT) on the rates of C. difficile infection and bacteremia. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed in 118 patients who received levofloxacin prophylaxis following ASCT at our institution between November 2014 and October 2015...
April 29, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452915/leapfrog-hospital-safety-score-magnet-designation-and-healthcare-associated-infections-in-united-states-hospitals
#17
Amy L Pakyz, Hui Wang, Yasar A Ozcan, Michael B Edmond, Timothy J Vogus
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) pose a challenge to patient safety. Although studies have explored individual level, few have focused on organizational factors such as a hospital's safety infrastructure (indicated by Leapfrog Hospital Safety Score) or workplace quality (Magnet recognition). The aim of the study was to determine whether Magnet and hospitals with better Leapfrog Hospital Safety Scores have fewer HAIs. METHODS: Ordered probit regression analyses tested associations between Safety Score, Magnet status, and standardized infection ratios, depicting whether a hospital had a Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection standardized infection ratio that was "better," "no different," or "worse" than a National Benchmark as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network definitions...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449424/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-refractory-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-case-series-of-nine-patients
#18
Byoung Wook Bang, Jin Seok Park, Hyung Kil Kim, Yong Woon Shin, Kye Sook Kwon, Hea Yoon Kwon, Ji Hyeon Baek, Jin Soo Lee
Background/Aims: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Despite its excellent efficacy and recent widespread use, FMT has not been widely used in South Korea thus far. We describe our experience with FMT to treat refractory/recurrent CDI. Methods: We conducted a chart review of patients who underwent FMT for refractory/recurrent CDI at Inha University Hospital, between March 2014 and June 2016...
April 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435086/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-among-hospitalised-adults-risk-factors-and-impact-on-survival
#19
Laura Behar, David Chadwick, Angela Dunne, Christopher I Jones, Claire Proctor, Chakravarthi Rajkumar, Paula Sharratt, Philip Stanley, Angela Whiley, Mark Wilks, Martin J Llewelyn
OBJECTIVES: To establish risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonization among hospitalized patients in England. METHODS: Patients admitted to elderly medicine wards at three acute hospitals in England were recruited to a prospective observational study. Participants were asked to provide a stool sample as soon as possible after enrolment and then weekly during their hospital stay. Samples were cultured for C. difficile before ribotyping and toxin detection by PCR...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414622/clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Jennan A Phillips, Stephanie Hammond
Preventing Clostridium difficile, the most common cause of health care-associated infections in hospitals and infectious disease death in the United States, is a national priority. Increased rates of infection among low-risk individuals in the community call for community-based prevention efforts to halt the increasing spread of this highly contagious opportunistic infection.
April 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
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