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fatty acids and beta cells and apoptosis

Ho-Chen Lin, Ming-Yi Ho, Chao-Ming Tsen, Chien-Chu Huang, Chin-Ching Wu, Yuh-Jeen Huang, I-Lun Hsiao, Chun-Yu Chuang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) enter the central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). AgNP exposure can increase amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in neuronal cells to potentially induce Alzheimer disease (AD) progression. However, the mechanism through which AgNPs alter BBB permeability in endothelial cells and subsequently lead to AD progression remains unclear. This study investigated whether AgNPs disrupt the tight junction proteins of brain endothelial cells, and alter the proteomic metabolism of neuronal cells underlying AD progression in a triple cell co-culture model constructed using mouse brain endothelial (bEnd...
April 29, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Suma Elumalai, Udayakumar Karunakaran, In Kyu Lee, Jun Sung Moon, Kyu Chang Won
We recently reported that cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, plays a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced β-cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression. Emerging evidence suggests that the small GTPase Rac1 is involved in the pathogenesis of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the role of Rac1 in CD36 activation and its impact on β-cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus...
April 2017: Redox Biology
Attilio Pingitore, Edward S Chambers, Thomas Hill, Inmaculada Ruz Maldonado, Bo Liu, Gavin Bewick, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Gareth A Wallis, Catriona Tedford, Ramón Castañera González, Guo C Huang, Pratik Choudhary, Gary Frost, Shanta J Persaud
AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon...
February 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jun Sung Moon, Udayakumar Karunakaran, Suma Elumalai, In-Kyu Lee, Hyoung Woo Lee, Yong-Woon Kim, Kyu Chang Won
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, was reported to have a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced beta cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression, and it is unknown whether this action can be counteracted by metformin. In the present study, we showed that metformin counteracts glucotoxicity by alleviating oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced CD36 expression. METHODS: We used primary rat islets as well as INS-1 cells for 72h to 24h with 30mM glucose, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
S Bühler, J Frahm, R Tienken, S Kersten, U Meyer, K Huber, S Dänicke
The periparturient period of dairy cows is accompanied by an immunosuppression that leaves the animal more susceptible to infections and metabolic disorders. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) which peak shortly after parturition due to lipolysis are known to impair immune cell functions. Niacin with its well-known anti-lipolytic effect may have the ability to ameliorate this situation. Additionally, niacin shows also anti-inflammatory effects that may be beneficial to the immune status of the cow...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
N B Ghate, A Das, D Chaudhuri, S Panja, N Mandal
The worldwide cancer incidences are remarkable despite the advancement in cancer drug discovery field, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on cancer cell and its microenvironment, including inflammation. Several species of Drosera (family: Droseraceae) are used in various traditional as well as homeopathic systems of medicine. Drosera burmannii Vahl. is also enlisted in French Pharmacopoeia in 1965 for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including chronic bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Ernest Sargsyan, Konstantin Artemenko, Levon Manukyan, Jonas Bergquist, Peter Bergsten
Long-term exposure of beta cells to saturated fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and increases apoptosis. In contrast, unsaturated fatty acids protect beta-cells from the long-term negative effects of saturated fatty acids. We aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this protective action of unsaturated fatty acids. To address the aim, insulin-secreting MIN6 cells were exposed to palmitate in the absence or presence of oleate and analyzed by using nano-LC MS/MS based proteomic approach. Important findings were validated by using alternative approaches...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eddy Himpe, Daniel A Cunha, Imane Song, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Miriam Cnop, Luc Bouwens
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies demonstrated that a phenylpropenoic acid glucoside (PPAG) from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract had anti-hyperglycemic activity and significant protective effects on the pancreatic beta cell mass in a chronic diet-induced diabetes model. The present study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of the phytochemical on beta cells exposed to acute cell stress. METHODS: Synthetically prepared PPAG was administered orally in mice treated with a single dose of streptozotocin to acutely induce beta cell death and hyperglycemia...
2016: PloS One
Vengala Rao Yenuganti, Torsten Viergutz, Jens Vanselow
After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells...
June 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Johan Staaf, Sarojini J K A Ubhayasekera, Ernest Sargsyan, Azazul Chowdhury, Hjalti Kristinsson, Hannes Manell, Jonas Bergquist, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity-related diabetes in childhood is increasing and circulating levels of nonesterified fatty acids may constitute a link. Here, the association between palmitate and insulin secretion was investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Obese and lean children and adolescents (n = 80) were included. Palmitate was measured at fasting; insulin and glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Human islets were cultured for 0 to 7 d in presence of 0...
August 2016: Pediatric Research
Yaoting Deng, Yurika Matsui, Wenfei Pan, Qiu Li, Zhi-Chun Lai
Mammalian pancreatic β-cells play a pivotal role in development and glucose homeostasis through the production and secretion of insulin. Functional failure or decrease in β-cell number leads to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite the physiological importance of β-cells, the viability of β-cells is often challenged mainly due to its poor ability to adapt to their changing microenvironment. One of the factors that negatively affect β-cell viability is high concentration of free fatty acids (FFAs) such as palmitate...
May 2016: Protein & Cell
Sun-mi Park, Jungsook Choi, Tae-gyu Nam, Jin-mo Ku, Kwiwan Jeong
Lots of experimental and clinical evidences indicate that chronic exposure to saturated fatty acids and high level of glucose is implicated in insulin resistance, beta cell failure and ultimately type 2 diabetes. In this study, we set up cell-based experimental conditions to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin resistance using high concentration of palmitate (PA). Hydroxynaphthoic acids (HNAs) were formerly identified as novel chemical chaperones to resolve ER stress induced by tunicamycin...
May 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Radovan Vasko
SIGNIFICANCE: Peroxisomes are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. The organs with the highest density of peroxisomes are the liver and kidneys. Peroxisomes possess more than fifty enzymes and fulfill a multitude of biological tasks. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation. In recent years, a considerable amount of evidence has been collected to support the involvement of peroxisomes in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. RECENT ADVANCES: The nature of the two most important peroxisomal tasks, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide turnover, functionally relates peroxisomes to mitochondria...
August 1, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Huimin Lu, Liuyi Hao, Songtao Li, Song Lin, Lin Lv, Yang Chen, Hongli Cui, Tianqi Zi, Xia Chu, Lixin Na, Changhao Sun
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Serum stearic acid (C18:0) is elevated in individuals with hyperlipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the lipotoxicity induced by increased stearic acid in beta cells has not been well described. This study aimed to examine the adverse effects of stearic acid on beta cells and the potential mechanisms through which these are mediated. METHODS: Three groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a high-stearic-acid/high-palmitic-acid diet for 24 weeks, respectively...
June 2016: Diabetologia
Anders Molven, Jennifer Hollister-Lock, Jiang Hu, Rachael Martinez, Pål R Njølstad, Chong Wee Liew, Gordon Weir, Rohit N Kulkarni
Congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy (CHI) can be caused by inactivating mutations in the gene encoding short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD), a ubiquitously expressed enzyme involved in fatty acid oxidation. The hypersecretion of insulin may be explained by a loss of interaction between SCHAD and glutamate dehydrogenase in the pancreatic β-cells. However, there is also a general accumulation of metabolites specific for the enzymatic defect in affected individuals. It remains to be explored whether hypoglycemia in SCHAD CHI can be uncoupled from the systemic effect on fatty acid oxidation...
June 2016: Diabetes
Chunyun Wan, Jinmei Xiang, Youwen Li, Dingzong Guo
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is both an exogenous and endogenous cytotoxic agent that can reliably induce apoptosis in numerous cell types for studies on apoptosis signaling pathways. However, little is known of these apoptotic processes in myocardial cells of chicken, a species prone to progressive heart failure. Sequencing of mRNA transcripts (RNA-Seq) allows for the identification of differentially expressed genes under various physiological and pathological conditions to elucidate the molecular pathways involved, including cellular responses to exogenous and endogenous toxins...
2016: PloS One
Georg Pongratz, Torsten Lowin, Robert Kob, Roland Buettner, Thomas Bertsch, L Cornelius Bollheimer
BACKGROUND: The immune system undergoes several alterations of innate and adaptive immunity during ageing. The main features of the aged immune system are a reduced diversity of T cell receptors and a reduced activity of innate immune cells with subsequent changes in adaptive immunity resulting in a less effective, less specific, and dys-regulated immune response and in an increased susceptibility towards infection, malignancy, and autoimmunity. The process is referred to as immunosenescence and is also modulated by environmental modifiers, such as dietary factors...
2015: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Mirwais Osmai, Yama Osmai, Claus H Bang-Berthelsen, Emil M H Pallesen, Anna L Vestergaard, Guy W Novotny, Flemming Pociot, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
In the last decade, there has been an explosion in both the number of and knowledge about miRNAs associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Even though we are presently in the initial stages of understanding how this novel class of posttranscriptional regulators are involved in diabetes, recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are important regulators of the islet transcriptome, controlling apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation, as well as regulating unique islet and beta-cell functions and pathways such as insulin expression, processing and secretion...
May 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Annalisa Natalicchio, Federica Tortosa, Rossella Labarbuta, Giuseppina Biondi, Nicola Marrano, Emanuele Carchia, Anna Leonardini, Angelo Cignarelli, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Gian Paolo Fadini, Marco Giorgio, Angelo Avogaro, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Diabetologia
A Ahmadi, M Khalili, Sh Margedari, B Nahri-Niknafs
The search for indigenous natural antidiabetic and antilipidemec agents is still ongoing. Medicinal plants are widely used for this purpose. These herbs are very rich sources of bioactive compounds as flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids which have been reported as effective role to reduce blood glucose and lipid levels. Securigera securidaca seed is reputed in folk medicine for their value as antidiabetic and antilipidemec drugs. In this research, the effect of solvent polarity in bioactive extraction contents of this plant was evaluated by GC-MS analysis...
March 2016: Drug Research
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