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fatty acids and beta cells and apoptosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799764/a-ubiquitin-dependent-mitophagy-complex-maintains-mitochondrial-function-and-insulin-secretion-in-beta-cells
#1
Gemma Pearson, Scott A Soleimanpour
Mitochondrial autophagy or mitophagy is a key component of mitochondrial quality control, which is necessary to maintain cellular bioenergetics. Pancreatic islet β-cells, which release insulin in response to circulating blood glucose levels, are particularly susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction due to their high metabolic activity and energy requirements for insulin processing, maturation, and secretion. Therefore, dysregulated mitophagy has drawn interest in the etiology of β-cell failure in diabetes...
May 25, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762844/free-fatty-acids-mediates-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-inflammation-through-toll-like-receptor-4
#2
L Chen, C-X Yu, B Song, W Cai, C Liu, Q-B Guan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in the free fatty acids (FFAs) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) inflammation and to explore the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HUVECs and HEK293 cell lines were obtained from Shanghai Type Culture Collection. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the cell viability and apoptosis rate of HUVECs induced by FFAs treatments with or without infection of toll-like receptor-4 interference (TLR4i) adenovirus...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754287/protective-role-of-the-elovl2-docosahexaenoic-acid-axis-in-glucolipotoxicity-induced-apoptosis-in-rodent-beta-cells-and-human-islets
#3
Lara Bellini, Mélanie Campana, Claude Rouch, Marta Chacinska, Marco Bugliani, Kelly Meneyrol, Isabelle Hainault, Véronique Lenoir, Jessica Denom, Julien Véret, Nadim Kassis, Bernard Thorens, Mark Ibberson, Piero Marchetti, Agnieszka Blachnio-Zabielska, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Carina Prip-Buus, Christophe Magnan, Hervé Le Stunff
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to influence glucose homeostasis. We recently showed that Elovl2 expression in beta cells, which regulates synthesis of endogenous DHA, was associated with glucose tolerance and played a key role in insulin secretion. The present study aimed to examine the role of the very long chain fatty acid elongase 2 (ELOVL2)/DHA axis on the adverse effects of palmitate with high glucose, a condition defined as glucolipotoxicity, on beta cells...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715109/fatty-acids-of-cla-enriched-egg-yolks-can-induce-mitochondrial-pathway-of-apoptosis-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Aneta A Koronowicz, Mariola Drozdowska, Paula Banks, Ewelina Piasna-Słupecka, Dominik Domagała, Teresa Leszczyńska
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids from conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched egg yolk suppressed the viability of the MCF-7 cancer line more effectively than non-enriched egg yolk. Herein we aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms by analysing the expression and activation of proteins involved in cellular stress and apoptosis signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight Isa Brown laying hens (26-week-old) were fed a fortified (0.75% CLA) or a control diet (0% CLA) for 4 months...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659518/examining-the-genetic-background-of-porcine-muscle-growth-and-development-based-on-transcriptome-and-mirnaome-data
#5
Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Kacper Żukowski, Katarzyna Piórkowska, Grzegorz Żak, Artur Gurgul, Natalia Derebecka, Joanna Wesoły
Recently, selection in pigs has been focused on improving the lean meat content in carcasses; this focus has been most evident in breeds constituting a paternal component in breeding. Such sire-breeds are used to improve the meat quantity of cross-breed pig lines. However, even in one breed, a significant variation in the meatiness level can be observed. In the present study, the comprehensive analysis of genes and microRNA expression profiles in porcine muscle tissue was applied to identify the genetic background of meat content...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441061/profiling-of-human-molecular-pathways-affected-by-retrotransposons-at-the-level-of-regulation-by-transcription-factor-proteins
#6
Daniil Nikitin, Dmitry Penzar, Andrew Garazha, Maxim Sorokin, Victor Tkachev, Nicolas Borisov, Alexander Poltorak, Vladimir Prassolov, Anton A Buzdin
Endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons also termed retroelements (REs) are mobile genetic elements that were active until recently in human genome evolution. REs regulate gene expression by actively reshaping chromatin structure or by directly providing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We aimed to identify molecular processes most deeply impacted by the REs in human cells at the level of TFBS regulation. By using ENCODE data, we identified ~2 million TFBS overlapping with putatively regulation-competent human REs located in 5-kb gene promoter neighborhood (~17% of all TFBS in promoter neighborhoods; ~9% of all RE-linked TFBS)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375041/chronic-orexin-a-hypocretin-1-treatment-of-type-2-diabetic-rats-improves-glucose-control-and-beta-cell-functions
#7
P Kaczmarek, M Skrzypski, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, M Sassek, P A Kolodziejski, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, P Maechler, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexin regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Here, we test the ability of orexin-A (OXA, hypocretin-1) at improving metabolic control in type 2 diabetic animals and elaborate potential mechanisms of action. Rats with experimentally induced type 2 diabetes by a combination of streptozotocin injection and high-fat diet feeding were chronically infused with OXA. In vitro experiments were conducted on isolated pancreatic islets, primary adipocytes and insulin secreting INS-1E cells. OXA improved glucose control, enhanced insulin sensitivity and attenuated pancreatic β-cell loss in type 2 diabetic rats...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121068/metabolic-regulation-of-glp-1-and-pc1-3-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-line
#8
Veronica Sancho, Giuseppe Daniele, Daniela Lucchesi, Roberto Lupi, Annamaria Ciccarone, Giuseppe Penno, Cristina Bianchi, Angela Dardano, Roberto Miccoli, Stefano Del Prato
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An intra-islet incretin system has been recently suggested to operate through modulation of the expression and activity of proconvertase 1/3 and 2 (PC1/3, PC2) in pancreatic alpha-cell accounting for local release of GLP-1. Little is known, whether this alpha-cell activity can be affected by the metabolic alterations occurring in type 2 diabetes, such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia or hyperglucagonemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AlphaTC1/6 cells from a mice pancreatic cell line were incubated in the presence of two glucose (G) concentration (5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827664/integrated-analysis-of-mrna-and-mirna-expression-in-hela-cells-expressing-low-levels-of-nucleolin
#9
Sanjeev Kumar, Elizabhet Cruz Gomez, Mounira Chalabi-Dchar, Cong Rong, Sadhan Das, Iva Ugrinova, Xavier Gaume, Karine Monier, Fabien Mongelard, Philippe Bouvet
Nucleolin is an essential protein that plays important roles in the regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation. Its expression is up regulated in many cancer cells but its molecular functions are not well characterized. Nucleolin is present in the nucleus where it regulates gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Using HeLa cells depleted in nucleolin we performed an mRNA and miRNA transcriptomics analysis to identify biological pathways involving nucleolin. Bioinformatic analysis strongly points to a role of nucleolin in lipid metabolism, and in many signaling pathways...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822947/cell-metabolomics-reveals-the-neurotoxicity-mechanism-of-cadmium-in-pc12-cells
#10
Li Zong, Junpeng Xing, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Fengrui Song
The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) can induce neurotoxicity. Extensive studies about the effects of Cd on human health have been reported, however, a systematic investigation on the molecular mechanisms of the effects of Cd on central nervous system is still needed. In this paper, the neuronal PC-12 cells were treated with a series of concentrations of CdCl2 for 48h. Then the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC15 value (15% inhibiting concentration) was selected for further mechanism studies...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724742/the-myokine-irisin-is-released-in-response-to-saturated-fatty-acids-and-promotes-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-insulin-secretion
#11
Annalisa Natalicchio, Nicola Marrano, Giuseppina Biondi, Rosaria Spagnuolo, Rossella Labarbuta, Immacolata Porreca, Angelo Cignarelli, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
This study explored the role of irisin as a new pancreatic β-cell secretagogue and survival factor and its potential role in the communication between skeletal muscle and pancreatic β-cells under lipotoxic conditions. Recombinant irisin stimulated insulin biosynthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a PKA-dependent manner and prevented saturated fatty acid-induced apoptosis in human and rat pancreatic β-cells, as well as in human and murine pancreatic islets, via AKT/BCL2 signaling. Treatment of myotubes with 0...
November 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676456/palmitoylethanolamide-and-polydatin-combination-reduces-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-injury
#12
Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Flavia Biundo, Ramona D'Amico, Filippo Benedetto, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Acute and chronic inflammation responses are important risk factors for vascular remodeling processes such as in atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis and restenosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress in the intimal region after vascular damage are a key event in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. In this study, we used this model of vascular damage, which involves the complete ligature of the left carotid artery for 14days, to observe the role of N-palmitoylethanolamine in combination with Polydatin at the dose of 30mg/kg, on regulation of inflammatory process, and oxidative stress...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460142/from-the-cover-comparative-proteomics-reveals-silver-nanoparticles-alter-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-amyloid-beta-clearance-for-neuronal-apoptosis-in-a-triple-cell-coculture-model-of-the-blood-brain-barrier
#13
Ho-Chen Lin, Ming-Yi Ho, Chao-Ming Tsen, Chien-Chu Huang, Chin-Ching Wu, Yuh-Jeen Huang, I-Lun Hsiao, Chun-Yu Chuang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) enter the central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). AgNP exposure can increase amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in neuronal cells to potentially induce Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. However, the mechanism through which AgNPs alter BBB permeability in endothelial cells and subsequently lead to AD progression remains unclear. This study investigated whether AgNPs disrupt the tight junction proteins of brain endothelial cells, and alter the proteomic metabolism of neuronal cells underlying AD progression in a triple cell coculture model constructed using mouse brain endothelial (bEnd...
July 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912197/rac1-nadph-oxidase-signaling-promotes-cd36-activation-under-glucotoxic-conditions-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#14
Suma Elumalai, Udayakumar Karunakaran, In Kyu Lee, Jun Sung Moon, Kyu Chang Won
We recently reported that cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, plays a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced β-cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression. Emerging evidence suggests that the small GTPase Rac1 is involved in the pathogenesis of beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the role of Rac1 in CD36 activation and its impact on β-cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus...
April 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761989/the-diet-derived-short-chain-fatty-acid-propionate-improves-beta-cell-function-in-humans-and-stimulates-insulin-secretion-from-human-islets-in-vitro
#15
Attilio Pingitore, Edward S Chambers, Thomas Hill, Inmaculada Ruz Maldonado, Bo Liu, Gavin Bewick, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Gareth A Wallis, Catriona Tedford, Ramón Castañera González, Guo C Huang, Pratik Choudhary, Gary Frost, Shanta J Persaud
AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon...
February 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662780/metformin-prevents-glucotoxicity-by-alleviating-oxidative-and-er-stress-induced-cd36-expression-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#16
Jun Sung Moon, Udayakumar Karunakaran, Suma Elumalai, In-Kyu Lee, Hyoung Woo Lee, Yong-Woon Kim, Kyu Chang Won
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, was reported to have a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced beta cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression, and it is unknown whether this action can be counteracted by metformin. In the present study, we showed that metformin counteracts glucotoxicity by alleviating oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced CD36 expression. METHODS: We used primary rat islets as well as INS-1 cells for 72h to 24h with 30mM glucose, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590424/influence-of-energy-level-and-nicotinic-acid-supplementation-on-apoptosis-of-blood-leukocytes-of-periparturient-dairy-cows
#17
S Bühler, J Frahm, R Tienken, S Kersten, U Meyer, K Huber, S Dänicke
The periparturient period of dairy cows is accompanied by an immunosuppression that leaves the animal more susceptible to infections and metabolic disorders. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) which peak shortly after parturition due to lipolysis are known to impair immune cell functions. Niacin with its well-known anti-lipolytic effect may have the ability to ameliorate this situation. Additionally, niacin shows also anti-inflammatory effects that may be beneficial to the immune status of the cow...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551490/sundew-plant-a-potential-source-of-anti-inflammatory-agents-selectively-induces-g2-m-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-mcf-7-cells-through-upregulation-of-p53-and-bax-bcl-2-ratio
#18
N B Ghate, A Das, D Chaudhuri, S Panja, N Mandal
The worldwide cancer incidences are remarkable despite the advancement in cancer drug discovery field, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on cancer cell and its microenvironment, including inflammation. Several species of Drosera (family: Droseraceae) are used in various traditional as well as homeopathic systems of medicine. Drosera burmannii Vahl. is also enlisted in French Pharmacopoeia in 1965 for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including chronic bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344025/oleate-protects-beta-cells-from-the-toxic-effect-of-palmitate-by-activating-pro-survival-pathways-of-the-er-stress-response
#19
Ernest Sargsyan, Konstantin Artemenko, Levon Manukyan, Jonas Bergquist, Peter Bergsten
Long-term exposure of beta cells to saturated fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and increases apoptosis. In contrast, unsaturated fatty acids protect beta-cells from the long-term negative effects of saturated fatty acids. We aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this protective action of unsaturated fatty acids. To address the aim, insulin-secreting MIN6 cells were exposed to palmitate in the absence or presence of oleate and analyzed by using nano-LC MS/MS based proteomic approach. Important findings were validated by using alternative approaches...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299564/phenylpropenoic-acid-glucoside-from-rooibos-protects-pancreatic-beta-cells-against-cell-death-induced-by-acute-injury
#20
Eddy Himpe, Daniel A Cunha, Imane Song, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Miriam Cnop, Luc Bouwens
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies demonstrated that a phenylpropenoic acid glucoside (PPAG) from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract had anti-hyperglycemic activity and significant protective effects on the pancreatic beta cell mass in a chronic diet-induced diabetes model. The present study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of the phytochemical on beta cells exposed to acute cell stress. METHODS: Synthetically prepared PPAG was administered orally in mice treated with a single dose of streptozotocin to acutely induce beta cell death and hyperglycemia...
2016: PloS One
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