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fatty acids and insulin-secreting cells

Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion...
March 14, 2018: Adipocyte
Qilin Long, Lei Wang, Mei Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Tianbao Chen
Insulin, as one of the most important hormones regulating energy metabolism, plays an essential role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo. Failure or insufficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells increases glucose and free fatty acid level in circulation and subsequently contributes to the emergence of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia. Therefore, stimulating the insulin release benefits the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity significantly. Frog skin peptides have been extensively studied for their biological functions, among which, Phylloseptin peptides discovered in Phyllomedusinae frogs have been found to exert antimicrobial, antiproliferative and insulinotropic activities, while the mechanism associated with Phylloseptin-induced insulin secretion remains elusive...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Soon-Hee Kim, Hee-Sook Park, Moon Ju Hong, Haeng Jeon Hur, Dae Young Kwon, Myung-Sunny Kim
SCOPE: This study investigated the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a bioactive component of honeybee hives, on the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by comparing the efficacy of CAPE intake at the beginning of obesity and after obesity. The functional mechanism of CAPE was also investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 0.05% CAPE (HFD+C) for 12 weeks (HFD+C(Pre) group) or received HFD+C for 6 weeks after consuming the HFD for 6 weeks (HFD+C(Post) group)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Carmen Lambert, Judit Cubedo, Teresa Padró, Gemma Vilahur, Sergi López-Bernal, Milagros Rocha, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Lina Badimon
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events. The ingestion of high-glycemic index (GI) diets, specially sweetened beverage consumption, has been associated with the development of T2DM and CV disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of the intake of a sweetened beverage, obtained from natural carbohydrates containing pinitol (PEB) compared to a sucrose-enriched beverage (SEB) in the context of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes...
February 27, 2018: Nutrients
Anton M Pluschke, Barbara A Williams, Dagong Zhang, Stephen T Anderson, Eugeni Roura, Michael J Gidley
Acute and sustained soluble dietary fibre (SDF) consumption are both associated with improved glucose tolerance in humans and animal models (e.g. porcine). However, the effects on glucose tolerance in grower pigs, adapted to diets with a combination of SDF have not been studied previously. In this experiment, cereal SDF wheat arabinoxylan (AX) and oat β-glucan (BG) were fed individually and in combination to determine the effect on glucose tolerance in jugular vein catheterized grower pigs. Five groups of Large White male grower pigs were fed highly digestible diets containing either 10% AX, 10% BG, 5% AX with 5% BG, a model cereal whole wheat flour (WWF), or a control wheat starch diet (WS) with no SDF...
2018: PloS One
Torben Stermann, Franziska Menzel, Carmen Weidlich, Kay Jeruschke, Jürgen Weiß, Delsi Altenhofen, Tim Benninghoff, Anna Pujol, Fatima Bosch, Ingo Rustenbeck, D Margriet Ouwens, G Hege Thoresen, Christian de Wendt, Sandra Lebek, Tanja Schallschmidt, Martin Kragl, Eckhard Lammert, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani
The RabGTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has been shown to be a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Its function in pancreatic islets, however, is not yet fully understood. Here, we aimed to clarify the specific impact of TBC1D1 on insulin secretion and substrate utilization in pancreatic islets. We analyzed the dynamics of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and lipid metabolism in isolated islets from Tbc1d1-deficient mice (D1KO). To further investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms, we conducted pharmacological studies in these islets...
February 22, 2018: Endocrinology
Lei Lei, Shuainan Liu, Yongqiang Li, Huipeng Song, Lianchao He, Quan Liu, Sujuan Sun, Yan Li, Zhiqiang Feng, Zhufang Shen
Glucokinase was glucose sensor in hepatocytes and islet beta cells. It not only promoted glucose metabolism, but also advanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Glucokinase activators had been reported as one kind of new potential drugs for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Compound 6-(5-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)-2-ethoxybenzamido) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (SHP289-04) was found to increase glucokinase activity effectively by our lab. In order to demonstrate its effect of anti-diabetes, in vitro, human liver carcinoma cell line HepG2 was used to glucose consumption test, and pancreatic cell line NIT-1 was used to assess insulin secretion in response to different concentration of glucose (5mmol/l and 20mmol/l)...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Mengyao Bai, Yun Liu, Feiye Zhou, Yuqing Zhang, Qin Zhu, Linlin Zhang, Qi Zhang, Shushu Wang, Kecheng Zhu, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou
Glucose promotes insulin secretion primarily via its metabolism and the production of metabolic coupling factors in beta-cells. The activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor, results in a decrease in insulin secretion from beta-cells, but its mechanism remains largely unknown. Berberine, an oral anti-diabetic drug, has been shown to activate AMPK in multiple peripheral tissues. Here, we examined the effects of berberine and AMPK activation on insulin secretion and glucose oxidation in rat islets...
February 22, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Muthukumaran Padmanaban, Thiyagarajan Gopal, Arun Babu Rajendran, Baddireddi Subhadra Lakshmi
Among several metabolic disorders, the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is considered to be multifactorial. Raffinose, an oligosaccharide isolated from the rhizome of Costus speciosus showed ≤50% inhibition of lipid accumulation in differentiated HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells through exhibiting partial agonism to PPARγ, and, an enhanced secretion of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Raffinose was also observed to attenuate the expression of SREBP1c, ACC and FAS which are involved in the fatty acid synthesis. A corresponding upregulation of PPARα and ACO involved in fatty acid oxidation was observed in steatotic HepG2 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Masato Furuhashi, Satoshi Yuda, Atsuko Muranaka, Mina Kawamukai, Megumi Matsumoto, Marenao Tanaka, Norihito Moniwa, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Kazuaki Shimamoto, Tetsuji Miura
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), which is expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages, is secreted from the cells and acts as an adipokine. An elevated circulating FABP4 level is associated with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis.Methods and Results:We investigated the causative association between FABP4 level and progression of atherosclerosis in subjects of the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a population-based cohort. In 281 subjects without medication (male/female: 109/172) in the year 2010 or 2013, the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) assessed using carotid ultrasonography was significantly correlated with age, adiposity, blood pressure, renal dysfunction and levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, HbA1c and FABP4 (r=0...
February 15, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Kaiyuan Yang, Catherine B Chan
Epicatechin (EC) is a monomeric flavan-3-ol. We have previously demonstrated that glucose-intolerant rats fed flavan-3-ols exhibit improved pancreatic islet function corresponding with an increase in circulating EC-derived metabolites. Thus, we speculate that EC may act as a cellular signaling molecule in vivo to modulate insulin secretion. In this study we further examined the effects of different concentrations of EC on H2O2 or hyperglycemia-induced ROS production, as well as on saturated fatty acid (SFA)-impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in INS-1 cell line in vitro...
February 8, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Mette Trauelsen, Michael Lückmann, Thomas M Frimurer, Thue W Schwartz
It is known but generally unappreciated that the fatty acid receptor FFAR1 (GPR40) is responsible for a major part of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This puzzling fact is now explained by Tunaru et al. (2018), who demonstrate that glucose-induced 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) amplifies insulin secretion through autocrine activation of FFAR1.
February 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
V Guarnotta, G Pizzolanti, A Ciresi, C Giordano
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of pasireotide on β-cell and adipose function in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). METHODS: Clinical and hormonal parameters, insulin secretion evaluated by HOMA-β and by the area under the curve (AUC2h) of C-peptide during a mixed meal tolerance test and insulin sensitivity, evaluated by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, were evaluated in 12 patients with active CD, before and after 6 and 12 months of pasireotide. In addition, a panel of adipokines including leptin (Ob), leptin/leptin receptor ratio (Ob/Ob-R ratio), adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (AFABP) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) was evaluated at baseline and after 12 months of pasireotide...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
P Kaczmarek, M Skrzypski, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, M Sassek, P A Kolodziejski, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, P Maechler, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexin regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Here, we test the ability of orexin-A (OXA, hypocretin-1) at improving metabolic control in type 2 diabetic animals and elaborate potential mechanisms of action. Rats with experimentally induced type 2 diabetes by a combination of streptozotocin injection and high-fat diet feeding were chronically infused with OXA. In vitro experiments were conducted on isolated pancreatic islets, primary adipocytes and insulin secreting INS-1E cells. OXA improved glucose control, enhanced insulin sensitivity and attenuated pancreatic β-cell loss in type 2 diabetic rats...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Yuichiro Munakata, Tetsuya Yamada, Junta Imai, Kei Takahashi, Sohei Tsukita, Yuta Shirai, Shinjiro Kodama, Yoichiro Asai, Takashi Sugisawa, Yumiko Chiba, Keizo Kaneko, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Makoto Kanzaki, Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Yoshitomo Oka, Hideki Katagiri
Olfactory receptors (ORs) mediate olfactory chemo-sensation in OR neurons. Herein, we have demonstrated that the OR chemo-sensing machinery functions in pancreatic β-cells and modulates insulin secretion. First, we found several OR isoforms, including OLFR15 and OLFR821, to be expressed in pancreatic islets and a β-cell line, MIN6. Immunostaining revealed OLFR15 and OLFR821 to be uniformly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. In addition, mRNAs of Olfr15 and Olfr821 were detected in single MIN6 cells. These results indicate that multiple ORs are simultaneously expressed in individual β-cells...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cecilia Rodriguez-Monterrosas, Ricardo Diaz-Aragon, Pedro Cortes-Reynosa, Eduardo Perez Salazar
Epidemiological studies and animal models suggest a link between high levels of dietary fat intake and an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Hyperinsulinemia is a feature of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome that is associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Insulin is a hormone involved in metabolic regulation of carbohydrate. However, it is also a growth factor that mediates proliferation and migration. Linoleic acid (LA) is a fatty acid that induces migration and invasion in breast cancer cells...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Udom Lao-On, Paul V Attwood, Sarawut Jitrapakdee
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC), an anaplerotic enzyme, plays an essential role in various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, de novo fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Deregulation of PC expression or activity has long been known to be associated with metabolic syndrome in several rodent models. Accumulating data in the past decade clearly showed that deregulation of PC expression is associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, while targeted inhibition of PC expression in a mouse model reduced adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced type 2 diabetes...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Md Habibur Rahman, Anup Bhusal, Won-Ha Lee, In-Kyu Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Preclinical studies have suggested that chronic inflammation in the brain might be associated with multiple metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. In particular, hypothalamic inflammation interferes with the endocrine system and modulates nutritional homeostasis, leading to metabolic alterations and consequent pathologies. With regard to the mechanisms underlying molecular and cellular pathogenesis, neurons, non-neuronal cells, and the crosstalk between them have gained particular attention. Specifically, malfunctioning glia have recently been implicated as an important component of pathological hypothalamic inflammation...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Shasika Jayarathne, Iurii Koboziev, Oak-Hee Park, Wilna Oldewage-Theron, Chwan-Li Shen, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Obesity is an epidemic and costly disease affecting 13% of the adult population worldwide. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as pathologic endocrine alterations of adipose tissue including local and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, this inflammation is a risk factor for both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance. Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that foods containing bioactive compounds are capable of preventing both obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, improving obesity-associated MetS in human subjects and animal models of obesity...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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