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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334662/aqueous-extracts-of-two-tropical-ethnobotanicals-tetrapleura-tetraptera-and-quassia-undulata-improved-spatial-and-non-spatial-working-memories-in-scopolamine-induced-amnesic-rats-influence-of-neuronal-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems
#1
Veronica O Odubanjo, Emmanuel O Ibukun, Ganiyu Oboh, Stephen A Adefegha
BACKGROUND: Tetrapleura tetraptera (TT) and Quassia undulata (QU) are two predominant tropical ethnobotanicals with various medicinal values but are commonly used in folklore for the treatment of mental illness without justifiable mechanisms of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of aqueous extracts from TT fruits and QU leaves on the spatial and non-spatial working memory, antioxidant status and activities of neuronal marker enzymes of scopolamine-induced amnesic rats and thus, understand the possible mechanism of action of these plants...
January 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334625/light-quality-affects-flavonoid-production-and-related-gene-expression-in-cyclocarya-paliurus
#2
Yang Liu, Shengzuo Fang, Wanxia Yang, Xulan Shang, Xiangxiang Fu
Understanding the responses of plant growth and secondary metabolites to differential light conditions is very important to optimize cultivation conditions of medicinal woody plants. As a highly valued and multiple function tree species, Cyclocarya paliurus is planted and managed for timber production and medical use. In this study, LED-based light including white light (WL), blue light (BL), red light (RL), and green light (GL) were used to affect leaf biomass production, flavonoid accumulation and related gene expression of one-year C...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334498/evidence-based-interpretation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-pet-results-a-clinician-s-tool
#3
David Bergeron, Rik Ossenkoppele, Robert Jr Laforce
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) allows for in vivo detection of fibrillar amyloid plaques, a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, amyloid-β PET interpretation is limited by the imperfect correlation between PET and autopsy, and the fact that it is positive in about 20% to 30% of cognitively normal individuals and non-AD dementias, especially when older or carrying the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4). When facing a positive amyloid PET, clinicians have to evaluate the probability of a pathologic false positive as well as the probability of amyloid positivity being age-related, comorbid to a primary non-AD dementia (clinicopathologic false positive)...
January 12, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334128/improved-liver-r2-mapping-by-pixel-wise-curve-fitting-with-adaptive-neighborhood-regularization
#4
Changqing Wang, Xinyuan Zhang, Xiaoyun Liu, Taigang He, Wufan Chen, Qianjin Feng, Yanqiu Feng
PURPOSE: To improve liver R2* mapping by incorporating adaptive neighborhood regularization into pixel-wise curve fitting. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging R2* mapping remains challenging because of the serial images with low signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we proposed to exploit the neighboring pixels as regularization terms and adaptively determine the regularization parameters according to the interpixel signal similarity. The proposed algorithm, called the pixel-wise curve fitting with adaptive neighborhood regularization (PCANR), was compared with the conventional nonlinear least squares (NLS) and nonlocal means filter-based NLS algorithms on simulated, phantom, and in vivo data...
January 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334043/a-tribute-to-james-parkinson
#5
André Parent
Exactly 200 years ago, the London surgeon-apothecary James Parkinson (1755-1824) published a 66-page-long booklet entitled An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, which contains the first clear clinical description of the shaking palsy or paralysis agitans, which we now refer to as Parkinson's disease. However, the value of this essay was not fully recognized during Parkinson's lifetime, which spanned the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars. James Parkinson was one of the most singular figures of his time and place...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333563/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-adipose-tissue-isolation-and-gene-expression-profile-of-distinct-sub-population-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#6
Mehdi Najar, Emerence Crompot, Leo A van Grunsven, Laurent Dollé, Laurence Lagneaux
Thanks to their relative abundance and easier collection, adipose tissue (AT) is considered an alternative source for the isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs have great therapeutic values and are thus under investigations for several clinical indications such as regenerative medicine and immunomodulation. In this work, we aimed to identify, isolate and characterize AT-MSCs based on their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity known to be a classical feature of stem cells. FACS technology allowed to isolate two different populations of AT-MSCs according to their ALDH activity (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH-)...
January 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333463/characteristics-of-smoothing-filters-to-achieve-the-guideline-recommended-positron-emission-tomography-image-without-harmonization
#7
Yuji Tsutsui, Shinichi Awamoto, Kazuhiko Himuro, Yoshiyuki Umezu, Shingo Baba, Masayuki Sasaki
Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smoothing filters on the image quality and SUVmax to achieve the guideline recommended positron emission tomography (PET) image without harmonization. Methods: We used a Biograph mCT PET scanner. A National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) body phantom was filled with 18F solution with a background activity of 2.65 kBq/mL and a sphere-to-background ratio of 4...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333379/broccoli-brassica-oleracea-reduces-oxidative-damage-to-pancreatic-tissue-and-combats-hyperglycaemia-in-diabetic-rats
#8
Sithara Suresh, Mostafa Ibrahim Waly, Mohammad Shafiur Rahman, Nejib Guizani, Mohamed Abdullah Badar Al-Kindi, Halima Khalfan Ahmed Al-Issaei, Sultan Nasser Mohd Al-Maskari, Bader Rashid Said Al-Ruqaishi, Ahmed Al-Salami
Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes and hyperglycaemia. The protective effects of natural extracts against diabetes are mainly dependent on their antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) exerts beneficial health effects in several diseases including diabetes; however, the mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of aqueous broccoli extracts (BEs) in diabetic rats...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333043/picroside-i-and-picroside-ii-from-tissue-cultures-of-picrorhiza-kurroa
#9
Yamjala Ganeshkumar, Ajmera Ramarao, Ciddi Veeresham
Background: Picrorhiza kurroa (PK) belongs to Scrophulariaceae family and is a representative endemic, medicinal herb, widely distributed throughout the higher altitudes of alpine Himalayas from west to east, between 3000 and 4500 m above mean sea level. Objective: The objective of the present study is to assess the production of picroside I and picroside II from tissue cultures of PK. Materials and Methods: Auxiliary shoot tips of PK were incubated in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid and kinetin phytohormones...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333042/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-profiling-in-methanolic-and-ethyl-acetate-root-and-stem-extract-of-corbichonia-decumbens-forssk-exell-from-thar-desert-of-rajasthan-india
#10
Sunita Arora, Manju Saini
Background: Corbichonia decumbens (Forssk.) Exell (Molluginaceae), recently has moved to Lophiocarpaceae as per angiospermic plant group (APG) III system, is an annual or short-lived, dwarf, glabrous subshrub, prefers to grow on rocky places and on sand-stones in dry, hot areas of Rajasthan. This is the potential plant with medicinal properties. Vegetative organs under study show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, and antinociception activity. Objective: This study was carried out to identify the phytoconstituents present in the methanolic and ethyl-acetate extract of root and stem of C...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333039/pharmacognostic-assesment-of-the-endemic-and-vulnerable-medicinal-climber-cayratia-pedata-lam-gagnep-var-glabra-gamble-and-its-antibacterial-activity
#11
S Sharmila, K Kalaichelvi, S M Dhivya, P Premamalini, P Abirami, G Jayanthi
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate a meticulous pharmacognostic cram is to supplement constructive information with regard to its identification, characterization, and standardization of endemic and endangered medicinal climber Cayratia pedata var. glabra and also screening the antibacterial activity of this climber. Materials and Methods: The morphological characters of study plant, microscopic examination of leaf powder, anatomy of young stem, physicochemical analysis of plant powder, extractive values, phytochemical analysis, powder with different chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis of plant powder, and other World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for standardization were analyzed...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332820/a-strategy-for-screening-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-from-morus-alba-root-bark-based-on-the-ligand-fishing-combined-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometer-and-molecular-docking
#12
Zhen Wang, Xiaoqing Li, Menghan Chen, Feiyan Liu, Chao Han, Lingyi Kong, Jianguang Luo
A new method based on ligand fishing combined with high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer and molecular docking was established to screen α-glucosidase inhibitors from a traditional Chinese medicine Morus alba root bark. α-Glucosidase was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles, used as a solid support to incubate with crude extract. After ligand fishing, the eluates were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer, obtaining eleven ligands (1-4, 6-12) eventually...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332644/role-of-serum-adenosine-deaminase-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Varinder Saini, Bhaskar Lokhande, Shivani Jaswal, Deepak Aggarwal, Kranti Garg, Jasbinder Kaur
BACKGROUND: Definitive laboratory diagnosis and confirmation of tuberculosis remains a major challenge because of lack of specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic methods especially in sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Many studies have proved the role of ADA in diagnosis of tuberculosis in effusion fluids and a decrease in ADA activity after treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the role of serum ADA level as an early diagnostic and prognostic marker for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332471/fatal-exertional-heat-stroke-and-american-football-players-the-need-for-regional-heat-safety-guidelines
#14
Andrew J Grundstein, Yuri Hosokawa, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:   Weather-based activity modification in athletics is an important way to minimize heat illnesses. However, many commonly used heat-safety guidelines include a uniform set of heat-stress thresholds that do not account for geographic differences in acclimatization. OBJECTIVE:   To determine if heat-related fatalities among American football players occurred on days with unusually stressful weather conditions based on the local climate and to assess the need for regional heat-safety guidelines...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332348/sorafenib-combined-with-radiofrequency-ablation-as-treatment-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Lin Chen, Xingming Ma, Xin Liu, Xiaomeng Cui
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a combination of sorafenib and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc), WanFang Database, for all years up to January 2017. Pooled analyses of overall survival (OS), tumor- free survival, recurrence rates and adverse events were performed...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#16
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331852/no-time-to-waste-organic-waste-nanosizing-converts-remains-of-food-processing-into-refined-materials
#17
Sharoon Griffin, Muhammad Sarfraz, Verda Farida, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Azubuike P Ebokaiwe, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob
Modern food processing results in considerable amounts of side-products, such as grape seeds, walnut shells, spent coffee grounds, and harvested tomato plants. These materials are still rich in valuable and biologically active substances and therefore of interest from the perspective of waste management and "up-cycling". In contrast to traditional, often time consuming and low-value uses, such as vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion, the complete conversion into nanosuspensions unlocks considerable potentials of and new applications for such already spent organic materials without the need of extraction and without producing any additional waste...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331645/realising-the-potential-of-various-inhaled-airway-challenge-agents-through-improved-delivery-to-the-lungs
#18
REVIEW
Anne J Lexmond, Dave Singh, Henderik W Frijlink, Graham W Clarke, Clive P Page, Ben Forbes, Maarten van den Berge
Inhaled airway challenges provoke bronchoconstriction in susceptible subjects and are a pivotal tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of obstructive lung diseases, both in the clinic and in the development of new respiratory medicines. This article reviews the main challenge agents that are in use today (methacholine, mannitol, adenosine, allergens, endotoxin) and emphasises the importance of controlling how these agents are administered. There is a danger that the optimal value of these challenge agents may not be realised due to suboptimal inhaled delivery; thus considerations for effective and reproducible challenge delivery are provided...
January 10, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331519/understanding-and-misunderstanding-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Angus Deaton, Nancy Cartwright
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are increasingly popular in the social sciences, not only in medicine. We argue that the lay public, and sometimes researchers, put too much trust in RCTs over other methods of investigation. Contrary to frequent claims in the applied literature, randomization does not equalize everything other than the treatment in the treatment and control groups, it does not automatically deliver a precise estimate of the average treatment effect (ATE), and it does not relieve us of the need to think about (observed or unobserved) covariates...
December 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331369/equisetum-telmateia-extracts-chemical-compositions-antioxidant-activity-and-antimicrobial-effect-on-the-growth-of-some-pathogenic-strain-causing-poisoning-and-infection
#20
Marzie Yeganegi, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Seyed Ali Mortazavi, Javad Asili, Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Adel Beig Babaei
The aerial parts of Equisetum telmateia have been used as a source of biologically active compounds to treat inflammatory, diarrhea, stomach-ache, eczema and mouth infections in traditional medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate the extraction yield, chemical compositions, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of E. telmateia extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. Chemical compositions E. telmateia was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C18 column...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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