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Thierry Dagnac, Alicia Latorre, Bruno Fernández Lorenzo, Maria Llompart
The first objective of this study was the validation of an efficient multi-analyte method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of mycotoxins in maize silage, by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-HESI-MS/MS). A simple liquid/solid extraction was performed either with clean-up on Mycospin 400 columns or without any clean-up. Almost all the target mycotoxins showed highly-suppressed signals in presence of matrix, emphasizing the need to quantitate mycotoxins by means of matrix-matched calibrations...
October 6, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
E Lorge, M M Moore, J Clements, M O'Donovan, M D Fellows, M Honma, A Kohara, S Galloway, M J Armstrong, V Thybaud, B Gollapudi, M J Aardema, J Y Tanir
Good cell culture practice and characterization of the cell lines used are of critical importance in in vitro genotoxicity testing. The objective of this initiative was to make continuously available stocks of the characterized isolates of the most frequently used mammalian cell lines in genotoxicity testing anywhere in the world ('IVGT' cell lines). This project was organized under the auspices of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Project Committee on the Relevance and Follow-up of Positive Results in In Vitro Genetic Toxicity (IVGT) Testing...
October 2016: Mutation Research
Angelo Moretto, Ammie Bachman, Alan Boobis, Keith R Solomon, Timothy P Pastoor, Martin F Wilks, Michelle R Embry
The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) has developed a framework to support a transition in the way in which information for chemical risk assessment is obtained and used (RISK21). The approach is based on detailed problem formulation, where exposure drives the data acquisition process in order to enable informed decision-making on human health safety as soon as sufficient evidence is available. Information is evaluated in a transparent and consistent way with the aim of optimizing available resources...
August 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Keith R Solomon, Martin F Wilks, Ammie Bachman, Alan Boobis, Angelo Moretto, Timothy P Pastoor, Richard Phillips, Michelle R Embry
When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors...
August 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
G Astrid Garzón, Carlos-Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen
Berries of Colombian Euterpe oleracea Mart. were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin (ACN) content, and antioxidant activity. Additionally, reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-UHPLC-PDA) and heated electrospray ionization (HESI) multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) were used to determine the composition of phenolic compounds. Anthocyanin content was 0.57±0.39mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g fresh weight (FW) and TPC was 6.07±2.17mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g FW...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Kerry L Dearfield, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, Jeffrey C Bemis, R Daniel Benz, George R Douglas, Rosalie K Elespuru, George E Johnson, David J Kirkland, Matthew J LeBaron, Albert P Li, Francesco Marchetti, Lynn H Pottenger, Emiel Rorije, Jennifer Y Tanir, Veronique Thybaud, Jan van Benthem, Carole L Yauk, Errol Zeiger, Mirjam Luijten
For several decades, regulatory testing schemes for genetic damage have been standardized where the tests being utilized examined mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal damage. This has served the genetic toxicity community well when most of the substances being tested were amenable to such assays. The outcome from this testing is usually a dichotomous (yes/no) evaluation of test results, and in many instances, the information is only used to determine whether a substance has carcinogenic potential or not...
September 21, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Liselotte Tinel, Stéphanie Rossignol, Angelica Bianco, Monica Passananti, Sébastien Perrier, Xinming Wang, Marcello Brigante, D James Donaldson, Christian George
Interfaces are ubiquitous in the environment and many atmospheric key processes, such as gas deposition, aerosol, and cloud formation are, at one stage or another, strongly impacted by physical and chemical processes occurring at interfaces. Here, the photoinduced chemistry of an air/water interface coated with nonanoic acid-a fatty acid surfactant we use as a proxy for chemically complex natural aqueous surface microlayers-was investigated as a source of volatile and semivolatile reactive organic species. The carboxylic acid coating significantly increased the propensity of photosensitizers, chosen to mimic those observed in real environmental waters, to partition to the interface and enhance reactivity there...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Karol L Thompson, Eric Boitier, Tao Chen, Philippe Couttet, Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Manuela Goetschy, Gregory Guillemain, Masayuki Kanki, Janet Kelsall, Claire Mariet, Catherine de La Moureyre-Spire, Peter Mouritzen, Rounak Nassipour, Raegan O'Lone, P Scott Pine, Barry A Rosenzweig, Tatiana Sharapova, Aaron Smith, Hidefumi Uchiyama, Jian Yan, Peter S Yuen, Russ Wolfinger
Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) represent a promising new source of toxicity biomarkers that are sensitive indicators of site of tissue injury. In order to establish reliable approaches for use in biomarker validation studies, the HESI technical committee on genomics initiated a multi-site study to assess sources of variance associated with quantitating levels of cardiac injury induced miRNAs in biofluids using RT-qPCR. Samples were generated at a central site using a model of acute cardiac injury induced in male Wistar rats by 0...
September 7, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Shanoy C Anderson, Seenivasan Subbiah, Angella Gentles, Galen Austin, Paul Stonum, Tiffanie A Brooks, Chance Brooks, Ernest E Smith
A method for confirmation and detection of Florfenicol amine residues in white-tailed deer tissues was developed and validated in our laboratory. Tissue samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned up on sorbent (Chem-elut) cartridges. Liguid chromatography (LC) separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 column with gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate in water and methanol at a flow rate of 300μL/min. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using liquid chromatography - heated electrospray ionization(HESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) interface...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Christine Grimaldi, Deborah Finco, Madeline M Fort, Daniel Gliddon, Kirsty Harper, Whitney S Helms, Jane A Mitchell, Raegan O'Lone, Stanley T Parish, Marie-Soleil Piche, Daniel M Reed, Gabriele Reichmann, Patricia C Ryan, Richard Stebbings, Mindi Walker
In October 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute - Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Immunotoxicology Technical Committee (ILSI-HESI ITC) held a one-day workshop entitled, "Workshop on Cytokine Release: State-of-the-Science, Current Challenges and Future Directions". The workshop brought together scientists from pharmaceutical, academic, health authority, and contract research organizations to discuss novel approaches and current challenges for the use of in vitro cytokine release assays (CRAs) for the identification of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) potential of novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics...
September 2016: Cytokine
Thomas Colatsky, Bernard Fermini, Gary Gintant, Jennifer B Pierson, Philip Sager, Yuko Sekino, David G Strauss, Norman Stockbridge
The implementation of the ICH S7B and E14 guidelines has been successful in preventing the introduction of potentially torsadogenic drugs to the market, but it has also unduly constrained drug development by focusing on hERG block and QT prolongation as essential determinants of proarrhythmia risk. The Comprehensive in Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative was established to develop a new paradigm for assessing proarrhythmic risk, building on the emergence of new technologies and an expanded understanding of torsadogenic mechanisms beyond hERG block...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Martin Schäfer, Christoph Brütting, Ian T Baldwin, Mario Kallenbach
BACKGROUND: Plant metabolites are commonly functionally classified, as defense- or growth-related phytohormones, primary and specialized metabolites, and so forth. Analytical procedures for the quantifications of these metabolites are challenging because the metabolites can vary over several orders of magnitude in concentrations in the same tissues and have very different chemical characteristics. Plants clearly adjust their metabolism to respond to their prevailing circumstances in very sophisticated ways that blur the boundaries among these functional or chemically defined classifications...
2016: Plant Methods
J Stewart, W J Breslin, B K Beyer, K Chadwick, L De Schaepdrijver, M Desai, B Enright, W Foster, J Y Hui, G J Moffat, B Tornesi, K Van Malderen, L Wiesner, C L Chen
The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials...
March 2016: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Lisabeth Meade Searing, Wendy Carter Kooken
BACKGROUND: Critical thinking is the foundation for nurses' decision making. One school of nursing used the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) to document improvement in critical thinking dispositions. METHOD: A retrospective study of 96 nursing students' records examined the relationships between the CCTDI and learning outcomes. Correlational statistics assessed relationships between CCTDI scores and cumulative grade point averages (GPA) and scores on two Health Education Systems Incorporated (HESI) examinations...
April 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Paul A White, George E Johnson
Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA)...
May 2016: Mutagenesis
Mario J Simirgiotis, Cristina Quispe, Carlos Areche, Beatriz Sepúlveda
Mass spectrometry has become a method of choice to characterize bioactive compounds in biological samples because of its sensitivity and selectivity. Hybrid ultra-HPLC hyphenated with Orbitrap mass analyzer is an innovative state of the art technology that allows fast and accurate metabolomic analyses. In this work the metabolites of a Chilean mistletoe endemic to the VIII region of Chile were investigated for the first time using UHPLC mass analysis (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-Orbitrap MS(n)). The anthocyanins, together with the non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and correlated with the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zicai Jia, Yu Song, Suyuan Tao, Peixu Cong, Xiaoxu Wang, Changhu Xue, Jie Xu
To investigate the relationship between structure and activity, three glucocerebroside series (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3), ceramides (CF-Cer) and long-chain bases (CF-LCB) of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (C. frondosa) were isolated and evaluated in HepG2 cells. The molecular species of CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3 and CF-Cer were identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with heated electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (RPLC-HESI-HRMS), and determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: For the three glucocerebroside series, fatty acids (FA) were mainly saturated (18:0 and 22:0), monounsaturated (22:1, 23:1 and 24:1) and 2-hydroxyl FA (2-HFA) (23:1 h and 24:1 h), the structure of long-chain bases (LCB) were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:1 and d18:2) and trihydroxy (t16:0 and t17:0), and the glycosylation was glucose; For CF-Cer, FA were primarily saturated (17:0) and monounsaturated (16:1 and 19:1), the structure of LCB were dihydroxy (d17:1 and d18:1), and trihydroxy (t16:0)...
March 2016: Lipids
Mario J Simirgiotis, Cristina Quispe, Jorge Bórquez, Carlos Areche, Beatriz Sepúlveda
A small Chilean variety of pears growing in the town of Toconao, an oasis located at the northeastern edge of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile, was studied by means of modern PDA and high resolution mass spectral data (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-orbitrap-MS/MS). In addition, the antioxidant features of the fruits were compared with the varieties Packhman's Triumph and Abate Fetel and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. The non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and related to the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
H Lebrec, F R Brennan, H Haggerty, D Herzyk, C Kamperschroer, C C Maier, R Ponce, B D Preston, D Weinstock, R D Mellon
Profound immunosuppression (e.g., AIDS, transplant therapy) is epidemiologically associated with an increased cancer risk, and often with oncogenic viruses. It is currently unclear how broadly this association translates to therapeutics that modulate immunity. A workshop co-sponsored by the FDA and HESI examined how perturbing the immune system may contribute to carcinogenesis, and highlighted priorities for improving non-clinical risk assessment of targeted immunomodulatory therapies. Conclusions from the workshop were as follows...
March 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ryan C Schofield, Lakshmi V Ramanathan, Kazunori Murata, Martin Fleisher, Melissa S Pessin, Dean C Carlow
Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid antagonist that is widely used as an immunosuppressant and chemotherapeutic agent. After high-dose administration of MTX serum levels must be monitored to determine when to administer leucovorin, a folic acid analog that bypasses the enzyme inhibition caused by MTX and reverses its toxicity. We describe a rapid and simple turbulent flow liquid chromatography (TFLC) method implementing positive heated electrospray ionization (HESI) for the accurate and precise determination of MTX, 7-hydroxymethotrexate (7-OH MTX), and 4-amino-4-deoxy-N(10)-methylpteroic acid (DAMPA) concentrations in serum...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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