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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806599/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-striatum-and-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-reading-performance-in-school-age-children
#1
Sarael Alcauter, Liliana García-Mondragón, Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Martha B Moreno, Juan J Ortiz, Fernando A Barrios
The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed)...
August 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804783/functional-corticostriatal-connection-topographies-predict-goal-directed-behaviour-in-humans
#2
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803923/stress-induced-neural-reorganization-a-conceptual-framework-linking-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer A Ross, Gediminas Gliebus, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Chronic stress is a risk factor for a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. There are a number of underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms altered in the course of chronic stress, which may increase the vulnerability of individuals to develop psychiatric disorders such as depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This is evident in the influence of stress on large-scale brain networks, including the resting state Default Mode Network (DMN), the effects of stress on neuronal circuitry and architecture, and the cellular and molecular adaptations to stress, which may render individuals with stress related psychiatric disorders more vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease later in life...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803856/bioenergetic-costs-and-state-influence-distance-perception
#4
David Francis Hunt, Heidi B N Hunt, Justin H Park
Bioenergetic resources and states have been found to influence visual perception, with greater expected energy expenditure being associated with perceptions of greater distances and steeper slopes. Here we tested whether resting metabolic rate (RMR), which can serve as a proxy for the bioenergetic costs of completing physical activity, is positively correlated with perceived distance. We also tested whether temporarily depleting bioenergetic resources through exercise would result in greater perceived distance...
August 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803847/psychotic-symptoms-influence-the-development-of-anterior-cingulate-bold-variability-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#5
Daniela Zöller, Maria Carmela Padula, Corrado Sandini, Maude Schneider, Elisa Scariati, Dimitri Van De Ville, Marie Schaer, Stephan Eliez
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a broad phenotype of clinical, cognitive and psychiatric features. Due to the very high prevalence of schizophrenia (30-40%), the investigation of psychotic symptoms in the syndrome is promising to reveal biomarkers for the development of psychosis, also in the general population. Since schizophrenia is seen as a disorder of the dynamic interactions between brain networks, we here investigated brain dynamics, assessed by the variability of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, in patients with psychotic symptoms...
August 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802408/down-regulation-of-malate-synthase-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37ra-leads-to-reduced-stress-tolerance-persistence-and-survival-in-macrophages
#6
Kumar Sachin Singh, Rishabh Sharma, Deepa Keshari, Nirbhay Singh, Sudheer Kumar Singh
Malate synthase is a condensing enzyme responsible for conversion of glyoxylate to malate in the presence of acetyl-CoA. This reaction helps in bypassing the TCA cycle reactions involving carbon loss and leads to diverting some of the carbon skeletons to gluconeogenic events while rest can continue to provide TCA cycle intermediates. Malate synthase (GlcB) is encoded by MRA_1848 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra). We developed a knockdown (KD) Mtb-Ra strain by down-regulating GlcB. The survival studies suggested increased susceptibility to oxidative and nitrosative stress as well as to rifampicin...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801920/restoration-of-thalamo-cortical-connectivity-after-brain-injury-recovery-of-consciousness-complex-behavior-or-passage-of-time
#7
Julia S Crone, Branden J Bio, Paul M Vespa, Evan S Lutkenhoff, Martin M Monti
In 2000, a landmark case report described the concurrent restoration of consciousness and thalamo-frontal connectivity after severe brain injury (Laureys et al., ). Being a single case however, this study could not disambiguate whether the result was specific to the restoration of consciousness per se as opposed to the return of complex cognitive function in general or simply the temporal evolution of post-injury pathophysiological events. To test whether the restoration of thalamo-cortical connectivity is specific to consciousness, 20 moderate-to-severe brain injury patients (from a recruited sample of 42) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging within a week after injury and again six months later...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801672/sample-entropy-reveals-an-age-related-reduction-in-the-complexity-of-dynamic-brain
#8
Yanbing Jia, Huaguang Gu, Qiang Luo
Dynamic reconfiguration of the human brain is characterized by the nature of complexity. The purpose of this study was to measure such complexity and also analyze its association with age. We modeled the dynamic reconfiguration process by dynamic functional connectivity, which was established by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and we measured complexity within the dynamic functional connectivity by sample entropy (SampEn). A brainwide map of SampEn in healthy subjects shows larger values in the caudate, the olfactory gyrus, the amygdala, and the hippocampus, and lower values in primary sensorimotor and visual areas...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800715/an-eeg-study-of-children-with-and-without-adhd-symptoms-between-group-differences-and-associations-with-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-symptoms
#9
Matthew A Jarrett, Philip A Gable, Ana T Rondon, Lauren B Neal, Hannah F Price, Dane C Hilton
OBJECTIVE: We examined differences between those with and without ADHD symptoms on resting state electroencephalography (EEG) indices and unique relations with sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms. METHOD: Children with ADHD symptoms ( n = 21) and healthy controls ( n = 20) were assessed using rating scales, a neuropsychological task measuring sustained attention and inhibitory control, and EEG activity during a resting state period. Between-group, correlational, and regression analyses were conducted...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800490/oxytocin-secretion-is-pulsatile-in-men-and-is-related-to-social-emotional-functioning
#10
Charumathi Baskaran, Franziska Plessow, Lisseth Silva, Elisa Asanza, Dean Marengi, Kamryn T Eddy, Patrick M Sluss, Michael L Johnson, Madhusmita Misra, Elizabeth A Lawson
The hypothalamic hormone oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in a range of physiological processes and social-emotional functioning in both sexes. In women, physiological stimuli, such as suckling and parturition, result in pulsatile release of OXT into the peripheral circulation via the posterior pituitary gland. However, data regarding OXT secretory patterns in men during a state of rest are limited. Further, the relationship between secretory dynamics of OXT and emotional measures has never been evaluated...
July 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798808/altered-brain-functional-connectivity-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-after-chemotherapy-treatment-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Konstantinos Bromis, Kostakis Gkiatis, Irene Karanasiou, George Matsopoulos, Eustratios Karavasilis, Matilda Papathanasiou, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Vasileios Kouloulias
Previous studies in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have mainly focused on exploring neurocognitive deficits associated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Little is known about functional brain alterations that might occur due to chemotherapy treatment in this population before PCI is administered. For this reason, we used resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine potential functional connectivity disruptions in brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), the Sensorimotor Network, and the Task-Positive Network (TPN)...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798694/decomposing-multifractal-crossovers
#12
Zoltan Nagy, Peter Mukli, Peter Herman, Andras Eke
Physiological processes-such as, the brain's resting-state electrical activity or hemodynamic fluctuations-exhibit scale-free temporal structuring. However, impacts common in biological systems such as, noise, multiple signal generators, or filtering by transport function, result in multimodal scaling that cannot be reliably assessed by standard analytical tools that assume unimodal scaling. Here, we present two methods to identify breakpoints or crossovers in multimodal multifractal scaling functions. These methods incorporate the robust iterative fitting approach of the focus-based multifractal formalism (FMF)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798683/enhanced-gamma-activity-and-cross-frequency-interaction-of-resting-state-electroencephalographic-oscillations-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Jing Wang, Yuxing Fang, Xiao Wang, Huichao Yang, Xin Yu, Huali Wang
Cognitive impairment, functional decline and behavioral symptoms that characterize Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with perturbations of the neuronal network. The typical electroencephalographic (EEG) features in AD patients are increased delta or theta rhythm and decreased alpha or beta rhythm activities. However, considering the role of cross-frequency couplings in cognition, the alternation of cross-frequency couplings in AD patients is still obscure. This study aims to explore the interaction dynamics between different EEG oscillations in AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796604/dual-temporal-and-spatial-sparse-representation-for-inferring-group-wise-brain-networks-from-resting-state-fmri-dataset
#14
Junhui Gong, Xiaoyan Liu, Tianming Liu, Jiansong Zhou, Gang Sun, Juanxiu Tian
Recently, sparse representation has been successfully used to identify brain networks from task-based fMRI dataset. However, when using the strategy to analyze resting-state fMRI dataset, it is still a challenge to automatically infer the group-wise brain networks under consideration of group commonalities and subject-specific characteristics. In the paper, a novel method based on dual temporal and spatial sparse representation (DTSSR) is proposed to meet this challenge. Firstly, the brain functional networks with subject-specific characteristics are obtained via sparse representation with online dictionary learning for the fMRI time series (temporal domain) of each subject...
August 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795168/changes-in-brain-behavior-relationships-following-a-3-month-pilot-cognitive-intervention-program-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
S Porter, I J Torres, W Panenka, Z Rajwani, D Fawcett, A Hyder, N Virji-Babul
Facilitating functional recovery following brain injury is a key goal of neurorehabilitation. Direct, objective measures of changes in the brain are critical to understanding how and when meaningful changes occur, however, assessing neuroplasticity using brain based results remains a significant challenge. Little is known about the underlying changes in functional brain networks that correlate with cognitive outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of an intensive three month cognitive intervention program in individuals with chronic TBI and to evaluate the effects of this intervention on brain-behavioral relationships...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794980/connectivity-of-precuneus-to-the-default-mode-and-dorsal-attention-networks-a-possible-invariant-marker-of-long-term-tinnitus
#16
Sara A Schmidt, Jake Carpenter-Thompson, Fatima T Husain
Resting state functional connectivity studies of tinnitus have provided inconsistent evidence concerning its neural bases. This may be due to differences in the methodology used, but it is also likely related to the heterogeneity of the tinnitus population. In this study, our goal was to identify resting state functional connectivity alterations that consistently appear across tinnitus subgroups. We examined two sources of variability in the subgroups: tinnitus severity and the length of time a person has had chronic tinnitus (referred to as tinnitus duration)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794979/identification-of-the-epileptogenic-zone-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-from-stereo-electroencephalography-signals-a-phase-transfer-entropy-and-graph-theory-approach
#17
Meng-Yang Wang, Jing Wang, Jian Zhou, Yu-Guang Guan, Feng Zhai, Chang-Qing Liu, Fei-Fei Xu, Yi-Xian Han, Zhao-Fen Yan, Guo-Ming Luan
The aim of this research is to apply an approach based on phase transfer entropy (PTE) and graph theory to study the interactions between the stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) activities recorded in multilobar origin, in order to evaluate their ability to detect the epileptogenic zone (EZ) of temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE). Forty-three patients were included in this retrospective study. Five to sixteen (median = 12) multilead electrodes were implanted per patient, and, for each patient, a sub-set of between 10 and 32 (median = 22) bipolar derivations was selected for analysis...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794974/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-due-to-acute-and-short-term-valproic-acid-administration-in-the-baboon-model-of-gge
#18
Felipe S Salinas, Charles Ákos Szabó
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is altered in baboons with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) compared to healthy controls (CTL). We compared FC changes between GGE and CTL groups after intravenous injection of valproic acid (VPA) and following one-week of orally administered VPA. Seven epileptic (2 females) and six CTL (3 females) baboons underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) at 1) baseline, 2) after intravenous acute VPA administration (20 mg/kg), and 3) following seven-day oral, subacute VPA therapy (20-80 mg/kg/day)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794972/fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-falff-in-post-stroke-depression
#19
Natalia Egorova, Michele Veldsman, Toby Cumming, Amy Brodtmann
Depression is a common outcome following stroke, associated with reduced quality of life and poorer recovery. Despite attempts to associate depression symptoms with specific lesion sites, the neural basis of post-stroke depression remains poorly understood. Resting state fMRI has provided new insights into the neural underpinnings of post-stroke depression, but has been limited to connectivity analyses exploring interregional correlations in the time-course of activity. Other aspects of resting state BOLD signal remain unexamined...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793242/frequency-specific-alteration-of-functional-connectivity-density-in-antipsychotic-naive-adolescents-with-early-onset-schizophrenia
#20
Xiao Wang, Yan Zhang, Zhiliang Long, Junjie Zheng, Youxue Zhang, Shaoqiang Han, Yifeng Wang, Xujun Duan, Mi Yang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is a severe mental illness associated with dysconnectivity that widespread in the brain. However, the functional dysconnectivity in EOS are still mixed. Recently, studies have identified that functional connectivity (FC) arises from a band-limited slow rhythmic mechanism and suggested that the dysconnectivity at specific frequency bands may provide more robust biomarkers for schizophrenia. The frequency-specific changes of FC pattern in EOS remain unclear. To address this issue, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data scans from 39 EOS patients (drug-naive) and 31 healthy controls (HCs) were used to assess the FC density (FCD) across slow-4 (0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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