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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944718/obesity-is-associated-with-altered-mid-insula-functional-connectivity-to-limbic-regions-underlying-appetitive-responses-to-foods
#1
Jason A Avery, Joshua N Powell, Florence J Breslin, Rebecca J Lepping, Laura E Martin, Trisha M Patrician, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage, W Kyle Simmons
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944305/network-organization-is-globally-atypical-in-autism-a-graph-theory-study-of-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#2
Christopher L Keown, Michael C Datko, Colleen P Chen, José Omar Maximo, Afrooz Jahedi, Ralph-Axel Müller
BACKGROUND: Despite abundant evidence of brain network anomalies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), findings have varied from broad functional underconnectivity to broad overconnectivity. Rather than pursuing overly simplifying general hypotheses ('under' vs. 'over'), we tested the hypothesis of atypical network distribution in ASD (i.e., participation of unusual loci in distributed functional networks). METHODS: We used a selective high-quality data subset from the ABIDE datashare (including 111 ASD and 174 typically developing [TD] participants) and several graph theory metrics...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944176/results-of-surgical-septal-myectomy-for-obstructive-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-the-tufts-experience
#3
Hassan Rastegar, Griffin Boll, Ethan J Rowin, Noreen Dolan, Catherine Carroll, James E Udelson, Wendy Wang, Philip Carpino, Barry J Maron, Martin S Maron, Frederick Y Chen
BACKGROUND: For over 50 years, surgical septal myectomy has been the preferred treatment for drug-refractory heart failure symptoms in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Over this time in the United States, the majority of myectomy operations have been performed in a small number of select referral centers. METHODS: We have taken the opportunity to report results from the relatively new Tufts HCM Center and surgical program, incorporated 13 years ago, during which 507 myectomies (52±14 years of age; 56% male) were performed by one cardiothoracic surgeon, Dr...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943860/bumetanide-as-a-candidate-treatment-for-behavioral-problems-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#4
Chantal Vlaskamp, Simon-Shlomo Poil, Floor Jansen, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Sarah Durston, Bob Oranje, Hilgo Bruining
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate excitatory GABA action in and around tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). This may contribute to recurrent seizures and behavioral problems that may be treated by agents that enhance GABAergic transmission by influencing chloride regulation. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we used the chloride transporter antagonist bumetanide to treat a female adolescent TSC patient with refractory seizures, sensory hyper-reactivity, and a variety of repetitive and compulsive behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943849/an-intention-driven-semi-autonomous-intelligent-robotic-system-for-drinking
#5
Zhijun Zhang, Yongqian Huang, Siyuan Chen, Jun Qu, Xin Pan, Tianyou Yu, Yuanqing Li
In this study, an intention-driven semi-autonomous intelligent robotic (ID-SIR) system is designed and developed to assist the severely disabled patients to live independently. The system mainly consists of a non-invasive brain-machine interface (BMI) subsystem, a robot manipulator and a visual detection and localization subsystem. Different from most of the existing systems remotely controlled by joystick, head- or eye tracking, the proposed ID-SIR system directly acquires the intention from users' brain. Compared with the state-of-art system only working for a specific object in a fixed place, the designed ID-SIR system can grasp any desired object in a random place chosen by a user and deliver it to his/her mouth automatically...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943848/multimodal-discrimination-of-schizophrenia-using-hybrid-weighted-feature-concatenation-of-brain-functional-connectivity-and-anatomical-features-with-an-extreme-learning-machine
#6
Muhammad Naveed Iqbal Qureshi, Jooyoung Oh, Dongrae Cho, Hang Joon Jo, Boreom Lee
Multimodal features of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human brain can assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We performed a classification study on age, sex, and handedness-matched subjects. The dataset we used is publicly available from the Center for Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) and it consists of two groups: patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We performed an independent component analysis and calculated global averaged functional connectivity-based features from the resting-state functional MRI data for all the cortical and subcortical anatomical parcellation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943835/investigating-brain-connectomic-alterations-in-autism-using-the-reproducibility-of-independent-components-derived-from-resting-state-functional-mri-data
#7
Mohammed A Syed, Zhi Yang, Xiaoping P Hu, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Significance: Autism is a developmental disorder that is currently diagnosed using behavioral tests which can be subjective. Consequently, objective non-invasive imaging biomarkers of Autism are being actively researched. The common theme emerging from previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies is that Autism is characterized by alterations of fMRI-derived functional connections in certain brain networks which may provide a biomarker for objective diagnosis. However, identification of individuals with Autism solely based on these measures has not been reliable, especially when larger sample sizes are taken into consideration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943465/eeg-differences-between-eyes-closed-and-eyes-open-resting-remain-in-healthy-ageing
#8
Robert J Barry, Frances M De Blasio
In young adults and children, the eyes-closed (EC) resting state is one of low EEG arousal, with the change to eyes-open (EO) primarily involving an increase in arousal. We used this arousal perspective to interpret EC/EO differences in healthy young and older adults. EEG was recorded from 20 young (Mage=20.4years) and 20 gender-matched older (Mage=68.2years) right-handed adults during two 3min resting conditions; EC then EO. Older participants displayed less delta and theta, some reduction in alpha, and increased beta...
September 21, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942738/childhood-stress-grown-up-brain-networks-corticolimbic-correlates-of-threat-related-early-life-stress-and-adult-stress-response
#9
R H Kaiser, R Clegg, F Goer, P Pechtel, M Beltzer, G Vitaliano, D P Olson, M H Teicher, D A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Exposure to threat-related early life stress (ELS) has been related to vulnerability for stress-related disorders in adulthood, putatively via disrupted corticolimbic circuits involved in stress response and regulation. However, previous research on ELS has not examined both the intrinsic strength and flexibility of corticolimbic circuits, which may be particularly important for adaptive stress responding, or associations between these dimensions of corticolimbic dysfunction and acute stress response in adulthood...
September 25, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942672/integration-and-segregation-of-default-mode-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-transition-age-males-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-proof-of-concept-study
#10
Gagan Joshi, Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Kaustubh Patil, Meha Semwal, Rachel Goldin, Stephannie Furtak, Xiaoqian Jenny Chai, Zeynep Saygin, John D Gabrieli, Joseph Biederman, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli
OBJECTIVES: To assess the resting-state functional connectivity (RsFc) profile of the default mode network (DMN) in transition-age males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Resting-state blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI (fMRI) data were acquired from adolescent and young adult males with high-functioning ASD (N=15) and from age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HC; N=16). The DMN was examined by assessing the positive and negative RsFc correlations of an average of the literature-based conceptualized major DMN nodes (medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC], posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral angular and inferior temporal gyrii regions)...
September 24, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942639/mechanistic-basis-for-efficient-site-selective-aerobic-catalytic-turnover-in-pd-catalyzed-c-h-imidoylation-of-heterocycle-containing-molecules
#11
Stephen J Tereniak, Shannon S Stahl
A recently reported Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H imidoylation of N-methoxybenzamides to iminoisoindolinones with tBuNC exhibits a number of unique features that have important implications for Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidation catalysis: (1) The reaction tolerates heterocycles that commonly poison PdII oxidation catalysts. (2) The site selectivity of C-H activation is controlled by an N-methoxyamide group in the substrate rather than a suitably positioned heterocycle. (3) A Pd0 source, Pd2(dba)3 (dba = dibenzylideneacetone), is superior to Pd(OAc)2 as a precatalyst, and other PdII sources [PdCl2, Pd(TFA)2, Pd(OTf)2] are ineffective (TFA = trifluoroacetate, OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate)...
September 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942477/cognitive-performance-in-mid-stage-parkinson-s-disease-functional-connectivity-under-chronic-antiparkinson-treatment
#12
Roxana Vancea, Kristina Simonyan, Maria Petracca, Miroslaw Brys, Alessandro Di Rocco, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Matilde Inglese
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to the reorganization of brain topology. Although drug challenge studies have proven how levodopa treatment can modulate functional connectivity in brain circuits, the role of chronic dopaminergic therapy on cognitive status and functional connectivity has never been investigated. We sought to characterize brain functional topology in mid-stage PD patients under chronic antiparkinson treatment and explore the presence of correlation between reorganization of brain architecture and specific cognitive deficits...
September 23, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942061/the-behavioral-and-cognitive-relevance-of-time-varying-dynamic-changes-in-functional-connectivity
#13
REVIEW
Jessica R Cohen
Recent advances in neuroimaging methods and analysis have led to an expanding body of research that investigates how large-scale brain network organization dynamically adapts to changes in one's environment, including both internal state changes and external stimulation. It is now possible to detect changes in functional connectivity that occur on the order of seconds, both during an unconstrained resting state and during the performance of constrained cognitive tasks. It is thought that these dynamic, time-varying changes in functional connectivity, often referred to as dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), include features that are relevant to behavior and cognition...
September 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942060/functional-networks-and-network-perturbations-in-rodents
#14
REVIEW
Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Fatima A Nasrallah
Synchronous low-frequency oscillation in the resting human brain has been found to form networks of functionally associated areas and hence has been widely used to map the functional connectivity of the brain using techniques such as resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). Interestingly, similar resting-state networks can also be detected in the anesthetized rodent brain, including the default mode-like network. This opens up opportunities for understanding the neurophysiological basis of the rsfMRI signal, the behavioral relevance of the network characteristics, connectomic deficits in diseases and treatment effects on brain connectivity using rodents, particularly transgenic mouse models...
September 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941768/lateralization-effects-on-functional-connectivity-of-the-auditory-network-in-patients-with-unilateral-pulsatile-tinnitus-as-detected-by-functional-mri
#15
Han Lv, Pengfei Zhao, Zhaohui Liu, Xuehuan Liu, Heyu Ding, Liheng Liu, Guopeng Wang, Jing Xie, Rong Zeng, Yuchen Chen, Zhenghan Yang, Shusheng Gong, Zhenchang Wang
Unilateral pulsatile tinnitus (PT) was proved to be a kind of disease with brain functional abnormalities within and beyond the auditory network (AN). However, changes in patterns of the lateralization effects of PT are yet to be established. Relationship between the AN and other brain networks in PT patients is also a scientific question need to be answered. In this study, we recruited 23 left-sided, 23 right-sided PT (LSPT, RSPT) patients and 23 normal controls (NC). We combined applied independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to investigate alteration feature of the FC of the AN by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940855/long-term-effects-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-on-brain-functional-outcome-and-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
María Díez-Cirarda, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Maria Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive rehabilitation has demonstrated efficacy in producing short-term cognitive and brain changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. To date, no study has assessed the long-term effects of cognitive rehabilitation using neuroimaging techniques in PD. The aim was to assess the longitudinal effects of a 3-month cognitive rehabilitation program evaluating the cognitive, behavioural and neuroimaging changes after 18 months. METHODS: Fifteen PD patients underwent a cognitive, behavioural and neuroimaging assessment at pre-treatment (T0 ), post-treatment (T1 ) and after 18-months (T2 )...
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940312/increased-thalamic-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-core-driver-of-lsd-induced-hallucinations
#17
F Müller, C Lenz, P Dolder, U Lang, A Schmidt, M Liechti, S Borgwardt
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. METHOD: 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches...
September 21, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939939/cognitive-performance-change-of-pediatric-patients-after-conducting-frontal-transcortical-approach-to-treat-lateral-ventricular-tumor
#18
Wanchun Zhu, Jintao He, Xiang Li, Lei Wang, Zheng Lu, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECTIVE: Applying frontal transcortical approach to treat lateral ventricular tumor is one of the most common neurosurgical manipulations. The frontal transcortical approach generally passes through the middle frontal gyrus in which there is no major function involved in the traditional sense. However, current researches have suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in the whole network of the brain cognitive frame. In addition, cognitive function is crucial in growing and developmental stages and essential for the educational achievement, especially for children...
September 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939929/stimulus-induced-transitions-between-spike-wave-discharges-and-spindles-with-the-modulation-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#19
Denggui Fan, Qingyun Wang, Jianzhong Su, Hongguang Xi
It is believed that thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls spindles and spike-wave discharges (SWD) in seizure or sleeping processes. The dynamical mechanisms of spatiotemporal evolutions between these two types of activity, however, are not well understood. In light of this, we first use a single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model to investigate the effects of TRN on occurrence of SWD and its transition. Results show that the increasing inhibition from TRN to specific relay nuclei (SRN) can lead to the transition of system from SWD to slow-wave oscillation...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939804/separate-neural-representations-of-depression-anxiety-and-apathy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Rotem Dan, Filip Růžička, Ondrej Bezdicek, Evžen Růžička, Jan Roth, Josef Vymazal, Gadi Goelman, Robert Jech
Depression, anxiety and apathy are distinct neuropsychiatric symptoms that highly overlap in Parkinson's disease (PD). It remains unknown whether each symptom is uniquely associated with a functional network dysfunction. Here, we examined whether individual differences in each neuropsychiatric symptom predict functional connectivity patterns in PD patients while controlling for all other symptoms and motor function. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI were acquired from 27 PD patients and 29 healthy controls...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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