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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936175/effects-of-neonatal-dexamethasone-exposure-on-adult-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-rats
#1
Nathanael J Yates, Donald Robertson, Jennifer Rodger, Mathew T Martin-Iverson
The effects of early life stress in utero or in neonates has long-term consequences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis function and neurodevelopment. These effects extend into adulthood and may underpin a variety of mental illnesses and be related to various developmental and cognitive changes. We examined the potential role of neonatal HPA axis activation on adult psychopathology and dopamine sensitivity in the mature rat using neonatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist and stress hormone, dexamethasone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935937/let-s-not-waste-time-using-temporal-information-in-clustered-activity-estimation-with-spatial-adjacency-restrictions-caesar-for-parcellating-fmri-data
#2
Ronald J Janssen, Pasi Jylänki, Marcel A J van Gerven
We have proposed a Bayesian approach for functional parcellation of whole-brain FMRI measurements which we call Clustered Activity Estimation with Spatial Adjacency Restrictions (CAESAR). We use distance-dependent Chinese restaurant processes (dd-CRPs) to define a flexible prior which partitions the voxel measurements into clusters whose number and shapes are unknown a priori. With dd-CRPs we can conveniently implement spatial constraints to ensure that our parcellations remain spatially contiguous and thereby physiologically meaningful...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935229/cortico-limbic-connectivity-in-maoa-l-carriers-is-vulnerable-to-acute-tryptophan-depletion
#3
Patrick Eisner, Martin Klasen, Dhana Wolf, Klaus Zerres, Thomas Eggermann, Albrecht Eisert, Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Pegah Sarkheil, Krystyna A Mathiak, Florian Zepf, Klaus Mathiak
INTRODUCTION: A gene-environment interaction between expression genotypes of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and adverse childhood experience increases the risk of antisocial behavior. However, the neural underpinnings of this interaction remain uninvestigated. A cortico-limbic circuit involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala is central to the suppression of aggressive impulses and is modulated by serotonin (5-HT). MAOA genotypes may modulate the vulnerability of this circuit and increase the risk for emotion regulation deficits after specific life events...
December 9, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934228/structural-response-of-human-serum-albumin-to-oxidation-biological-buffer-to-local-formation-of-hypochlorite
#4
Alessandra Del Giudice, Cedric Dicko, Luciano Galantini, Nicolae V Pavel
The most abundant plasma protein, human serum albumin (HSA), plays a key part in the body's antioxidant defense against reactive species. This study was aimed at correlating oxidant-induced chemical and structural effects on HSA. Despite the chemical modification induced by the oxidant hypochlorite, the native shape is preserved up to oxidant/HSA molar ratio <80, above which a structural transition occurs in the critical range 80-120. This conformational variation involves the drifting of one of the end-domains from the rest of the protein and corresponds to the loss of one-third of the α-helix and a net increase of the protein negative charge...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932978/gender-specific-re-organization-of-resting-state-networks-in-older-age
#5
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Izabela Przezdzik, Rebecca S Wilson, Joanne R Hale, Andrew P Bagshaw
Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932971/evaluation-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-resting-state-magnetoencephalographic-signals-effect-of-surrogates-and-evaluation-approach
#6
Bakul Gohel, Sanghyun Lim, Min-Young Kim, Kyung-Min An, Ji-Eun Kim, Hyukchan Kwon, Kiwoong Kim
Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) plays an important role in neural communication and computation. Interestingly, recent studies have indicated the presence of ubiquitous PAC phenomenon even during the resting state. Despite the importance of PAC phenomenon, estimation of significant physiological PAC is challenging because of the lack of appropriate surrogate measures to control false positives caused by non-physiological PAC. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated PAC phenomenon during resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal and considered various surrogate measures and computational approaches widely used in the literature in addition to proposing new ones...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932883/functional-cortical-changes-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-at-amplitude-configuration-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#7
Heng Liu, Hua Chen, Bo Wu, Tijiang Zhang, Jinhui Wang, Kexin Huang, Ganjun Song, Jian Zhan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the amplitude of spontaneous brain activity fluctuations in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method. METHODS: ALFF and SPM8 were utilized to assess alterations in regional spontaneous brain activities in patients with RRMS in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). The beta values of altered brain regions between patients with RRMS and HCs were extracted, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to calculate the sensitivities and specificities of these different brain areas for distinguishing patients with RRMS from HCs...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932572/a-mechanism-for-acetylcholine-receptor-gating-based-on-structure-coupling-phi-and-flip
#8
Shaweta Gupta, Srirupa Chakraborty, Ridhima Vij, Anthony Auerbach
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are allosteric proteins that generate membrane currents by isomerizing ("gating") between resting and active conformations under the influence of neurotransmitters. Here, to explore the mechanisms that link the transmitter-binding sites (TBSs) with the distant gate, we use mutant cycle analyses to measure coupling between residue pairs, phi value analyses to sequence domain rearrangements, and current simulations to reproduce a microsecond shut component ("flip") apparent in single-channel recordings...
December 8, 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931179/structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-intraparietal-sulcus-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Chandler Sours, Prashant Raghavan, Alexandre Medina de Jesus, Steven R Roys, Li Jiang, Jiachen Zhuo, Rao P Gullapalli
Severe and Moderate TBI (sTBI) often results in long-term cognitive deficits such as reduced processing speed and attention. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a neocortical structure that plays a crucial role in the deeply interrelated processes of multisensory processing and top down attention. Therefore, we hypothesized that disruptions in the functional and structural connections of the IPS may play a role in the development of such deficits. To examine these connections we used resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in a cohort of 27 sTBI patients (29...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930898/changed-crossmodal-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults-with-hearing-loss
#10
Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Previous work compellingly demonstrates a crossmodal plastic reorganization of auditory cortex in deaf individuals, leading to increased neural responses to non-auditory sensory input. Recent data indicate that crossmodal adaptive plasticity is not restricted to severe hearing impairments, but may also occur as a result of high-frequency hearing loss in older adults and affect audiovisual processing in these subjects. We here used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the effect of hearing loss in older adults on auditory cortex response patterns as well as on functional connectivity between auditory and visual cortex during audiovisual processing...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930592/self-reported-psychological-development-in-cosmetic-breast-surgery-patients
#11
María Ángeles Pérez-San-Gregorio, Agustín Martín-Rodríguez, María Jesús Arias-Moreno, María Esther Rincón-Fernández, José Ignacio Ortega-Martínez
Cosmetic breast surgery is the only therapeutic alternative for psychological and physical complications associated with micromasty, breast ptosis, and macromasty. We analyzed the effects of 2 variables, time, and type of cosmetic breast surgery, on anxiety symptomatology and quality of life.Following a mixed 3 × 4 design, 3 groups of women with breast augmentation (n = 63), mastopexy (n = 42), and breast reduction (n = 30) were selected and evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey at 4 different times, the preoperative stage, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperative...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930323/long-range-projections-coordinate-distributed-brain-wide-neural-activity-with-a-specific-spatiotemporal-profile
#12
Alex T L Leong, Russell W Chan, Patrick P Gao, Ying-Shing Chan, Kevin K Tsia, Wing-Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
One challenge in contemporary neuroscience is to achieve an integrated understanding of the large-scale brain-wide interactions, particularly the spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity that give rise to functions and behavior. At present, little is known about the spatiotemporal properties of long-range neuronal networks. We examined brain-wide neural activity patterns elicited by stimulating ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamo-cortical excitatory neurons through combined optogenetic stimulation and functional MRI (fMRI)...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930094/cancer-stem-cell-hypothesis-for-therapeutic-innovation-in-clinical-oncology-taking-the-root-out-not-chopping-the-leaf
#13
Kevin Dzobo, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Lamech M Mwapagha, Nasir Al-Awwad, Collet Dandara, M Iqbal Parker
Clinical oncology is in need of therapeutic innovation. New hypotheses and concepts for translation of basic research to novel diagnostics and therapeutics are called for. In this context, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis rests on the premise that tumors comprise tumor cells and a subset of tumor-initiating cells, CSCs, in a quiescent state characterized by slow cell cycling and expression of specific stem cell surface markers with the capability to maintain a tumor in vivo. The CSCs have unlimited self-renewal abilities and propagate tumors through division into asymmetric daughter cells...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929199/platelets-as-a-novel-source-of-gremlin-1-implications-for-thromboinflammation
#14
Madhumita Chatterjee, Alexander Behrendt, Martina Schmid, Sandra Beck, Martina Schneider, Andreas Mack, Iris Müller, Tobias Geisler, Meinrad Gawaz
Platelets mediating haemostasis-thrombosis are central players in coronary artery disease (CAD). We characterised platelets as a novel source of Gremlin-1. Platelets express Gremlin-1 like inflammatory and endothelial cells. Gremlin-1 co-localised with P-selectin containing randomly distributed α-granules under resting state, which were peripheralised following platelet activation or adhesion over fibrinogen-coated surface. Gremlin-1 release upon activation with ADP, CRP, and TRAP was detected as enhanced surface expression; also in activated platelet supernatant as detected by Western Blot following CRP activation and by ELISA upon activation with ADP, CRP, PAR-1, and PAR4 agonist...
December 8, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929128/extraordinary-behavioral-entrainment-following-circadian-rhythm-bifurcation-in-mice
#15
Elizabeth M Harrison, Thijs J Walbeek, Jonathan Sun, Jeremy Johnson, Qays Poonawala, Michael R Gorman
The mammalian circadian timing system uses light to synchronize endogenously generated rhythms with the environmental day. Entrainment to schedules that deviate significantly from 24 h (T24) has been viewed as unlikely because the circadian pacemaker appears capable only of small, incremental responses to brief light exposures. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that simple manipulations of light alone induce extreme plasticity in the circadian system of mice. Firstly, exposure to dim nocturnal illumination (<0...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929102/functional-connectivity-changes-resemble-patterns-of-ptdp-43-pathology-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Ines Schulthess, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Dorothée Lulé, Kelly Del Tredici, Albert C Ludolph, Jan Kassubek
'Resting-state' fMRI allows investigation of alterations in functional brain organization that are associated with an underlying pathological process. We determine whether abnormal connectivity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a priori-defined intrinsic functional connectivity networks, according to a neuropathological staging scheme and its DTI-based tract correlates, permits recognition of a sequential involvement of functional networks. 'Resting-state' fMRI data from 135 ALS patients and 56 matched healthy controls were investigated for the motor network (corresponding to neuropathological stage 1), brainstem (stage 2), ventral attention (stage 3), default mode/hippocampal network (stage 4), and primary visual network (as the control network) in a cross-sectional analysis and longitudinally in a subgroup of 27 patients after 6 months...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928212/relationship-between-autonomic-markers-of-heart-rate-and-subjective-indicators-of-recovery-status-in-male-elite-badminton-players
#17
Christo A Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R Esco
The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927764/circulating-microrna-are-predictive-of-aging-and-acute-adaptive-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-men
#18
Lee M Margolis, Sarah J Lessard, Yassine Ezzyat, Roger A Fielding, Donato A Rivas
Circulating microRNA (c-miRNA) have the potential to function as novel noninvasive markers of the underlying physiological state of skeletal muscle. This investigation sought to determine the influence of aging on c-miRNA expression at rest and following resistance exercise in male volunteers (Young: n = 9; Older: n = 9). Primary findings were that fasting c-miRNA expression profiles were significantly predictive of aging, with miR-19b-3p, miR-206, and miR-486 distinguishing between age groups. Following resistance exercise, principal component analysis revealed a divergent response in expression of 10 c-miRNA, where expression profiles were upregulated in younger and downregulated in older participants...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924954/eeg-functional-network-topology-is-associated-with-disability-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Matteo Fraschini, Matteo Demuru, Arjan Hillebrand, Lorenza Cuccu, Silvia Porcu, Francesca Di Stefano, Monica Puligheddu, Gianluca Floris, Giuseppe Borghero, Francesco Marrosu
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most severe neurodegenerative diseases, which is known to affect upper and lower motor neurons. In contrast to the classical tenet that ALS represents the outcome of extensive and progressive impairment of a fixed set of motor connections, recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the disease spreads along vast non-motor connections. Here, we hypothesised that functional network topology is perturbed in ALS, and that this reorganization is associated with disability...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924527/cognitive-functioning-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-bold-fmri-study
#20
Lili Guo, Genji Bai, Hui Zhang, Daoyan Lu, Jiyong Zheng, Gang Xu
We aimed to analyze the association between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (re-fMRI) and cognitive function (including language, executive, and memory functions) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, which will help to explore the mechanism of brain function in patients. 15 TLE patients and 15 non-TLE patients were recruited. All subjects underwent neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation. Changes in verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), full intelligence quotient (FIQ), and memory quotient (MQ) were compared between two groups...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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