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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351108/neuroimaging-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-focus-on-resting-state-fmri-analysis-of-intrinsic-functional-brain-connectivity
#1
Allison Jack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resting-state fMRI assessment of instrinsic functional brain connectivity (rs-fcMRI) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) allows assessment of participants with a wide range of functioning levels, and collection of multisite databases that facilitate large-scale analysis. These heterogeneous multisite data present both promise and methodological challenge. Herein, we provide an overview of recent (1 October 2016-1 November 2017) empirical research on ASD rs-fcMRI, focusing on work that helps clarify how best to leverage the power of these data...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350639/dynamic-mri-in-the-evaluation-of-the-spine-state-of-the-art
#2
Giulia Michelini, Antonella Corridore, Silvia Torlone, Federico Bruno, Claudia Marsecano, Raffaella Capasso, Ferdinando Caranci, Antonio Barile, Carlo Masciocchi, Alessandra Splendiani
INTRODUCTION: Degenerative disease of the spine is a generic term encompassing a wide range of different disease processes, which leads to spinal instability; traumatic/neoplastic events can accelerate this aging process. Therefore, the dynamic nature of the spine and its mobility across multiple segments is difficult to depict with any single imaging modality. METHODS: A review of PubMed databases for articles published about kMRI in patients with cervical and lumbar spinal desease was performed...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350187/multifractal-dynamics-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Frigyes Samuel Racz, Peter Mukli, Zoltan Nagy, Andras Eke
Brain function is organized as a network of functional connections between different neuronal populations with connection strengths dynamically changing in time and space. Studies investigating functional connectivity (FC) usually follow a static approach when describing FC by considering the connectivity strengths constant, however a dynamic approach seems more reasonable, as this way the spatio-temporal dynamics of the underlying system can also be captured. Objective: The scale-free, i.e. fractal nature of neural dynamics is an inherent property of the nervous system...
January 19, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349988/-comparison-of-analgesic-effects-between-multimodal-and-patient-controlled-intravenous-analgesia-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-the-perioperative-period-of-total-knee-arthroplasty
#4
Hua-Li Gao, Lian-Bo Xiao, Wei-Tao Zhai, Yong He, Fei Zhu, Lin Zheng, Xiu-Wei Han
OBJECTIVE: To compare the analgesic effect between multimodal and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia(PCIA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA) in the perioperative period of knee joint replacement. METHODS: From June 2015 to June 2016, 40 RA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into two groups. There were 20 patients in PCIA group, including 3 males and 17 females, with an average age of(59.6±2.3) years old, who received controlled instillation of sufentanil analgesia controlled by an intravenous analgesia pump...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348532/amygdala-orbitofrontal-structural-and-functional-connectivity-in-females-with-anxiety-disorders-with-and-without-a-history-of-conduct-disorder
#5
Philip Lindner, Pär Flodin, Peter Larm, Meenal Budhiraja, Ivanka Savic-Berglund, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348136/resting-state-functional-mri-everything-that-nonexperts-have-always-wanted-to-know
#6
REVIEW
H Lv, Z Wang, E Tong, L M Williams, G Zaharchuk, M Zeineh, A N Goldstein-Piekarski, T M Ball, C Liao, M Wintermark
Resting-state fMRI was first described by Biswal et al in 1995 and has since then been widely used in both healthy subjects and patients with various neurologic, neurosurgical, and psychiatric disorders. As opposed to paradigm- or task-based functional MR imaging, resting-state fMRI does not require subjects to perform any specific task. The low-frequency oscillations of the resting-state fMRI signal have been shown to relate to the spontaneous neural activity. There are many ways to analyze resting-state fMRI data...
January 18, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#7
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347821/fluorescence-and-excited-state-conformational-dynamics-of-the-orange-carotenoid-protein
#8
Jason K Gurchiek, Han Bao, Maria Agustina Domínguez-Martín, Sarah E McGovern, Claire E Marquardt, Jerome D Roscioli, Soumen Ghosh, Cheryl A Kerfeld, Warren F Beck
The Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) mediates nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) mechanisms in cyanobacteria. A bound ketocarotenoid serves as a sensor of mid-visible light intensity and as a quencher of phycocyanobilin excitons in the phycobilisome. The photochemical mechanism that triggers conversion of the protein from a resting, orange state (OCPO) to an active, red state (OCPR) after optical preparation of the S2 state of the carotenoid remains an open question. We report here that the fluorescence spectrum and quantum yield of the bound carotenoids in OCPO report important details of the motions that follow optical preparation of the S2 state...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347261/light-propagation-in-binary-kagome-ribbons-with-evolving-disorder
#9
A Radosavljević, G Gligorić, P P Beličev, A Maluckov, M Stepić
By introducing evolving disorder in the binary kagome ribbons, we study the establishment of diffusive spreading of flat band states characterized by diffractionless propagation in regular periodic ribbons. Our numerical analysis relies on controlling strength and rate of change of disorder during light propagation while tailoring binarism of the kagome ribbons in order to isolate the flat band with the gap from the rest of the ribbon's eigenvalue spectrum and study systematically its influence on diffusion...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347203/dynamical-properties-of-the-herding-voter-model-with-and-without-noise
#10
Liudmila Rozanova, Marián Boguñá
Collective leadership and herding may arise in standard models of opinion dynamics as an interplay of a strong separation of time scales within the population and its hierarchical organization. Using the voter model as a simple opinion formation model, we show that, in the herding phase, a group of agents become effectively the leaders of the dynamics while the rest of the population follow blindly their opinion. Interestingly, in some cases such herding dynamics accelerates the time to consensus, which then becomes size independent or, on the contrary, makes the consensus nearly impossible...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347029/transient-chaos-and-associated-system-intrinsic-switching-of-spacetime-patterns-in-two-synaptically-coupled-layers-of-morris-lecar-neurons
#11
Harrison Hartle, Renate Wackerbauer
Spatiotemporal chaos collapses to either a rest state or a propagating pulse solution in a single layer of diffusively coupled, excitable Morris-Lecar neurons. Weak synaptic coupling of two such layers reveals system intrinsic switching of spatiotemporal activity patterns within and between the layers at irregular times. Within a layer, switching sequences include spatiotemporal chaos, erratic and regular pulse propagation, spontaneous network wide neuron activity, and rest state. A momentary substantial reduction in neuron activity in one layer can reinitiate transient spatiotemporal chaos in the other layer, which can induce a swap of spatiotemporal chaos with a pulse state between the layers...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345710/small-degree-of-anisotropic-wetting-on-self-similar-hierarchical-wrinkled-surfaces
#12
Gaojian Lin, Qiuting Zhang, Cunjing Lv, Yichao Tang, Jie Yin
We studied the wetting behavior of multiscale self-similar hierarchical wrinkled surfaces. The hierarchical surface was fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates by manipulating the sequential strain release and combined plasma/ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment. The generated structured surface shows an independently controlled dual-scale roughness with level-1 small-wavelength wrinkles (wavelength of 700-1500 nm and amplitude of 50-500 nm) resting on level-2 large-wavelength wrinkles (wavelength of 15-35 μm and amplitude of 3...
January 18, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343982/increased-theta-band-eeg-power-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients
#13
Michelle Case, Sina Shirinpour, Huishi Zhang, Yvonne H Datta, Stephen C Nelson, Karim T Sadak, Kalpna Gupta, Bin He
Objective: Pain is a major issue in the care of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The mechanisms behind pain and the best way to treat it are not well understood. We studied how electroencephalography (EEG) is altered in SCD patients. Methods: We recruited 20 SCD patients and compared their resting state EEG to that of 14 healthy controls. EEG power was found across frequency bands using Welch's method. Electrophysiological source imaging was assessed for each frequency band using the eLORETA algorithm...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343751/altered-power-spectral-density-in-the-resting-state-sensorimotor-network-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#14
Jin-Sung Park, Jeehye Seo, Hyunsil Cha, Hui-Jin Song, Sang-Hoon Lee, Kyung Eun Jang, Hui Joong Lee, Juyoung Park, Ho-Won Lee, Yongmin Chang
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease that involves the brain with several neurological symptoms. Although there were few imaging studies on DM1, no studies have investigated functional alterations in the sensorimotor network at rest in patients with DM1. In the current study, a power spectral density (PSD) analysis of resting-state fMRI data was performed to assess possible alteration in spontaneous neural activity of the sensorimotor network in patients with DM1. Compared to healthy controls, patients with DM1 showed higher PSD responses in the orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampus and basal ganglia (corrected P < 0...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343732/the-neural-correlates-of-the-unified-percept-of-alcohol-related-craving-a-fmri-and-eeg-study
#15
Yuefeng Huang, Anusha Mohan, Dirk De Ridder, Stefan Sunaert, Sven Vanneste
Alcohol addiction is accompanied by aberrant neural activity. Previously, task-based fMRI and resting-state EEG studies have revealed that craving, a critical component of addiction, is linked to abnormal activity in cortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), etc. In this study, we combine these two imaging techniques to investigate a group of alcohol-addicted patients and provide convergent evidence for the neural correlates of craving not only in alcohol but substance abuse in general...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343304/increasing-incidence-of-dirofilaria-immitis-in-dogs-in-usa-with-focus-on-the-southeast-region-2013-2016
#16
Jason Drake, Scott Wiseman
BACKGROUND: A recent American Heartworm Society (AHS) survey on the incidence of adult heartworm infections in dogs in the United States of America showed a 21.7% increase in the average cases per veterinary clinic from 2013 to 2016. The analysis reported here was performed to see if heartworm testing results available via the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) aligned with the AHS survey and whether changes in heartworm preventive dispensing accounts for the increased incidence...
January 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341341/prediction-of-activation-patterns-preceding-hallucinations-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-using-machine-learning-with-structured-sparsity
#17
Amicie de Pierrefeu, Thomas Fovet, Fouad Hadj-Selem, Tommy Löfstedt, Philippe Ciuciu, Stephanie Lefebvre, Pierre Thomas, Renaud Lopes, Renaud Jardri, Edouard Duchesnay
Despite significant progress in the field, the detection of fMRI signal changes during hallucinatory events remains difficult and time-consuming. This article first proposes a machine-learning algorithm to automatically identify resting-state fMRI periods that precede hallucinations versus periods that do not. When applied to whole-brain fMRI data, state-of-the-art classification methods, such as support vector machines (SVM), yield dense solutions that are difficult to interpret. We proposed to extend the existing sparse classification methods by taking the spatial structure of brain images into account with structured sparsity using the total variation penalty...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341303/cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-associated-with-enhanced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-in-healthy-young-adults
#18
Chelsea M Stillman, Fatma Uyar, Haiqing Huang, George A Grove, Jennifer C Watt, Mariegold E Wollam, Kirk I Erickson
Consistent associations have been found between higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and indices of enhanced brain health and function, including behavioral measures of cognition as well as neuroimaging indicators such as regional brain volume. Several studies have reported that higher CRF levels are associated with a larger hippocampus, yet associations between volume and memory or functional connectivity metrics with the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Using a multi-modal framework, we hierarchically examine the association between CRF and hippocampal volume and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in younger adults (ages 22-38), as well as the relationship between these imaging markers and memory function...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340793/neuroimaging-findings-in-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache
#19
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339804/ephb6-and-testosterone-in-concert-regulate-epinephrine-release-by-adrenal-gland-chromaffin-cells
#20
Yujia Wang, Wei Shi, Alexandre Blanchette, Junzheng Peng, Shijie Qi, Hongyu Luo, Jonathan Ledoux, Jiangping Wu
Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular receptor (EPH) B6 (EPHB6) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. We previously demonstrated that EPHB6 knockout reduces catecholamine secretion in male but not female mice, and castration reverses this phenotype. We showed here that male EPHB6 knockout adrenal gland chromaffin cells presented reduced acetylcholine-triggered Ca2+ influx. Such reduction depended on the non-genomic effect of testosterone. Increased large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel current densities were recorded in adrenal gland chromaffin cells from male EPHB6 knockout mice but not from castrated knockout or female knockout mice...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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