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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166387/effects-of-total-sleep-deprivation-on-divided-attention-performance
#1
Eric Chern-Pin Chua, Eric Fang, Joshua J Gooley
Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165246/regulatory-coiled-coil-domains-promote-head-to-head-assemblies-of-aaa-chaperones-essential-for-tunable-activity-control
#2
Marta Carroni, Kamila B Franke, Michael Maurer, Jasmin Jäger, Ingo Hantke, Felix Gloge, Daniela Linder, Sebastian Gremer, Kürşad Turgay, Bernd Bukau, Axel Mogk
Ring-forming AAA+ chaperones exert ATP-fueled substrate unfolding by threading through a central pore. This activity is potentially harmful requiring mechanisms for tight repression and substrate-specific activation. The AAA+ chaperone ClpC with the peptidase ClpP forms a bacterial protease essential to virulence and stress resistance. The adaptor MecA activates ClpC by targeting substrates and stimulating ClpC ATPase activity. We show how ClpC is repressed in its ground state by determining ClpC cryo-EM structures with and without MecA...
November 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164505/network-level-dysconnectivity-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-early-post-radiotherapy-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#3
Yingwei Qiu, Zheng Guo, Lujun Han, Yadi Yang, Jing Li, Shiliang Liu, Xiaofei Lv
In this study, we seek to longitudinally investigate the network-level functional connectivity (FC) alternations and its association with irradiation dose and cognition changes in the early stage post radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) from 39 newly diagnosed NPC patients before receiving treatment (baseline), and 3 months post-RT. the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) were extracted with well-validated software (GIFT)...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164504/basal-ganglia-cerebral-blood-flow-associates-with-psychomotor-speed-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#4
John P Ryan, Howard J Aizenstein, Trevor J Orchard, Karen A Nunley, Helmet Karim, Caterina Rosano
Type 1 diabetes is associated with slower psychomotor speed, but the neural basis of this relationship is not yet understood. The basal ganglia are a set of structures that are vulnerable to small vessel disease, particularly in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Thus, we examined the relationship between psychomotor speed and resting state resting cerebral blood flow in a sample of adults with diabetes onset during childhood (≤ 17 years of age). The sample included 77 patients (39 M, 38 F) with a mean age of 47...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163844/identifying-current-and-remitted-major-depressive-disorder-with-the-hurst-exponent-a-comparative-study-on-two-automated-anatomical-labeling-atlases
#5
Bin Jing, Zhuqing Long, Han Liu, Huagang Yan, Jianxin Dong, Xiao Mo, Dan Li, Chunhong Liu, Haiyun Li
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading world-wide psychiatric disorder with high recurrence rate, therefore, it is desirable to identify current MDD (cMDD) and remitted MDD (rMDD) for their appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the study, 19 cMDD, 19 rMDD and 19 well-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled and scanned with the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The Hurst exponent (HE) of rs-fMRI in AAL-90 and AAL-1024 atlases were calculated and compared between groups...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163341/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-transcranial-pulsed-current-stimulation-and-their-combination-on-brain-oscillations-in-patients-with-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-crossover-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Aurore Thibaut, Cristina Russo, Aura Maria Hurtado-Puerto, Jorge Leon Morales-Quezada, Alícia Deitos, John Christopher Petrozza, Steven Freedman, Felipe Fregni
Objective: Chronic visceral pain (CVP) syndromes are persistently painful disorders with a remarkable lack of effective treatment options. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different neuromodulation techniques in patients with CVP on cortical activity, through electreocephalography (EEG) and on pain perception, through clinical tests. Design: A pilot crossover randomized controlled study. Settings: Out-patient. Subjects: Adults with CVP (>3 months)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163337/disrupted-gamma-synchrony-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-correlation-with-white-matter-abnormality
#7
Chao Wang, Michelle E Costanzo, Paul E Rapp, David Darmon, Dominic E Nathan, Kylee Bashirelahi, Dzung L Pham, Michael J Roy, David O Keyser
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been firmly associated with disrupted white matter integrity due to induced white matter damage and degeneration. However, comparatively less is known about the changes of the intrinsic functional connectivity mediated via neural synchronization in the brain after mTBI. Moreover, despite the presumed link between structural and functional connectivity, no existing studies in mTBI have demonstrated clear association between the structural abnormality of white matter axons and the disruption of neural synchronization...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163144/the-relationship-of-cognitive-performance-and-the-theta-alpha-power-ratio-is-age-dependent-an-eeg-study-of-short-term-memory-and-reasoning-during-task-and-resting-state-in-healthy-young-and-old-adults
#8
Janet P Trammell, Priscilla G MacRae, Greta Davis, Dylan Bergstedt, Ariana E Anderson
Objective: The Theta-Alpha ratio (TAR) is known to differ based upon age and cognitive ability, with pathological electroencephalography (EEG) patterns routinely found within neurodegenerative disorders of older adults. We hypothesized that cognitive ability would predict EEG metrics differently within healthy young and old adults, and that healthy old adults not showing age-expected EEG activity may be more likely to demonstrate cognitive deficits relative to old adults showing these expected changes. Methods: In 216 EEG blocks collected in 16 young and 20 old adults during rest (eyes open, eyes closed) and cognitive tasks (short-term memory [STM]; matrix reasoning [RM; Raven's matrices]), models assessed the contributing roles of cognitive ability, age, and task in predicting the TAR...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163133/frequency-specific-abnormalities-of-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-strength-among-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#9
Fangjun Li, Fuqing Zhou, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Renshi Xu
The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients with ALS and 21 well-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled to examine the intrinsic FCS in the different frequencies (slow-4: 0...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163096/tai-chi-chuan-and-baduanjin-mind-body-training-changes-resting-state-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-the-frontal-lobe-of-older-adults-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#10
Jing Tao, Xiangli Chen, Jiao Liu, Natalia Egorova, Xiehua Xue, Weilin Liu, Guohua Zheng, Ming Li, Jinsong Wu, Kun Hu, Zengjian Wang, Lidian Chen, Jian Kong
Age-related cognitive decline is a significant public health concern. Recently, non-pharmacological methods, such as physical activity and mental training practices, have emerged as promising low-cost methods to slow the progression of age-related memory decline. In this study, we investigated if Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) and Baduanjin modulated the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in different frequency bands (low-frequency: 0.01-0.08 Hz; slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz) and improved memory function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163083/effective-connectivity-analysis-of-the-brain-network-in-drivers-during-actual-driving-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#11
Zhian Liu, Ming Zhang, Gongcheng Xu, Congcong Huo, Qitao Tan, Zengyong Li, Quan Yuan
Driving a vehicle is a complex activity that requires high-level brain functions. This study aimed to assess the change in effective connectivity (EC) between the prefrontal cortex (PFC), motor-related areas (MA) and vision-related areas (VA) in the brain network among the resting, simple-driving and car-following states. Twelve young male right-handed adults were recruited to participate in an actual driving experiment. The brain delta [HbO2] signals were continuously recorded using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) instruments...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163072/altered-functional-brain-connectomes-between-sporadic-and-familial-parkinson-s-patients
#12
Yan Tang, Xue Xiao, Hua Xie, Chang-Min Wan, Li Meng, Zhen-Hua Liu, Wei-Hua Liao, Bei-Sha Tang, Ji-Feng Guo
Familial Parkinson's disease (PD) is often caused by mutation of a certain gene, while sporadic PD is associated with variants of genes which can influence the susceptibility to PD. The goal of this study was to investigate the difference between the two forms of PD in terms of brain abnormalities using resting-state functional MRI and graph theory. Thirty-one familial PD patients and 36 sporadic PD patients underwent resting-state functional MRI scanning. Frequency-dependent functional connectivity was calculated for each subject using wavelet-based correlations of BOLD signal over 246 brain regions from Brainnetome Atlas...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163003/a-complex-interplay-of-vitamin-b1-and-b6-metabolism-with-cognition-brain-structure-and-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults
#13
Kai Jannusch, Christiane Jockwitz, Hans-Jürgen Bidmon, Susanne Moebus, Katrin Amunts, Svenja Caspers
Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162537/venous-endothelium-reactivity-to-angiotensin-ii-a-study-in-primary-endothelial-cultures-of-rat-vena-cava-and-portal-vein
#14
Marcio Renato Trindade, Henrique Charlanti Reis Assunção, Tathiany Corteze Torres, Jéssica Silva Bertolino, Liliam Fernandes
The role of the vascular endothelium in modulating the arterial system has been widely investigated, but poorly explored at the venous site. In the present work, primary cultures of venous endothelium from rat Vena Cava (VC) and Portal Vein (PV) were established, characterized and analyzed according to their growth pattern and ability to produce nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids (PGF2 α and PGI2), at basal state and after stimulation with Angiotensin II (Ang II, 1μmol/L). Basal NO was detected in all examined cells in culture...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162521/intrinsic-insula-network-engagement-underlying-children-s-reading-and-arithmetic-skills
#15
Ting-Ting Chang, Pei-Hong Lee, Arron W S Metcalfe
The neural substrates of children's reading and arithmetic skills have long been of great interest to cognitive neuroscientists. However, most previous studies have focused on the contrast between these skills as specific domains. Here, we investigate the potentially shared processes across these domains by focusing on how the neural circuits associated with cognitive control influence reading and arithmetic proficiency in 8-to-10-year-old children. Using a task-free resting state approach, we correlated the intrinsic functional connectivity of the right anterior insula (rAI) network with performance on assessments of Chinese character recognition, reading comprehension, subtraction, and multiplication performance...
November 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162189/altered-ventral-striatal-medial-prefrontal-cortex-resting-state-connectivity-mediates-adolescent-social-problems-after-early-institutional-care
#16
Dominic S Fareri, Laurel Gabard-Durnam, Bonnie Goff, Jessica Flannery, Dylan G Gee, Daniel S Lumian, Christina Caldera, Nim Tottenham
Early caregiving adversity is associated with increased risk for social difficulties. The ventral striatum and associated corticostriatal circuitry, which have demonstrated vulnerability to early exposures to adversity, are implicated in many aspects of social behavior, including social play, aggression, and valuation of social stimuli across development. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the degree to which early caregiving adversity was associated with altered coritocostriatal resting connectivity in previously institutionalized youth (n = 41) relative to youth who were raised with their biological families from birth (n = 47), and the degree to which this connectivity was associated with parent-reported social problems...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161916/smartphone-accelerometers-for-the-detection-of-heart-rate
#17
Federica Landreani, Enrico Gianluca Caiani
Micro-electro-mechanical systems technology, now embedded into smartphones, potentially allows measuring heart mechanical activity by positioning the phone on the body and acquiring vibrational signals, without the need for additional peripherals or interfaces. However, lack of standardization in experimental protocol, processing methodology and validation procedures, together with the wide range of available smartphones on the market, impact on the comparability of results and their general validity. The aim of this review is to provide information on the state-of-the art of research in this field, with current limitations and potentials, thus potentially serving as a basis for the creation of a standard based on current experiences...
November 22, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161673/reduced-resting-state-thalamostriatal-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-persons-with-and-without-depressive-disorders
#18
David T Plante, Rasmus M Birn, Erin C Walsh, Roxanne M Hoks, M Daniela Cornejo, Heather C Abercrombie
BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common and significant problem encountered in affective illness, however, the biological underpinnings of EDS in persons with psychiatric disorders are not clear. This study evaluated the associations between thalamic connectivity with cortical and subcortical brain regions with EDS in persons with and without depressive disorders (DD). METHODS: Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging scans from 67 unmedicated young to middle-aged women with current DD (n = 30), remitted DD (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 24) were utilized to examine the associations between thalamic connectivity with cortical/subcortical structures and EDS...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161383/basal-forebrain-gating-by-somatostatin-neurons-drives-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#19
Nelson Espinosa, Alejandra Alonso, Cristian Morales, Pedro Espinosa, Andrés E Chávez, Pablo Fuentealba
The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161362/the-hierarchical-organization-of-the-default-dorsal-attention-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#20
Yuan Zhou, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Jie Chen, Shu Li, Adeel Razi
An important characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is the anticorrelation between the core default network (cDN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the salience network (SN). This anticorrelation may constitute a key aspect of functional anatomy and is implicated in several brain disorders. We used dynamic causal modeling to assess the hypothesis that a causal hierarchy underlies this anticorrelation structure, using resting-state fMRI of healthy adolescent and young adults (N = 404). Our analysis revealed an asymmetric effective connectivity, such that the regions in the SN and DAN exerted an inhibitory influence on the cDN regions; whereas the cDN exerted an excitatory influence on the SN and DAN regions...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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