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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788245/implementation-science-in-low-resource-settings-using-the-interactive-systems-framework-to-improve-hand-hygiene-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ghana
#1
Brianne Kallam, Christie Pettitt-Schieber, Medge Owen, Rebecca Agyare Asante, Elizabeth Darko, Rohit Ramaswamy
Quality issue: Low-resource clinical settings often face obstacles that challenge the implementation of recommended evidence-based practices (EBPs). Implementation science approaches are useful in identifying barriers and developing strategies to address them. Initial assessment: Ridge Regional Hospital (RRH), a tertiary referral hospital in Accra, Ghana experienced a spike in rates of neonatal sepsis and launched a quality improvement (QI) initiative that identified poor adherence to hand hygiene in the neonatal intensive care unit as a potential source of infections...
May 19, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769407/information-sensitivity-functions-to-assess-parameter-information-gain-and-identifiability-of-dynamical-systems
#2
Sanjay Pant
A new class of functions, called the 'information sensitivity functions' (ISFs), which quantify the information gain about the parameters through the measurements/observables of a dynamical system are presented. These functions can be easily computed through classical sensitivity functions alone and are based on Bayesian and information-theoretic approaches. While marginal information gain is quantified by decrease in differential entropy, correlations between arbitrary sets of parameters are assessed through mutual information...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764453/ampa-ergic-regulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-levels-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#3
Jane C Hettinger, Hyo Lee, Guojun Bu, David M Holtzman, John R Cirrito
BACKGROUND: Extracellular aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into toxic multimers is a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Aβ aggregation is concentration-dependent, with higher concentrations of Aβ much more likely to form toxic species. The processes that regulate extracellular levels of Aβ therefore stand to directly affect AD pathology onset. Studies from our lab and others have demonstrated that synaptic activity is a critical regulator of Aβ production through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750951/comparison-of-three-intraocular-lens-implantation-procedures-for-aphakic-eyes-with-insufficient-capsular-support-a-network-meta-analysis
#4
Xi Li, Shuang Ni, Shuyi Li, Qianyin Zheng, Jing Wu, Guanlu Liang, Wen Xu
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes and main complications of transscleral-fixated (TSF), intrascleral-fixated (ISF) and iris-fixated (IF) intraocular lenses (IOLs). DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for relevant articles up to April 2017 with no language restrictions, and related studies meeting the eligibility criteria were included. The Bayesian framework was performed to compare the visual outcomes and complications of these three approaches...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734708/a-flexible-interdigital-electrode-used-in-skin-penetration-promotion-and-evaluation-with-electroporation-and-reverse-iontophoresis-synergistically
#5
Rongjian Zhao, Chenshuo Wang, Fei Lu, Lidong Du, Zhen Fang, Xiuhua Guo, Jen-Tsai Liu, Ching-Jung Chen, Zhan Zhao
Skin penetration is related to efficiencies of drug delivery or ISF extraction. Normally, the macro-electrode is employed in skin permeability promotion and evaluation, which has the disadvantages of easily causing skin damage when using electroporation or reverse iontophoresis by alone; furthermore, it has large measurement error, low sensitivity, and difficulty in integration. To resolve these issues, this paper presents a flexible interdigital microelectrode for evaluating skin penetration by sensing impedance and a method of synergistical combination of electroporation and reverse iontophoresis to promote skin penetration...
May 4, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726891/understanding-the-role-of-the-perivascular-space-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#6
Rosalind Brown, Helene Benveniste, Sandra E Black, Serge Charpak, Martin Dichgans, Anne Joutel, Maiken Nedergaard, Kenneth J Smith, Berislav V Zlokovic, Joanna M Wardlaw
Small vessel diseases are a group of disorders that result from pathological alteration of the small blood vessels in the brain, including the small arteries, capillaries and veins. Of the 35-36 million people that are estimated to suffer from dementia worldwide, up to 65% have an SVD component. Furthermore, SVD causes 20-25% of strokes, worsens outcome after stroke and is a leading cause of disability, cognitive impairment and poor mobility. Yet the underlying cause(s) of SVD are not fully understood.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has confirmed enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) as a hallmark feature of SVD...
May 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725774/an-improved-stochastic-fractal-search-algorithm-for-3d-protein-structure-prediction
#7
Changjun Zhou, Chuan Sun, Bin Wang, Xiaojun Wang
Protein structure prediction (PSP) is a significant area for biological information research, disease treatment, and drug development and so on. In this paper, three-dimensional structures of proteins are predicted based on the known amino acid sequences, and the structure prediction problem is transformed into a typical NP problem by an AB off-lattice model. This work applies a novel improved Stochastic Fractal Search algorithm (ISFS) to solve the problem. The Stochastic Fractal Search algorithm (SFS) is an effective evolutionary algorithm that performs well in exploring the search space but falls into local minimums sometimes...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713273/targeting-beta-amyloid-at-the-csf-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Manuel Menendez-Gonzalez, Huber S Padilla-Zambrano, Gabriel Alvarez, Estibaliz Capetillo-Zarate, Cristina Tomas-Zapico, Agustin Costa
Although immunotherapies against the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide tried so date failed to prove sufficient clinical benefit, Aβ still remains the main target in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article aims to show the rationale of a new therapeutic strategy: clearing Aβ from the CSF continuously (the "CSF-sink" therapeutic strategy). First, we describe the physiologic mechanisms of Aβ clearance and the resulting AD pathology when these mechanisms are altered. Then, we review the experiences with peripheral Aβ-immunotherapy and discuss the related hypothesis of the mechanism of action of "peripheral sink...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700231/use-of-subcutaneous-and-intraperitoneal-administration-methods-to-facilitate-cassette-dosing-in-microdialysis-studies-in-rats
#9
Matthew R Durk, Gauri Deshmukh, Nicole Valle, Xiao Ding, Bianca M Liederer, Xingrong Liu
Microdialysis is a powerful technique allowing for real-time measurement of unbound drug concentrations in brain interstitial fluid (ISF) in conscious animals. Use of microdialysis in drug discovery is limited by high resource requirement and low throughput, but this may be improved by cassette dosing. Administering multiple compounds intravenously (IV) of diverse physiochemical properties, it is often very challenging and time-consuming to identify a vehicle that can dissolve all the compounds. To overcome this limitation, the present study explores the possibility of administering a cassette dose of 9 diverse compounds (carbamazepine, citalopram, desmethylclozapine, diphenhydramine, gabapentin, metoclopramide, naltrexone, quinidine, and risperidone) in suspension, rather than in solution, by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes, and determining if this is a viable option for assessing BBB penetration in microdialysis studies...
April 26, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668960/ca2-stabilization-of-respiratory-complex-i-from-escherichia-coli
#10
Galina Belevich, Nikolai Belevich, Juho Knuuti, Marina Verkhovskaya
Stability of the membrane-bound and purified H+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, Complex I, was studied. The loss of the enzyme activity is strongly increased by alkaline pH and dilution of the sample. Complex I inactivation is prevented specifically by a low concentration of Ca2+ and/or an intracellular stabilization factor (ISF). The action of both, Ca2+ and ISF, on Complex I stability is interdependent. The data are discussed in terms of a release of structural Ca2+ as a reason for Complex I decay and an effect of ISF on the affinity and/or accessibility of Ca2+ binding site...
April 12, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666252/mechanisms-of-sampling-interstitial-fluid-from-skin-using-a-microneedle-patch
#11
Pradnya P Samant, Mark R Prausnitz
Although interstitial fluid (ISF) contains biomarkers of physiological significance and medical interest, sampling of ISF for clinical applications has made limited impact due to a lack of simple, clinically useful techniques that collect more than nanoliter volumes of ISF. This study describes experimental and theoretical analysis of ISF transport from skin using microneedle (MN) patches and demonstrates collection of >1 µL of ISF within 20 min in pig cadaver skin and living human subjects using an optimized system...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643515/-role-of-aquaporin-4-in-the-change-of-interstitial-fluid-drainage-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
E Liu, Y X Zhang, L L Sun, Z Teng, A B Wang, H B Han, J H Yan
OBJECTIVE: To observe the characteristics of the interstitial fluid (ISF) drainage in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tracer gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)spread in the brain extracellular space (ECS) and to discuss the role of aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) in the AD. METHODS: Wild type SD rats (300-350 g) and Aqp4 gene knock out (Aqp4-/- ) SD rats (300-350g) were divided into Sham group, AD group, Aqp4-/- -Sham group and Aqp4-/- -AD group...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642916/longitudinal-measurement-invariance-and-explanatory-irt-models-for-adolescents-oral-health-related-quality-of-life
#13
David T W Yau, May C M Wong, K F Lam, Colman McGrath
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal invariance is a perquisite for a valid comparison of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) scores over time. Item response theory (IRT) models can assess measurement invariance and allow better estimation of the associations between predictors and latent construct. By extending IRT models, this study aimed to investigate the longitudinal invariance of the two 8-item short forms of the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 ) regression short form (RSF:8) and item-impact short form (ISF:8) and identify factors associated with adolescents' OHRQoL and its change...
April 11, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627930/flexor-digitorum-longus-tendon-transfer-to-the-navicular-tendon-to-tendon-repair-is-stronger-compared-with-interference-screw-fixation
#14
Daniel Marsland, Joanna M Stephen, Toby Calder, Andrew A Amis, James D F Calder
PURPOSE: To assess whether early rehabilitation could be safe after flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer, the current biomechanical study aimed to measure tendon displacement under cyclic loading and load to failure, comparing a traditional tendon-to-tendon (TT) repair with interference screw fixation (ISF). METHODS: 24 fresh-frozen cadaveric below knee specimens underwent FDL tendon transfer. In 12 specimens a TT repair was performed via a navicular bone tunnel...
April 7, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593549/functional-polarity-of-microvascular-brain-endothelial-cells-supported-by-neurovascular-unit-computational-model-of-large-neutral-amino-acid-homeostasis
#15
Mehdi Taslimifar, Stefano Buoso, Francois Verrey, Vartan Kurtcuoglu
The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. LNAA passage into the brain is primarily mediated by the complex and dynamic interactions between various solute carrier (SLC) transporters expressed in the neurovascular unit (NVU), among which SLC7A5/LAT1 is considered to be the major contributor in microvascular brain endothelial cells (MBEC). The LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs, however, could not be characterized precisely by available in vitro and in vivo standard methods so far...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587456/review-of-stratum-corneum-impedance-measurement-in-non-invasive-penetration-application
#16
REVIEW
Fei Lu, Chenshuo Wang, Rongjian Zhao, Lidong Du, Zhen Fang, Xiuhua Guo, Zhan Zhao
Due to advances in telemedicine, mobile medical care, wearable health monitoring, and electronic skin, great efforts have been directed to non-invasive monitoring and treatment of disease. These processes generally involve disease detection from interstitial fluid (ISF) instead of blood, and transdermal drug delivery. However, the quantitative extraction of ISF and the level of drug absorption are greatly affected by the individual's skin permeability, which is closely related to the properties of the stratum corneum (SC)...
March 26, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582684/strength-of-interference-screw-fixation-to-cuboid-vs-pulvertaft-weave-to-peroneus-brevis-for-tibialis-posterior-tendon-transfer-for-foot-drop
#17
Daniel Marsland, Joanna M Stephen, Toby Calder, Andrew A Amis, James D F Calder
BACKGROUND: Tibialis posterior (TP) tendon transfer is an effective treatment for foot drop. Currently, standard practice is to immobilize the ankle in a cast for 6 weeks nonweightbearing, risking postoperative stiffness. To assess whether early active dorsiflexion and protected weightbearing could be safe, the current study assessed tendon displacement under cyclic loading and load to failure, comparing the Pulvertaft weave (PW) to interference screw fixation (ISF) in a cadaveric foot model...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570693/clearing-extracellular-alpha-synuclein-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Manuel Menéndez-González, Huber S Padilla-Zambrano, Cristina Tomás-Zapico, Benjamin Fernández García
This concept article aims to show the rationale of targeting extracellular α-Synuclein (α-Syn) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a new strategy to remove this protein from the brain in Parkinson's disease (PD). Misfolding and intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein into Lewy bodies are thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of PD. Recent research has shown that small amounts of monomeric and oligomeric α-synuclein are released from neuronal cells by exocytosis and that this extracellular alpha-synuclein contributes to neurodegeneration, progressive spreading of alpha-synuclein pathology, and neuroinflammation...
March 23, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558964/school-health-implementation-tools-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-factors-influencing-their-use
#19
Jennifer Leeman, Jean L Wiecha, Maihan Vu, Jonathan L Blitstein, Sallie Allgood, Sarah Lee, Caitlin Merlo
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) develops tools to support implementation of evidence-based interventions for school health. To advance understanding of factors influencing the use of these implementation tools, we conducted an evaluation of state, school district, and local school staffs' use of four CDC tools to support implementation of physical activity, nutrition, health education, and parent engagement. Two frameworks guided the evaluation: Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) for Dissemination and Implementation and Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)...
March 20, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500108/integrated-skin-flash-planning-technique-for-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-vulvar-cancer-prevents-marginal-misses-and-improves-superficial-dose-coverage
#20
Brandon A Dyer, Abriel Jenshus, Jyoti S Mayadev
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy (RT) plays a definitive role in locally advanced vulvar cancer, and in the adjuvant setting with high risk postoperative features after wide local excision. There is significant morbidity associated with traditional, large RT fields using 2D or 3D techniques, and the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in vulvar cancer is increasing. However, there remains a paucity of technical information regarding the prevention of a marginal miss during the treatment planning process...
February 28, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
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