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Jennifer Leeman, Jean L Wiecha, Maihan Vu, Jonathan L Blitstein, Sallie Allgood, Sarah Lee, Caitlin Merlo
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) develops tools to support implementation of evidence-based interventions for school health. To advance understanding of factors influencing the use of these implementation tools, we conducted an evaluation of state, school district, and local school staffs' use of four CDC tools to support implementation of physical activity, nutrition, health education, and parent engagement. Two frameworks guided the evaluation: Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) for Dissemination and Implementation and Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)...
March 20, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Brandon A Dyer, Abriel Jenshus, Jyoti S Mayadev
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy (RT) plays a definitive role in locally advanced vulvar cancer, and in the adjuvant setting with high risk postoperative features after wide local excision. There is significant morbidity associated with traditional, large RT fields using 2D or 3D techniques, and the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in vulvar cancer is increasing. However, there remains a paucity of technical information regarding the prevention of a marginal miss during the treatment planning process...
February 28, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Mangalathu S Rajeevan, Janna Murray, Lisa Oakley, Jin-Mann S Lin, Elizabeth R Unger
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a severely debilitating condition of unknown etiology. The symptoms and risk factors of ME/CFS share features of accelerated aging implicated in several diseases. Using telomere length as a marker, this study was performed to test the hypothesis that ME/CFS is associated with accelerated aging. METHODS: Participant (n = 639) data came from the follow-up time point of the Georgia CFS surveillance study...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Diederik Bulters, Sebastian Brandner, Janice Holton, Ajay Verma, David J Werring, Roxana O Carare
Aβ, amyloid beta, CAA, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CT, computed tomographic scanning, IPAD, intramural periarterial drainage, ISF, interstitial fluid, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, PVS, perivascular spaces, WMH, white matter hyperintensities.Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or low attenuation on computed tomographic scanning (CT), are the most frequent brain imaging finding in patients with small vessel disease or dementia. It has been assumed that WMH are due to arteriosclerosis or blood-brain barrier breakdown, though recently it was demonstrated that WMH have distinct molecular signatures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) where markers of Wallerian degeneration are present, compared to normal ageing [1]...
February 27, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Robert M Taylor, Philip R Miller, Parwana Ebrahimi, Ronen Polsky, Justin T Baca
Interstitial fluid (ISF) has recently garnered interest as a biological fluid that could be used as an alternate to blood for biomedical applications, diagnosis, and therapy. ISF extraction techniques are promising because they are less invasive and less painful than venipuncture. ISF is an alternative, incompletely characterized source of physiological data. Here, we describe a novel method of ISF extraction in rats, using microneedle arrays, which provides volumes of ISF that are sufficient for downstream analysis techniques such as proteomics, genomics, and extracellular vesicle purification and analysis...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Yodpong Chantarasorn, Settapong Techalertsuwan, Pongsavit Siripanthong, Anurak Tamerug
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique for small-incision scleral fixation of intraocular lens (IOL) using double 10-0 polypropylene sutures, and to report the outcomes of IOL position compared with intrascleral IOL fixation at 12-month follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective comparative study. METHOD: This new technique, called double sutured scleral fixated-IOL (DSF-IOL), was created to help with long-term knots strengthening by applying double sutures to each IOL haptic using an augmented Clove-hitch knot instead of the conventional knots tied by single suture...
February 20, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Andreas Bjorefeldt, Sebastian Illes, Henrik Zetterberg, Eric Hanse
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occupies the brain's ventricles and subarachnoid space and, together with the interstitial fluid (ISF), forms a continuous fluidic network that bathes all cells of the central nervous system (CNS). As such, the CSF is well positioned to actively distribute neuromodulators to neural circuits in vivo via volume transmission. Recent in vitro experimental work in brain slices and neuronal cultures has shown that human CSF indeed contains neuromodulators that strongly influence neuronal activity...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Xuemin Wang, Rui Wang, Li Shen, Zhaofeng Tang, Congying Wen, Bin Dong, Heyuan Liu, Chunfeng Zhang, Xiyou Li
A covalently linked tetracene trimer with a "face-to-face" stacked structure was prepared and its molecular structure is characterized by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The minimized molecular structure reveals that three tetracene subunits within this trimer adopt a partially "face-to-face" stacked configuration. Its absorption spectrum differs significantly from that of the monomeric and dimeric counterparts in solution due to the strong ground state interactions between the neighboring tetracene subunits...
February 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+, Ca2+, and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Megan Niedzwiecki, Pradnya Samant, Douglas I Walker, ViLinh Tran, Dean P Jones, Mark R Prausnitz, Gary W Miller
Interstitial fluid (ISF) surrounds the cells and tissues of the body. Since ISF has molecular components similar to plasma, as well as compounds produced locally in tissues, it may be a valuable source of biomarkers for diagnostics and monitoring. However, there has not been a comprehensive study to determine the metabolite composition of ISF and compare it to plasma. In this study, the metabolome of suction blister fluid (SBF), which is largely comprised of ISF, collected from 10 human volunteers was analyzed using untargeted high-resolution metabolomics (HRM)...
February 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Christopher Piorkowski, Arash Arya, Craig D Markovitz, Hedi Razavi, Chunlan Jiang, Stuart Rosenberg, Ole-A Breithardt, Sascha Rolf, Silke John, Jedrzej Kosiuk, Yan Huo, Michael Döring, Sergio Richter, Kyungmoo Ryu, Thomas Gaspar, Frits W Prinzen, Gerhard Hindricks, Philipp Sommer
PURPOSE: Cardiac disease frequently has a degenerative effect on cardiac pump function and regional myocardial contraction. Therefore, an accurate assessment of regional wall motion is a measure of the extent and severity of the disease. We sought to further validate an intra-operative, sensor-based technology for measuring wall motion and strain by characterizing left ventricular (LV) mechanical and electrical activation patterns in patients with normal (NSF) and impaired systolic function (ISF)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick, Nisha Charkoudian, Katherine M Mitchell, Adam J Luippold, Karleigh E Bradbury, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of different commercial beverage compositions for meeting oral rehydration therapy (ORT) goals in the treatment of acute dehydration in healthy humans has not been systematically tested. The objective of the study was to compare fluid retention, plasma volume (PV), and interstitial fluid (ISF) volume restoration when using 1 popular glucose-based and 1 novel amino acid-based (AA) commercial ORT beverage following experimental hypertonic or isotonic dehydration...
January 28, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hitesh Agrawal, Athar M Qureshi, Henri Justino
BACKGROUND: Use of small diameter stents in young children and jailing of side branches pose significant challenges to future re-interventions. We sought to assess the capacity to induce longitudinal fractures in undersized stents to increase vessel diameter, and side cell fractures to enlarge stenotic jailed branches. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent attempted intentional stent fractures (ISF) from 01/06-02/17. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients, median age 4...
January 23, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Hyunjae Lee, Yongseok Joseph Hong, Seungmin Baik, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim
Blood glucose concentration is a key indicator of patients' health, particularly for symptoms associated with diabetes mellitus. Because of the large number of diabetic patients, many approaches for glucose measurement have been studied to enable continuous and accurate glucose level monitoring. Among them, electrochemical analysis is prominent because it is simple and quantitative. This technology has been incorporated into commercialized and research-level devices from simple test strips to wearable devices and implantable systems...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Constantin Hetzer, Dirk Guldi, Rik R Tykwinski
Singlet fission (SF) involves the spontaneous splitting of a photoexcited singlet state into a pair of triplets, and it holds great promise toward the realization of more efficient solar cells. Although the process of SF has been known since the 1960s, debate regarding the underlying mechanism continues to this day, especially for molecular materials. A number of different chromophores have been synthesized and studied in order to better understand the process of SF. These previous reports have established that pentacene and its derivatives are especially well suited for the study of SF, since the energetic requirement E(S1) ≥ 2E(T1) is fulfilled rendering the process exothermic and unidirectional...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tao Shang, Lu Tian, Dong-Lin Li, Zi-Heng Wu, Hong-Kun Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Endovascular repair of aortic arch pathologies remains challenging. Recently, needle based in situ fenestration (ISF) has shown great potential in endovascular total aortic arch repair (ETAAR). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of ETAAR via needle based ISF, and to present initial experience with this technique. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this prospective study. The supra-arch branches were manually punctured in a retrograde manner using liver biopsy needles (18 gauge/30 cm) in the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and brachiocephalic trunk (BCT), and endo-puncture system or aspiration biopsy needles (21-gauge) in the left subclavian artery (LSA)...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Liwei Guo, John C Vardakis, Toni Lassila, Micaela Mitolo, Nishant Ravikumar, Dean Chou, Matthias Lange, Ali Sarrami-Foroushani, Brett J Tully, Zeike A Taylor, Susheel Varma, Annalena Venneri, Alejandro F Frangi, Yiannis Ventikos
There is emerging evidence suggesting that Alzheimer's disease is a vascular disorder, caused by impaired cerebral perfusion, which may be promoted by cardiovascular risk factors that are strongly influenced by lifestyle. In order to develop an understanding of the exact nature of such a hypothesis, a biomechanical understanding of the influence of lifestyle factors is pursued. An extended poroelastic model of perfused parenchymal tissue coupled with separate workflows concerning subject-specific meshes, permeability tensor maps and cerebral blood flow variability is used...
February 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Nang-Htay Yin, Eric D van Hullebusch, Marc Benedetti, Piet N L Lens, Yann Sivry
During the chemical weathering of lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags, possible Zn isotopes fractionation was studied as a function of pH, atmosphere (open air vs nitrogen), and time. Bulk LBF and ISF displayed heavier signatures compared to Johnson Matthey Company (JMC) Zn standard solution (i.e. 0.13 ± 0.06‰ and 0.78 ± 0.13‰ for LBF and ISF, resp). The Zn signatures vary greatly by changes in solution pH; heavier signatures at low pH and lighter signature at high pH...
December 12, 2017: Chemosphere
Huijie Zhao, Bolun Cui, Guorui Jia, Xudong Li, Chao Zhang, Xinyang Zhang
Even though digital simulation technology has been widely used in the last two decades, hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation is still an indispensable method for spectral uncertainty research of ground targets. However, previous facilities mainly focus on the simulation of panchromatic imaging. Therefore, neither the spectral nor the spatial performance is enough for hyperspectral simulation. To improve the accuracy of illumination simulation, a new dome-like skylight simulator is designed and developed to fit the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of a real skylight for the wavelength from 350 nm to 2500 nm...
December 6, 2017: Sensors
Benjamin A Plog, Maiken Nedergaard
The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudolymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
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