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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220163/a-microneedle-biosensor-for-minimally-invasive-transdermal-detection-of-nerve-agents
#1
Rupesh K Mishra, A M Vinu Mohan, Fernando Soto, Robert Chrostowski, Joseph Wang
A microneedle electrochemical biosensor for the minimally invasive detection of organophosphate (OP) chemical agents is described. The new sensor relies on the coupling of the effective biocatalytic action of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) with a hollow-microneedle modified carbon-paste array electrode transducer, and involves rapid square-wave voltammetric (SWV) measurements of the p-nitrophenol product of the OPH enzymatic reaction in the presence of the OP substrate. The scanning-potential SWV transduction mode offers an additional dimension of selectivity compared to common fixed-potential OPH-amperometric biosensors...
February 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204813/homeostasis-and-the-concept-of-interstitial-fluids-hierarchy-relevance-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-sodium-concentrations-and-brain-temperature-control%C3%A2-review
#2
Luigi F Agnati, Manuela Marcoli, Giuseppina Leo, Guido Maura, Diego Guidolin
In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203477/imaging-and-quantitative-analysis-of-the-interstitial-space-in-the-caudate-nucleus-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-tracer-based-mri
#3
Deyong Lv, Jingbo Li, Hongfu Li, Yu Fu, Wei Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by pathological changes within several deep structures of the brain, including the substantia nigra and caudate nucleus. However, changes in interstitial fluid (ISF) flow and the microstructure of the interstitial space (ISS) in the caudate nucleus in PD have not been reported. In this study, we used tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitatively investigate the alterations in ISS and visualize ISF flow in the caudate nucleus in a rotenone-induced rat model of PD treated with and without madopar...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133958/physical-fitness-of-secondary-school-adolescents-in-relation-to-the-body-weight-and-the-body-composition-classification-according-to-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-part-ii
#4
Agnieszka Chwałczyńska, Grzegorz Jędrzejewski, Zdzisław Lewandowski, Wiesława Jonak, Krzysztof A Sobiech
BACKGROUND: Underweight and obesity are important factors affecting the level of physical fitness. The aim of this study was to assess physical fitness of lower secondary school adolescents in relation to BMI. METHODS: Two-hundred students, aged 14-16, were examined. Respondents were divided into 4 groups according to BMI classification. The body height and weight were determined. Physical fitness was assessed on the basis Zuchora's ISF tests. RESULTS: The body weight deficiency occurred in 3% of girls and 5% of boys, overweight was noted in 14% of both groups, and obesity in 6% and 12% accordingly...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101536/host-range-restriction-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-occurs-at-several-levels-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#5
Sandra Junglen, Marvin Korries, Wolfgang Grasse, Janett Wieseler, Anne Kopp, Kyra Hermanns, Moises León-Juárez, Christian Drosten, Beate Mareike Kümmerer
The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078104/discovery-of-flavivirus-derived-endogenous-viral-elements-in-anopheles-mosquito-genomes-supports-the-existence-of-anopheles-associated-insect-specific-flaviviruses
#6
Sebastian Lequime, Louis Lambrechts
The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063056/investigating-the-lymphatic-drainage-of-the-brain-essential-skills-and-tools
#7
Nazira J Albargothy, Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Maureen Gatherer, Alan Morris, Roy O Weller, Cheryl Hawkes, Roxana O Carare
In this chapter we describe in detail the surgical and imaging techniques employed for the study of the anatomical routes of drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) from the brain. The types of tracers, sites of injection, and volumes injected are crucial. For example, when testing the drainage of ISF from the parenchyma, volumes larger than 0.5 μL result in spillage of ISF into the ventricular CSF.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047467/su-f-t-143-implementation-of-a-correction-based-output-model-for-a-compact-passively-scattered-proton-therapy-system
#8
S Ferguson, S Ahmad, Y Chen, C Ferreira, M Islam, V Keeling, A Lau, H Jin
PURPOSE: To commission and investigate the accuracy of an output (cGy/MU) prediction model for a compact passively scattered proton therapy system. METHODS: A previously published output prediction model (Sahoo et al, Med Phys, 35, 5088-5097, 2008) was commissioned for our Mevion S250 proton therapy system. This model is a correction-based model that multiplies correction factors (d/MUwnc=ROFxSOBPF xRSFxSOBPOCFxOCRxFSFxISF). These factors accounted for changes in output due to options (12 large, 5 deep, and 7 small), modulation width M, range R, off-center, off-axis, field-size, and off-isocenter...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981376/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-prevalent-among-idiopathic-stone-formers-but-does-correction-pose-any-risk
#9
Nikhil Johri, Philippe Jaeger, Pietro M Ferraro, Linda Shavit, Devaki Nair, William G Robertson, Giovanni Gambaro, Robert J Unwin
While vitamin D (vitD) deficiency is thought to contribute to poor health in a variety of ways and should be corrected, there is still concern about giving vitD supplements to patients with a history of nephrolithiasis. The aim is to study the prevalence of vitD deficiency and the effect on stone risk of cholecalciferol (vitD3) supplementation in a cohort of idiopathic stone formers (ISF). We screened for vitD deficiency and urinary measures of stone risk, comparing vitD deficient (serum 25-OH vitD ≤30 nmol/L; ≤12 ng/mL) with vitD insufficient (31-75 nmol/L; 13-30 ng/mL) or vitD replete (>75 nmol/L; >30 ng/mL); we investigated the effect of giving vitD3 (20,000 IU orally, weekly for 4 months) to 37 of the vitD deficients...
December 16, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979917/bisphenol-a-exposure-and-gene-expression-in-human-luteinized-membrana-granulosa-cells-in-vitro
#10
Abdallah Mansur, Ariel Israel, Catherine M H Combelles, Michal Adir, Catherine Racowsky, Russ Hauser, Andrea A Baccarelli, Ronit Machtinger
STUDY QUESTION: Does bisphenol-A (BPA) affect gene expression in human membrana granulosa cells (MGC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In vitro, short exposure to supra-physiological concentrations of BPA alters human MGC gene expression. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Exposure to BPA may interfere with reproductive endocrine signaling. In vitro studies, mostly in animal models, have shown an inverse correlation between exposure to BPA and follicular growth, meiosis, and steroid hormone production in granulosa cells...
February 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975257/in-vivo-microdialysis-of-brain-interstitial-fluid-for-the-determination-of-extracellular-tau-levels
#11
Kaoru Yamada
Tau is a microtubule binding protein highly abundant in cytoplasm of neurons. However now there is compelling evidence that it is also physiologically released in the extracellular space. Tau is detectable in culture media of various cells, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain interstitial fluid (ISF). Being able to measure extracellular tau levels in vivo would deep our understanding on the underlying mechanisms of physiological/pathological tau release from neurons. To meet this need, this chapter describes an in vivo microdialysis protocol and materials for the measurement of extracellular tau in ISF from freely moving mice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931262/glymphatic-distribution-of-csf-derived-apoe-into-brain-is-isoform-specific-and-suppressed-during-sleep-deprivation
#12
Thiyagaragan M Achariyar, Baoman Li, Weiguo Peng, Philip B Verghese, Yang Shi, Evan McConnell, Abdellatif Benraiss, Tristan Kasper, Wei Song, Takahiro Takana, David M Holtzman, Maiken Nedergaard, Rashid Deane
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major carrier of cholesterol and essential for synaptic plasticity. In brain, it's expressed by many cells but highly expressed by the choroid plexus and the predominant apolipoprotein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The role of apoE in the CSF is unclear. Recently, the glymphatic system was described as a clearance system whereby CSF and ISF (interstitial fluid) is exchanged via the peri-arterial space and convective flow of ISF clearance is mediated by aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water channel...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921401/effects-of-soybean-isoflavone-on-intestinal-antioxidant-capacity-and-cytokines-in-young-piglets-fed-oxidized-fish-oil
#13
Lin Huang, Xian-Yong Ma, Zong-Yong Jiang, You-Jun Hu, Chun-Tian Zheng, Xue-Fen Yang, Li Wang, Kai-Guo Gao
To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902358/wolbachia-suppresses-cell-fusing-agent-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#14
Guagmei Zhang, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains a large number of positive-sense ssRNA viruses. While some are transmitted by mosquitoes or other arthropods and are pathogenic to humans and animals (e.g. dengue and Zika viruses), some are insect-specific and do not replicate in vertebrate cells. These are known as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was detected in an Aedes aegypti cell line, Aag2. Here, we investigated the effect of Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of many insect species, that is known to block replication of several pathogenic flaviviruses, on CFAV...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900197/research-priorities-of-international-sporting-federations-and-the-ioc-research-centres
#15
Caroline F Finch, Scott Talpey, Ashley Bradshaw, Torbjorn Soligard, Lars Engebretsen
BACKGROUND/AIM: To be fully effective, the prevention of injury in sport and promotion of athlete's health needs to be both targeted and underpinned by scientific evidence. This study aimed to identify the research priorities of International Sporting Federation (ISFs) compared to the current research focus of the International Olympic Committee Research Centres (IOC-RCs). METHODS: Online survey of ISF Medical Chairpersons (n=22, 69% response) and IOC-RC Directors (n=7, 78% response)...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884745/increase-in-spinal-deformity-surgery-in-patients-age-60-and-older-is-not-associated-with-increased-complications
#16
David C Sing, Sigurd H Berven, Shane Burch, Lionel N Metz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity improves patient quality of life; however, trends in surgical utilization in the elderly, who may be at higher risk for complications, remain unclear. PURPOSE: To identify trends in the utilization of adult deformity and determine complication rates among older patients. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective database analysis. PATIENT SAMPLE: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried from 2004 to 2011 to identify adult patients who underwent spinal fusion of eight or more levels using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) coding...
November 21, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857861/exploring-the-virchow-robin-spaces-function-a-unified-theory-of-brain-diseases
#17
Iype Cherian, Margarita Beltran, Ekkehard M Kasper, Binod Bhattarai, Sunil Munokami, Giovanni Grasso
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transport across the central nervous system (CNS) is no longer believed to be on the conventional lines. The Virchow-Robin space (VRS) that facilitates CSF transport from the basal cisterns into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) has gained interest in a whole new array of studies. Moreover, new line of evidence suggests that VRS may be involved in different pathological mechanisms of brain diseases. METHODS: Here, we review emerging studies proving the feasible role of VRS in sleep, Alzheimer's disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852778/the-effects-of-peripheral-and-central-high-insulin-on-brain-insulin-signaling-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-young-and-old-app-ps1-mice
#18
Molly Stanley, Shannon L Macauley, Emily E Caesar, Lauren J Koscal, Will Moritz, Grace O Robinson, Joseph Roh, Jennifer Keyser, Hong Jiang, David M Holtzman
: Hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro experiments describe potential connections between insulin, insulin signaling, and amyloid-β (Aβ), but in vivo experiments are needed to validate these relationships under physiological conditions. First, we performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with concurrent hippocampal microdialysis in young, awake, behaving APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Both a postprandial and supraphysiological insulin clamp significantly increased interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma Aβ compared with controls...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843719/cranial-bone-histology-of-metoposaurus-krasiejowensis-amphibia-temnospondyli-from-the-late-triassic-of-poland
#19
Kamil Gruntmejer, Dorota Konietzko-Meier, Adam Bodzioch
In this study, 21 skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Late Triassic of Poland were investigated histologically. Dermal bones show a diploë structure, with an ornamented external surface. The ridges consist of mostly well vascularized parallel-fibered bone; the valleys are built of an avascular layer of lamellar bone. The thick middle region consists of cancellous bone, with varying porosity. The thin and less vascularized internal cortex consists of parallel-fibered bone. The numerous Sharpey's fibers and ISF are present in all bones...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843111/a-comprehensive-review-of-in-situ-fenestration-of-aortic-endografts
#20
REVIEW
M Glorion, R Coscas, R G McWilliams, I Javerliat, O Goëau-Brissonniere, M Coggia
OBJECTIVE: Despite technical advances of fenestrated and branched endografts, endovascular exclusion of aneurysms involving renal, visceral, and/or supra-aortic branches remains a challenge. In situ fenestration (ISF) of standard endografts represents another endovascular means to maintain perfusion to such branches. This study aimed to review current indications, technical descriptions, and results of ISF. METHOD: A review of the English language literature was performed in Medline databases, Cochrane Database, Web of Science, and Scopus using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines...
December 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
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