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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931321/interstitial-glucose-and-lactate-levels-are-inversely-correlated-with-the-body-mass-index-need-for-in-vivo-calibration-of-glucose-sensor-results-with-blood-values-in-obese-patients
#1
Barbara Enderle, Isabella Moser, Cecil Kannan, Karl Otfried Schwab, Gerald Urban
BACKGROUND: Continuously measured glucose and lactate levels in interstitial fluid (ISF) may markedly differ from their respective blood levels. METHODS: Combining microdialysis with a bioanalytical microsystem, the interstitial glucose and lactate concentrations of eight male volunteers with different body mass index (BMI) were monitored during a 2-fold glucose tolerance test over the period of three hours. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between abdominally measured sensor results and reference measurements ( R(2) = ...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915047/two-photon-absorption-in-pentacene-dimers-the-importance-of-the-tether-using-upconversion-as-an-indirect-route-to-singlet-fission
#2
Eleonora Garoni, Johannes Zirzlmeier, Bettina S Basel, Constantin Hetzer, Kenji Kamada, Dirk M Guldi, Rik R Tykwinski
In this proof of concept study, we show that intramolecular singlet fission (iSF) can be initiated from a singlet excited state accessed by two-photon absorption, rather than through a tradition route of direct one-photon excitation (OPE). Thus, iSF in pentacene dimers 2 and 3 is enabled through NIR irradiation at 775 nm, a wavelength where neither dimer exhibits linear absorption of light. The meta-phenylene and adamantyl tethers 2 and 3, respectively, are designed to feature superimposable geometry, which establishes that the electronic coupling between the two pentacenes is the significant structural feature that dictates iSF efficiency...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910503/triplet-harvesting-from-intramolecular-singlet-fission-in-polytetracene
#3
Andrew B Pun, Samuel N Sanders, Elango Kumarasamy, Matthew Y Sfeir, Daniel N Congreve, Luis M Campos
Singlet fission (SF), a promising mechanism of multiple exciton generation, has only recently been engineered as a fast, efficient, intramolecular process (iSF). The challenge now lies in designing and optimizing iSF materials that can be practically applied in high-performance optoelectronic devices. However, most of the reported iSF systems, such as those based on donor-acceptor polymers or pentacene, have low triplet energies, which limits their applications. Tetracene-based materials can overcome significant challenges, as the tetracene triplet state is practically useful, ≈1...
September 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903061/lymphatic-drainage-system-of-the-brain-a-novel-target-for-intervention-of-neurological-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Bao-Liang Sun, Li-Hua Wang, Tuo Yang, Lei-Lei Mao, Jing-Yi Sun, Ming-Feng Yang, Hui Yuan, Robert A Colvin, Xiao-Yi Yang
The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes...
September 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862640/understanding-the-functions-and-relationships-of-the-glymphatic-system-and-meningeal-lymphatics
#5
Antoine Louveau, Benjamin A Plog, Salli Antila, Kari Alitalo, Maiken Nedergaard, Jonathan Kipnis
Recent discoveries of the glymphatic system and of meningeal lymphatic vessels have generated a lot of excitement, along with some degree of skepticism. Here, we summarize the state of the field and point out the gaps of knowledge that should be filled through further research. We discuss the glymphatic system as a system that allows CNS perfusion by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). We also describe the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels and their role in drainage of the brain ISF, CSF, CNS-derived molecules, and immune cells from the CNS and meninges to the peripheral (CNS-draining) lymph nodes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859995/glymphatic-system-disruption-as-a-mediator-of-brain-trauma-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Molly J Sullan, Breton M Asken, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly important issue among veterans, athletes and the general public. Difficulties with sleep onset and maintenance are among the most commonly reported symptoms following injury, and sleep debt is associated with increased accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the interstitial space. Recent research into the glymphatic system, a lymphatic-like metabolic clearance mechanism in the central nervous system (CNS) which relies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), interstitial fluid (ISF), and astrocytic processes, shows that clearance is potentiated during sleep...
August 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799752/tuning-singlet-fission-in-%C3%AF-bridge-%C3%AF-chromophores
#7
Elango Kumarasamy, Samuel N Sanders, Murad J Y Tayebjee, Amir Asadpoordarvish, Timothy J H Hele, Eric G Fuemmeler, Andrew B Pun, Lauren M Yablon, Jonathan Z Low, Daniel W Paley, Jacob C Dean, Bonnie Choi, Gregory D Scholes, Michael L Steigerwald, Nandini Ananth, Dane R McCamey, Matthew Y Sfeir, Luis M Campos
We have designed a series of pentacene dimers separated by homoconjugated or nonconjugated bridges that exhibit fast and efficient intramolecular singlet exciton fission (iSF). These materials are distinctive among reported iSF compounds because they exist in the unexplored regime of close spatial proximity but weak electronic coupling between the singlet exciton and triplet pair states. Using transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate photophysics in these molecules, we find that homoconjugated dimers display desirable excited-state dynamics, with significantly reduced recombination rates as compared to conjugated dimers with similar singlet fission rates...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761113/cell-fusing-agent-virus-and-dengue-virus-mutually-interact-in-aedes-aegypti-cell-lines
#8
Guangmei Zhang, Sultan Asad, Alexander A Khromykh, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains more than 70 single-stranded, positive-sense arthropod-borne RNA viruses. Some flaviviruses are particularly medically important to humans and other vertebrates including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. These viruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropod species. Mosquitoes are also infected by insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that do not appear to be infective to vertebrates. Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was discovered in an Aedes aegypti cell culture...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724741/body-height-and-immune-efficacy-testing-body-stature-as-a-signal-of-biological-quality
#9
Bogusław Pawłowski, Judyta Nowak, Barbara Borkowska, Daria Augustyniak, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
According to the good genes hypothesis and energy allocation theory, human adult body height may reflect biological quality. An important aspect of this quality is immune system functioning (ISF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ISF and body height in healthy people. The ISF was determined by several important innate (total complement and lysozyme activity, neutrophil function) and adaptive immune parameters (lymphocytes, IgA and IgG, and response to the flu vaccine). Overall, 96 males and 97 females were subjected to flu vaccination, and of these, 35 males and 34 females were subjected to tetanus...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714117/a-swellable-microneedle-patch-to-rapidly-extract-skin-interstitial-fluid-for-timely-metabolic-analysis
#10
Hao Chang, Mengjia Zheng, Xiaojun Yu, Aung Than, Razina Z Seeni, Rongjie Kang, Jingqi Tian, Duong Phan Khanh, Linbo Liu, Peng Chen, Chenjie Xu
Skin interstitial fluid (ISF) is an emerging source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Microneedle (MN) patch has been identified as an ideal platform to extract ISF from the skin due to its pain-free and easy-to-administrated properties. However, long sampling time is still a serious problem which impedes timely metabolic analysis. In this study, a swellable MN patch that can rapidly extract ISF is developed. The MN patch is made of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and further crosslinked through UV irradiation...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713857/a-new-clade-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-from-australian-anopheles-mosquitoes-displays-species-specific-host-restriction
#11
Agathe M G Colmant, Jody Hobson-Peters, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Weng Kong Chow, Cheryl A Johansen, Jelke Fros, Peter Simmonds, Daniel Watterson, Chris Cazier, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari, Benjamin L Schulz, Nigel Beebe, Laura J Vet, Thisun B H Piyasena, Hong-Duyen Nguyen, Ross T Barnard, Roy A Hall
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses from Anopheles mosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologous Anopheles species, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Determination of the complete sequences of the RNA genomes of three of these viruses, Karumba virus (KRBV), Haslams Creek virus, and Mac Peak virus (McPV), that are found in high prevalence in some Anopheles mosquito populations and detection of virus-specific proteins, replicative double-stranded RNA, and small interfering RNA responses in the host mosquito species provided strong evidence of a functional replicating virus in the mosquito midgut...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699859/understanding-the-role-of-micrornas-in-the-interaction-of-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-with-an-insect-specific-flavivirus
#12
Morris Lee, Kayvan Etebari, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Andrew F van den Hurk, Jody Hobson-Peters, Sreenu Vatipally, Esther Schnettler, Roy Hall, Sassan Asgari
The Flavivirus genus contains some of the most prevalent vector-borne viruses, such as the dengue, Zika and yellow fever viruses that cause devastating diseases in humans. However, the insect-specific clade of flaviviruses is restricted to mosquito hosts, albeit they have retained the general features of the genus, such as genome structure and replication. The interactions between insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) and their mosquito hosts are largely unknown. Pathogenic flaviviruses are known to modulate host-derived microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs that are important in controlling gene expression...
July 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673087/effect-of-off-diagonal-exciton-phonon-coupling-on-intramolecular-singlet-fission
#13
Zhongkai Huang, Yuta Fujihashi, Yang Zhao
Intramolecular singlet fission (iSF) materials provide remarkable advantages in terms of tunable electronic structures, and quantum chemistry studies have indicated strong electronic coupling modulation by high frequency phonon modes. In this work, we formulate a microscopic model of iSF with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal coupling to high-frequency modes. A nonperturbative treatment, the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational approach is adopted using the multiple Davydov trial states. It is shown that both diagonal and off-diagonal coupling can aid efficient singlet fission if excitonic coupling is weak, and fission is only facilitated by diagonal coupling if excitonic coupling is strong...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626959/intramolecular-singlet-fission-in-an-antiaromatic-polycyclic-hydrocarbon
#14
Yishi Wu, Yuancheng Wang, Jianwei Chen, Guanxin Zhang, Jiannian Yao, Deqing Zhang, Hongbing Fu
Singlet fission (SF), in which one singlet exciton (S1 ) splits into two triplets (T1 ) on adjacent molecules through a correlated triplet-pair (1) (TT) state, requires precise but difficult tuning of exciton energetics and intermolecular electronic couplings in the solid state. Antiaromatic 4nπ dibenzopentalenes (DPs) are demonstrated as a new class of single-chromophore-based intramolecular SF materials that exhibit an optically allowed S2 state with E(S2 )>2×E(T1 ) and an optically forbidden S1 state...
August 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625621/patterns-of-initial-and-intracranial-failure-in-metastatic-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-erlotinib
#15
Suchit H Patel, Andreas Rimner, Amanda Foster, Zhigang Zhang, Kaitlin M Woo, Helena A Yu, Gregory J Riely, Abraham J Wu
OBJECTIVES: Patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant (mEGFRmt) NSCLC have favorable survival when treated with erlotinib. We hypothesized that treatment failure in most patients is limited to initial sites of disease, in which case incorporating local therapy such as radiation might further delay progression. We therefore analyzed patterns and predictors of failure in a large cohort of such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 189 patients treated with erlotinib for mEGFRmt NSCLC...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592864/infectious-dnas-derived-from-insect-specific-flavivirus-genomes-enable-identification-of-pre-and-post-entry-host-restrictions-in-vertebrate-cells
#16
Thisun B H Piyasena, Yin X Setoh, Jody Hobson-Peters, Natalee D Newton, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Breeanna J McLean, Laura J Vet, Alexander A Khromykh, Roy A Hall
Flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus and Zika virus are mosquito-borne pathogens that cause significant human diseases. A novel group of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs), which only replicate in mosquitoes, have also been identified. However, little is known about the mechanisms of ISF host restriction. We report the generation of infectious cDNA from two Australian ISFs, Parramatta River virus (PaRV) and Palm Creek virus (PCV). Using circular polymerase extension cloning (CPEC) with a modified OpIE2 insect promoter, infectious cDNA was generated and transfected directly into mosquito cells to produce infectious virus indistinguishable from wild-type virus...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592211/calmodulin-like-skin-protein-is-downregulated-in-human-cerebrospinal-fluids-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-with-apolipoprotein-e4-a-pilot-study-using-postmortem-samples
#17
Yuichi Hashimoto, Takahiko Umahara, Haruo Hanyu, Toshihiko Iwamoto, Masaaki Matsuoka
OBJECTIVE: Calmodulin-like skin protein (CLSP) is a secreted peptide that inhibits neuronal cell death, linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), by binding to the heterotrimeric humanin receptor and activating an intracellular survival pathway. CLSP is only expressed in skin keratinocytes and related epithelial cells, circulates in the blood stream, and passes the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. In the current study, we addressed the issues as to whether CLSP functions in the central nervous system and whether the concentration of CLSP is reduced in the CSFs of AD patients...
June 7, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579942/voluntary-exercise-promotes-glymphatic-clearance-of-amyloid-beta-and-reduces-the-activation-of-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-aged-mice
#18
Xiao-Fei He, Dong-Xu Liu, Qun Zhang, Feng-Ying Liang, Guang-Yan Dai, Jin-Sheng Zeng, Zhong Pei, Guang-Qing Xu, Yue Lan
Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544495/posterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-with-interspinous-fastener-provides-comparable-clinical-outcome-and-fusion-rate-to-pedicle-screws
#19
Wei-Min Huang, Xing-Ming Yu, Xiao-Duo Xu, Ruo-Xian Song, Li-Li Yu, Xiu-Chun Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical feasibility and validity of interspinous fastener (ISF) for lumbar degenerative diseases. METHODS: From October 2013 to March 2014, a total of 46 patients suffering from lumbar degenerative diseases underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) randomly augmented by ISF or pedicle screws. The clinical outcome was primarily measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score. The minimal clinical important difference (MCID) was defined as an eight-point decrease in ODI...
May 24, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530093/iron-oxide-nanoparticle-powered-micro-optical-coherence-tomography-for-in-situ-imaging-the-penetration-and-swelling-of-polymeric-microneedles-in-the-skin
#20
Razina Z Seeni, Xiaojun Yu, Hao Chang, Peng Chen, Linbo Liu, Chenjie Xu
In recent years, polymeric microneedles (MNs) have attracted keen interests among researchers because of their applicability in transdermal drug delivery and interstitial skin fluid (ISF) extraction. When designing and characterizing such devices, it is critical to monitor their real-time in vitro and in vivo performances to optimize the desired effects, yet most of the existing methods are incapable of such functions. To address this unmet need, we develop a real-time noninvasive imaging methodology by integrating iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles into polymeric MNs to enhance image contrast for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) imaging...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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