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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341456/two-distinct-cxc-chemokine-receptors-cxcr3-and-cxcr4-from-the-big-belly-seahorse-hippocampus-abdominalis-molecular-perspectives-and-immune-defensive-role-upon-pathogenic-stress
#1
Thanthrige Thiunuwan Priyathilaka, Minyoung Oh, S D N K Bathige, Mahanama De Zoysa, Jehee Lee
CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and 4 (CXCR4) are members of the seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptor family, involved in pivotal physiological functions. In this study, seahorse CXCR3 and CXCR4 (designated as HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4) cDNA sequences were identified from the transcriptome library and subsequently molecularly characterized. HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 encoded 363 and 373 amino acid long polypeptides, respectively. The HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 deduced proteins have typical structural features of chemokine receptors, including seven transmembrane domains and a G protein coupled receptors family 1 profile with characteristic DRY motifs...
March 21, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341037/influenza-virus-infection-exacerbates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-disease-by-promoting-type-i-t-cells-infiltration-into-central-nervous-system
#2
Qingyun Chen, Yinping Liu, Aizhen Lu, Ke Ni, Zheng Xiang, Kun Wen, Wenwei Tu
Multiple sclerosis starts with increased migration of auto-reactive lymphocytes across the blood-brain barrier, resulting in persistent neurodegeneration. Clinical and epidemiological studies indicated upper respiratory viral infections are associated with clinical exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. However, so far there is no any direct evidence to support it. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice as the model for multiple sclerosis, we demonstrated that mice experienced with influenza virus infection were unable to recover from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with a long-term exacerbation...
February 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289412/follicular-t-cells-from-smb-common-variable-immunodeficiency-patients-are-skewed-toward-a-th1-phenotype
#3
Vanesa Cunill, Antonio Clemente, Nallibe Lanio, Carla Barceló, Valero Andreu, Jaume Pons, Joana M Ferrer
Germinal center follicular T helper (GCTfh) cells are essential players in the differentiation of B cells. Circulating follicular T helper (cTfh) cells share phenotypic and functional properties with GCTfh cells. Distinct subpopulations of cTfh with different helper capabilities toward B cells can be identified: cTfh1 (CXCR3(+)CCR6(-)), cTfh2 (CXCR3(-)CCR6(-)), and cTfh17 (CXCR3(-)CCR6(+)). Alterations in cTfh function and/or distribution have been associated with autoimmunity, infectious diseases, and more recently, with several monogenic immunodeficiencies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261571/targeting-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-at1r-inhibits-the-harmful-phenotype-of-plasmodium-specific-cd8-t-cells-during-blood-stage-malaria
#4
João L Silva-Filho, Celso Caruso-Neves, Ana A S Pinheiro
CD8(+) T-cell response is critical in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria during blood-stage. Our group and other have been shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptor AT1 (AT1R), a key effector axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), have immune regulatory effects on T cells. Previously, we showed that inhibition of AT1R signaling protects mice against the lethal disease induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection However, most of the Ang II/AT1R actions were characterized by using only pharmacological approaches, the effects of which may not always be due to a specific receptor blockade...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258191/dimethyl-fumarate-selectively-reduces-memory-t-cells-and-shifts-the-balance-between-th1-th17-and-th2-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#5
Qi Wu, Qin Wang, Guangmei Mao, Catherine A Dowling, Steven K Lundy, Yang Mao-Draayer
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF; trade name Tecfidera) is an oral formulation of the fumaric acid ester that is Food and Drug Administration approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To better understand the therapeutic effects of Tecfidera and its rare side effect of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by immunophenotyping cells from peripheral blood (particularly T lymphocytes) derived from untreated and 4-6 and 18-26 mo Tecfidera-treated stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using multiparametric flow cytometry...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249907/hdac-inhibitor-panobinostat-engages-host-innate-immune-defenses-to-promote-the-tumoricidal-effects-of-trastuzumab-in-her2-tumors
#6
Mikolaj Medon, Eva Vidacs, Stephin J Vervoort, Jason Li, Misty R Jenkins, Kelly M Ramsbottom, Joseph A Trapani, Mark J Smyth, Phillip K Darcy, Peter W Atadja, Michael A Henderson, Ricky W Johnstone, Nicole M Haynes
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may engage host immunity as one basis for their antitumor effects. Herein we demonstrate an application of this concept using the HDACi panobinostat to augment the antitumor efficacy of trastuzumab (anti-HER2) therapy, through both tumor cell autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. In HER2+ tumors that are inherently sensitive to the cytostatic effects of trastuzumab, co-treatment with panobinostat abrogated AKT signaling and triggered tumor regression in mice that lacked innate and/or adaptive immune effector cells...
March 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240764/allergic-rhinitis-and-cxcr3-chemokines
#7
V Mazzi, P Fallahi
The underlying mechanism of allergic rhinitis involves IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells. Cytokines are very important in this process. Many data suggest a systemic shift to more intensely type 1-dominated immune responses in non-allergic individuals and, conversely, to more type 2-dominated responses in allergic individuals upon natural re-exposure to grass pollen. However other studies have found that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10/ interferon (IFN)-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and CXCL9/monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) concentrations are elevated in nasal lavages from allergic patients suggesting that these chemokines may play a role in chronic allergic inflammation...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240761/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-cxcr3-chemokines-a-narrative-review
#8
E Giusy, F Poupak
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from several factors like viral hepatitis infection [hepatitis B, or C (25%)] or occupational exposure. T-helper (Th)1 inflammatory cells, characterized by interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion, predominate in the liver during chronic HCV infection, and chemokines attracting these cells are particularly important in disease progression. Among C-X-C chemokines, the non-ELR group [as IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) and IFN-inducible T-cell-alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)], attracts Th1-cells interacting with chemokine C-X-C receptor (CXCR3)...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237728/recognition-of-viral-and-self-antigens-by-th1-and-th1-th17-central-memory-cells-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-reveals-distinct-roles-in-immune-surveillance-and-relapses
#9
Moira Paroni, Virginia Maltese, Marco De Simone, Valeria Ranzani, Paola Larghi, Chiara Fenoglio, Anna M Pietroboni, Milena A De Riz, Maria C Crosti, Stefano Maglie, Monica Moro, Flavio Caprioli, Riccardo Rossi, Grazisa Rossetti, Daniela Galimberti, Massimiliano Pagani, Elio Scarpini, Sergio Abrignani, Jens Geginat
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by autoreactive T cells and associated with viral infections. However, the phenotype of pathogenic T cells in peripheral blood remains to be defined, and how viruses promote MS is debated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and characterize potentially pathogenic autoreactive T cells, as well as protective antiviral T cells, in patients with MS...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222329/inflammatory-chemokines-and-their-receptors-in-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-splenic-cellular-sources-and-their-impact-on-trafficking-of-inflammatory-cells
#10
Neetu Singh, Shyam Sundar
Chemokines play an important role in determining cellular composition at inflammatory sites, and as such, influence disease outcome. In this study, we investigated the expression profile and splenic cellular source of various inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The expression of chemokines or their receptors was measured at the gene and protein level by employing real time qPCR and a cytometric bead array assay, respectively. In addition, the cellular source of chemokines and their receptors in the spleen was identified employing gene expression analyses in sequentially selected cell subsets...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215986/the-%C3%AE-4galt1-affects-the-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-invasion-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-by-modifying-n-linked-glycosylation-of-cxcr3
#11
Chi Sun, Xinhui Zhu, Tao Tao, Dongmei Zhang, Yi Wang, Hua Xu, Yunli Ren, Youhua Wang
OBJECTIVE: The level of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β4GalT1) is up-regulated in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. It is reported that CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) can enhance the invasiveness of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aims to investigate the specific mechanism of β4GalT1 and relationship between β4GalT1 and CXCR3 in RA. METHODS: The model of CIA mice was established to explore the role of β4GalT1...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209986/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-regulates-cell-autonomous-regulation-of-cxcl10-in-breast-cancer-4t1-cells
#12
Won Jong Jin, Bongjun Kim, Darong Kim, Hea-Young Park Choo, Hong-Hee Kim, Hyunil Ha, Zang Hee Lee
The chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 play a role in breast cancer metastasis to bone and osteoclast activation. However, the mechanism of CXCL10/CXCR3-induced intracellular signaling has not been fully investigated. To evaluate CXCL10-induced cellular events in the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1, we developed a new synthetic CXCR3 antagonist JN-2. In this study, we observed that secretion of CXCL10 in the supernatant of 4T1 cells was gradually increased during cell growth. JN-2 inhibited basal and CXCL10-induced CXCL10 expression and cell motility in 4T1 cells...
February 17, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206670/altered-expression-of-cxcr3-and-ccr6-and-their-ligands-in-htlv-1-carriers-and-ham-tsp-patients
#13
Houshang Rafatpanah, Mehdi Felegari, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Rosita Vakili, Taraneh Rajaei, Ian Hampson, Golmahossein Hassanshahi, Narges Valizadeh, Sina Gerayli, Farajifard Hamid, Shadi Zamanian, Farzad MollaHosseini, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Recruitment of leukocytes by chemokines and chemokine receptors to CNS plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory response in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In the present study, chemokine and chemokine receptors involved in trafficking of lymphocytes to the CNS were measured in HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls. The PVL, CCR6, and CXCR3 mRNA expression, and CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels were measured in all subjects...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190771/obesity-induced-metabolic-stress-leads-to-biased-effector-memory-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-via-pi3k-p110%C3%AE-akt-mediated-signals
#14
Claudio Mauro, Joanne Smith, Danilo Cucchi, David Coe, Hongmei Fu, Fabrizia Bonacina, Andrea Baragetti, Gaia Cermenati, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Alberico L Catapano, Enrico Ammirati, Maria P Longhi, Klaus Okkenhaug, Giuseppe D Norata, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity leads to cardiovascular complications, caused partly by infiltration of adipose and vascular tissue by effector T cells. The signals leading to T cell differentiation and tissue infiltration during obesity are poorly understood. We tested whether saturated fatty acid-induced metabolic stress affects differentiation and trafficking patterns of CD4(+) T cells. Memory CD4(+) T cells primed in high-fat diet-fed donors preferentially migrated to non-lymphoid, inflammatory sites, independent of the metabolic status of the hosts...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176332/low-dose-interleukin-2-promotes-stat5-phosphorylation-treg-survival-and-ctla-4-dependent-function-in-autoimmune-liver-diseases
#15
Hannah C Jeffery, Louisa E Jeffery, Philipp Lutz, Margaret Corrigan, Gwilym J Webb, Gideon M Hirschfield, David H Adams, Ye Htun Oo
CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(low) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) are essential for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Impaired Treg function and an imbalance between effector and regulatory T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We recently reported that the hepatic microenvironment is deficient in IL-2, a cytokine essential for Treg survival and function. Consequently, few liver-infiltrating Treg demonstrate STAT5 phosphorylation. To establish the potential of IL-2 to enhance Treg therapy, we investigated the effects of very low dose Proleukin (VLDP) on the phosphorylation of STAT5 and the subsequent survival and function of Treg and T effector cells from the blood and livers of patients with autoimmune liver diseases...
February 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157391/microbes-associate-with-host-innate-immune-response-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Yong Huang, Shwu-Fan Ma, Milena S Espindola, Rekha Vij, Justin M Oldham, Gary B Huffnagle, John R Erb-Downward, Kevin R Flaherty, Beth B Moore, Eric S White, Tong Zhou, Jianrong Li, Yves A Lussier, MeiLan K Han, Naftali Kaminski, Joe G N Garcia, Cory M Hogaboam, Fernando J Martinez, Imre Noth
RATIONALE: Differences in the lung microbial community influence idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) progression. Whether the lung microbiome influences IPF host defense remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To explore the host immune response and microbial interaction in IPF, as they relate to progression-free survival (PFS), fibroblast function, and leukocyte phenotypes. METHODS: Paired microarray gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 16s rRNA sequencing data from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) obtained as part of the COMET-IPF study were used to conduct association pathway analyses...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148784/different-expression-of-interferon-stimulated-genes-in-response-to-hiv-1-infection-in-dendritic-cells-according-to-their-maturation-state
#17
Esther Calonge, Mercedes Bermejo, Francisco Diez-Fuertes, Isabelle Mangeot, Nuria Gonzalez, Mayte Coiras, Laura Jimenez Tormo, Javier García-Perez, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Roger Le Grand, José Alcamí
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells whose functions are dependent on their degree of differentiation. In their immature state, DCs, capture pathogens and migrate to the lymph nodes. During this process DCs become resident mature cells specialized in antigen presentation. DCs are characterized by a highly limiting environment to HIV-1 replication due to the expression of restriction factors as SAMHD1 and APOBEC3G. However, uninfected DCs capture and transfer viral particles to CD4 lymphocytes through a trans-enhancement mechanism in which chemokines are involved...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138558/circulating-cxcr5-cxcr3-pd-1-lo-tfh-like-cells-in-hiv-1-controllers-with-neutralizing-antibody-breadth
#18
Enrique Martin-Gayo, Jacqueline Cronin, Taylor Hickman, Zhengyu Ouyang, Madelene Lindqvist, Kellie E Kolb, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Rafael Cubas, Filippos Porichis, Alex K Shalek, Jan van Lunzen, Elias K Haddad, Bruce D Walker, Daniel E Kaufmann, Mathias Lichterfeld, Xu G Yu
HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) typically develop in individuals with continuous high-level viral replication and increased immune activation, conditions that cannot be reproduced during prophylactic immunization. Understanding mechanisms supporting bnAb development in the absence of high-level viremia may be important for designing bnAb-inducing immunogens. Here, we show that the breadth of neutralizing antibody responses in HIV-1 controllers was associated with a relative enrichment of circulating CXCR5(+)CXCR3(+)PD-1(lo) CD4(+) T cells...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137869/akt-signaling-is-critical-for-memory-cd8-t-cell-development-and-tumor-immune-surveillance
#19
Anne Rogel, Jane E Willoughby, Sarah L Buchan, Henry J Leonard, Stephen M Thirdborough, Aymen Al-Shamkhani
Memory CD8(+) T cells confer long-term immunity against tumors, and anticancer vaccines therefore should maximize their generation. Multiple memory CD8(+) T-cell subsets with distinct functional and homing characteristics exist, but the signaling pathways that regulate their development are ill defined. Here we examined the role of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in the generation of protective immunity by CD8(+) T cells. Akt is known to be activated by the T-cell antigen receptor and the cytokine IL-2, but its role in T-cell immunity in vivo has not been explored...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137280/high-dimensional-assessment-of-b-cell-responses-to-quadrivalent-meningococcal-conjugate-and-plain-polysaccharide-vaccine
#20
Daniel O'Connor, Elizabeth A Clutterbuck, Amber J Thompson, Matthew D Snape, Maheshi N Ramasamy, Dominic F Kelly, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is a globally important cause of meningitis and septicaemia. Twelve capsular groups of meningococci are known, and quadrivalent vaccines against four of these (A, C, W and Y) are available as plain-polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. Here we apply contemporary methods to describe B-cell responses to meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. METHODS: Twenty adults were randomly assigned to receive either a meningococcal plain-polysaccharide or conjugate vaccine; one month later all received the conjugate vaccine...
January 30, 2017: Genome Medicine
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