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Cornelius Y Taabazuing, Marian C Okondo, Daniel A Bachovchin
Pyroptosis is a lytic form of programmed cell death mediated by the inflammatory caspase-1, -4, and -5. We recently discovered that small-molecule inhibitors of the serine peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 (DPP8/9) induce pro-caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis in monocytes and macrophages. Notably, DPP8/9 inhibitors, unlike microbial agents, absolutely require caspase-1 to induce cell death. Therefore, DPP8/9 inhibitors are useful probes to study caspase-1 in cells. Here, we show that, in the absence of the pyroptosis-mediating substrate gasdermin D (GSDMD), caspase-1 activates caspase-3 and -7 and induces apoptosis, demonstrating that GSDMD is the only caspase-1 substrate that induces pyroptosis...
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
Emilija Zapletal, Barbara Cupic, Jelka Gabrilovac
Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is a peptidase of the DPPIV gene family, and its role in immune responses has been reported. In this study, we compared the messenger RNA expression profile of DPP9 to that of the related DPP8 and DPPIV in murine haematopoietic and lymphatic tissues. A similar order of expression levels was observed for all 3 peptidases: peritoneal macrophages < bone marrow < spleen ≤ lymph nodes. Also, we examined the subcellular localisation of DPP9 and its possible role(s) in J774 cell line of macrophage origin...
March 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Zhiyuan Tang, Jun Li, Qin Shen, Jian Feng, Hua Liu, Wei Wang, Liqin Xu, Guanglin Shi, Xumei Ye, Min Ge, Xiaoyu Zhou, Songshi Ni
Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is encoded by DPP9, which belongs to the DPP4 gene family. Proteins encoded by these genes have unique peptidase and extra-enzymatic functions that have been linked to various diseases including cancers. Here, we describe the expression pattern and biological function of DPP9 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The repression of DPP9 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Moreover, we explored the role of DPP9 in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Marian C Okondo, Darren C Johnson, Ramya Sridharan, Eun Bin Go, Ashley J Chui, Mitchell S Wang, Sarah E Poplawski, Wengen Wu, Yuxin Liu, Jack H Lai, David G Sanford, Michael O Arciprete, Todd R Golub, William W Bachovchin, Daniel A Bachovchin
Val-boroPro (Talabostat, PT-100), a nonselective inhibitor of post-proline cleaving serine proteases, stimulates mammalian immune systems through an unknown mechanism of action. Despite this lack of mechanistic understanding, Val-boroPro has attracted substantial interest as a potential anticancer agent, reaching phase 3 trials in humans. Here we show that Val-boroPro stimulates the immune system by triggering a proinflammatory form of cell death in monocytes and macrophages known as pyroptosis. We demonstrate that the inhibition of two serine proteases, DPP8 and DPP9, activates the pro-protein form of caspase-1 independent of the inflammasome adaptor ASC...
January 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
Jelka Gabrilovac, Barbara Čupić, Emilija Zapletal, Ognjen Kraus, Jasminka Jakić-Razumović
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is a relatively new member of the DPPIV family of prolyl dipeptidases which is ubiquitously expressed. Its role in regulation of immune responses and proliferation of epithelial carcinoma cells was reported. There is no data on possible role of DPP9 expressed in skin epithelial cells (keratinocytes) and in dermal fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transcriptional and protein expression of DPP9 and DPPIV was examined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes isolated from normal human skin...
February 2017: Immunobiology
Daniela Justa-Schuch, Maria Silva-Garcia, Esther Pilla, Michael Engelke, Markus Kilisch, Christof Lenz, Ulrike Möller, Fumihiko Nakamura, Henning Urlaub, Ruth Geiss-Friedlander
The aminopeptidase DPP9 removes dipeptides from N-termini of substrates having a proline or alanine in second position. Although linked to several pathways including cell survival and metabolism, the molecular mechanisms underlying these outcomes are poorly understood. We identified a novel interaction of DPP9 with Filamin A, which recruits DPP9 to Syk, a central kinase in B-cell signalling. Syk signalling can be terminated by degradation, requiring the ubiquitin E3 ligase Cbl. We show that DPP9 cleaves Syk to produce a neo N-terminus with serine in position 1...
September 10, 2016: ELife
Claire H Wilson, Hui Emma Zhang, Mark D Gorrell, Catherine A Abbott
The enzyme members of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) gene family have the very unusual capacity to cleave the post-proline bond to release dipeptides from the N-terminus of peptide/protein substrates. DPP4 and related enzymes are current and potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of type II diabetes, inflammatory conditions and cancer. Despite this, the precise biological function of individual dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs), other than DPP4, and knowledge of their in vivo substrates remains largely unknown...
September 1, 2016: Biological Chemistry
Yiqian Chen, Margaret G Gall, Hui Zhang, Fiona M Keane, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Denise M T Yu, Mark D Gorrell
The success of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibition as a type 2 diabetes therapy has encouraged deeper examination of the post-proline DPP enzymes. DPP9 has been implicated in immunoregulation, disease pathogenesis and metabolism. The DPP9 enzyme-inactive (Dpp9 gene knock-in; Dpp9 gki) mouse displays neonatal lethality, suggesting that DPP9 enzyme activity is essential in neonatal development. Here we present gene expression patterns in these Dpp9 gki neonatal mice. Taqman PCR arrays and sequential qPCR assays on neonatal liver and gut revealed differential expression of genes involved in cell growth, innate immunity and metabolic pathways including long-chain-fatty-acid uptake and esterification, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding, trafficking and transport into mitochondria, lipoprotein metabolism, adipokine transport and gluconeogenesis in the Dpp9 gki mice compared to wild type...
March 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
L Wagner, C Klemann, M Stephan, S von Hörsten
Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 (CD26, DPP4) is a multi-functional protein involved in T cell activation by co-stimulation via its association with adenosine deaminase (ADA), caveolin-1, CARMA-1, CD45, mannose-6-phosphate/insulin growth factor-II receptor (M6P/IGFII-R) and C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXC-R4). The proline-specific dipeptidyl peptidase also modulates the bioactivity of several chemokines. However, a number of enzymes displaying either DPP4-like activities or representing structural homologues have been discovered in the past two decades and are referred to as DPP4 activity and/or structure homologue (DASH) proteins...
June 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Jinglong Liu, Yi Huan, Caina Li, Minzhi Liu, Zhufang Shen
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is recognised as an attractive anti-diabetic drug target, and several DPP4 inhibitors are already on the market. As members of the same gene family, dipeptidyl peptidase 8 (DPP8) and dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) share high sequence and structural homology as well as functional activity with DPP4. However, the inhibition of their activities was reported to cause severe toxicities. Thus, the development of DPP4 inhibitors that do not have DPP8 and DPP9 inhibitory activity is critical for safe anti-diabetic therapy...
April 2014: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Yannick Waumans, Gwendolyn Vliegen, Lynn Maes, Miche Rombouts, Ken Declerck, Pieter Van Der Veken, Wim Vanden Berghe, Guido R Y De Meyer, Dorien Schrijvers, Ingrid De Meester
Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western countries. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 has emerged as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Family members DPP8 and 9 are abundantly present in macrophage-rich regions of atherosclerotic plaques, and DPP9 inhibition attenuates activation of human M1 macrophages in vitro. Studying this family in a mouse model for atherosclerosis would greatly advance our knowledge regarding their potential as therapeutic targets. We found that DPP4 is downregulated during mouse monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation...
February 2016: Inflammation
Yannick Waumans, Lesley Baerts, Kaat Kehoe, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester
Research from over the past 20 years has implicated dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV and its family members in many processes and different pathologies of the immune system. Most research has been focused on either DPPIV or just a few of its family members. It is, however, essential to consider the entire DPP family when discussing any one of its members. There is a substantial overlap between family members in their substrate specificity, inhibitors, and functions. In this review, we provide a comprehensive discussion on the role of prolyl-specific peptidases DPPIV, FAP, DPP8, DPP9, dipeptidyl peptidase II, prolyl carboxypeptidase, and prolyl oligopeptidase in the immune system and its diseases...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
Ruijun Han, Xinying Wang, William Bachovchin, Zofia Zukowska, John W Osborn
Adipocytes are the primary cells in adipose tissue, and adipocyte dysfunction causes lipodystrophy, obesity and diabetes. The dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 family includes four enzymes, DPP4, DPP8, DPP9 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). DPP4 family inhibitors have been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes patients, but their role in adipocyte formation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the DPP8/9 selective inhibitor 1G244 blocks adipogenesis in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F422A, while DPP4 and FAP inhibitors have no effect...
2015: Scientific Reports
Hui Zhang, Sadiqa Maqsudi, Adam Rainczuk, Nadine Duffield, Josie Lawrence, Fiona M Keane, Daniela Justa-Schuch, Ruth Geiss-Friedlander, Mark D Gorrell, Andrew N Stephens
Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is a member of the S9B/DPPIV (DPP4) serine protease family, which cleaves N-terminal dipeptides at an Xaa-Pro consensus motif. Cytoplasmic DPP9 has roles in epidermal growth factor signalling and in antigen processing, whilst the role of the recently discovered nuclear form of DPP9 is unknown. Mice lacking DPP9 proteolytic activity die as neonates. We applied a modified 2D differential in-gel electrophoresis approach to identify novel DPP9 substrates, using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking endogenous DPP9 activity...
October 2015: FEBS Journal
Hui Zhang, Yiqian Chen, Carol Wadham, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Fiona M Keane, Mark D Gorrell
Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the DPP4 gene and protease family. Deciphering the biological functions of DPP9 and its roles in pathogenesis has implicated DPP9 in tumor biology, the immune response, apoptosis, intracellular epidermal growth factor-dependent signaling and cell adhesion and migration. We investigated the intracellular distribution of DPP9 chimeric fluorescent proteins and consequent functions of DPP9. We showed that while some DPP9 is associated with mitochondria, the strongest co-localization was with microtubules...
February 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yi Huan, Qian Jiang, Jing-long Liu, Zhu-fang Shen
INTRODUCTION: Dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs) 8 and 9 are homologous, cytoplasmic postproline-cutting enzymes, which have similar enzymatic activity and preferred substrates as DPP4. DPP4 is a well-known target for treating diabetes mellitus. With the increased concern of non-selectivity and toxicities caused by DPP4 inhibitors, it is essential to establish new ex vivo system to investigate DPP4 inhibitors' effect on DPP8 and DPP9. METHOD: Here we reported a newly established cell model system by cloning and transfecting human DPP8/9 genes into HEK 293 cells...
January 2015: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Feng Lin, Lu Jiang, Yuhe Liu, Yuanda Lv, Huixue Dai, Han Zhao
In the wake of recent progress of high throughput transcriptome profiling technologies, extensive housekeeping gene mining has been conducted in humans. However, very few studies have been reported in maize (Zea mays L.), an important crop plant, and none were conducted on a genome -wide level. In this study, we surveyed housekeeping genes throughout the maize transcriptome using RNA-seq and microarray techniques, and validated the housekeeping profile with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) under a series of conditions including different genotypes and nitrogen supplies...
November 2014: Plant Molecular Biology
Xun Ji, Chunmei Xia, Jiang Wang, Mingbo Su, Lei Zhang, Tiancheng Dong, Zeng Li, Xia Wan, Jingya Li, Jia Li, Linxiang Zhao, Zhaobing Gao, Hualiang Jiang, Hong Liu
Based on the previous work in our group and the principle of computer-aided drug design, a series of novel β-amino pyrrole-2-carbonitrile derivatives was designed and synthesized. Compounds 8l and 9l were efficacious and selective DPP4 inhibitors resulting in decreased blood glucose in vivo. Compound 8l had moderate DPP4 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.05 μM) and good oral bioavailability (F = 53.2%). Compound 9l showed excellent DPP4 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.01 μM), good selectivity (selective ratio: DPP8/DPP4 = 898...
October 30, 2014: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Omprakash Tanwar, Girdhar Singh Deora, Lalima Tanwar, Gautam Kumar, Sridhara Janardhan, Mumtaz Alam, Shaquiquzzaman, Mymoona Akhter
The present study demonstrates and validates the discovery of two novel hydrazine derivatives as selective dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors. Virtual screening (VS) of publicly available databases was performed using virtual screening workflow (VSW) of Schrödinger software against DPP-IV and the most promising hits were selected. Selectivity was further assessed by docking the hits against homology modeled structures of DPP8 and DPP9. Two novel hydrazine derivatives were selected for further studies based on their selectivity threshold...
April 2014: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Koen Jansen, Leen Heirbaut, Robert Verkerk, Jonathan D Cheng, Jurgen Joossens, Paul Cos, Louis Maes, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester, Koen Augustyns, Pieter Van der Veken
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a serine protease related to dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). It has been convincingly linked to multiple disease states involving remodeling of the extracellular matrix. FAP inhibition is investigated as a therapeutic option for several of these diseases, with most attention so far devoted to oncology applications. We previously discovered the N-4-quinolinoyl-Gly-(2S)-cyanoPro scaffold as a possible entry to highly potent and selective FAP inhibitors. In the present study, we explore in detail the structure-activity relationship around this core scaffold...
April 10, 2014: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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