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Gravitational biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134681/gravity-constraints-drive-biological-systems-toward-specific-organization-patterns-commitment-of-cell-specification-is-constrained-by-physical-cues
#1
REVIEW
Mariano Bizzarri, Maria Grazia Masiello, Alessandro Giuliani, Alessandra Cucina
Different cell lineages growing in microgravity undergo a spontaneous transition leading to the emergence of two distinct phenotypes. By returning these populations in a normal gravitational field, the two phenotypes collapse, recovering their original configuration. In this review, we hypothesize that, once the gravitational constraint is removed, the system freely explores its phenotypic space, while, when in a gravitational field, cells are "constrained" to adopt only one favored configuration. We suggest that the genome allows for a wide range of "possibilities" but it is unable per se to choose among them: the emergence of a specific phenotype is enabled by physical constraints that drive the system toward a preferred solution...
November 14, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081752/multi-system-deconditioning-in-3-day-dry-immersion-without-daily-raise
#2
Steven De Abreu, Liubov Amirova, Ronan Murphy, Robert Wallace, Laura Twomey, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Veronique Raverot, Françoise Larcher, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Nastassia Navasiolava
Dry immersion (DI) is a Russian-developed, ground-based model to study the physiological effects of microgravity. It accurately reproduces environmental conditions of weightlessness, such as enhanced physical inactivity, suppression of hydrostatic pressure and supportlessness. We aimed to study the integrative physiological responses to a 3-day strict DI protocol in 12 healthy men, and to assess the extent of multi-system deconditioning. We recorded general clinical data, biological data and evaluated body fluid changes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951204/an-improved-hybrid-of-particle-swarm-optimization-and-the-gravitational-search-algorithm-to-produce-a-kinetic-parameter-estimation-of-aspartate-biochemical-pathways
#3
Ahmad Muhaimin Ismail, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, Hairudin Abdul Majid, Khairul Hamimah Abas, Safaai Deris, Nazar Zaki, Siti Zaiton Mohd Hashim, Zuwairie Ibrahim, Muhammad Akmal Remli
Mathematical modelling is fundamental to understand the dynamic behavior and regulation of the biochemical metabolisms and pathways that are found in biological systems. Pathways are used to describe complex processes that involve many parameters. It is important to have an accurate and complete set of parameters that describe the characteristics of a given model. However, measuring these parameters is typically difficult and even impossible in some cases. Furthermore, the experimental data are often incomplete and also suffer from experimental noise...
September 23, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910743/is-scena-a-good-approach-for-side-stream-integrated-treatment-from-an-environmental-and-economic-point-of-view
#4
Stefano Longo, Nicola Frison, Daniele Renzi, Francesco Fatone, Almudena Hospido
The environmental and economic benefits and burdens of including the first Short Cut Enhanced Nutrient Abatement (SCENA) into a real municipal wastewater treatment plant were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC). The implications of accomplishing nitrogen (N) removal and phosphorus (P) recovery via nitrite in the side stream were assessed taking into account the actual effluent quality improvement, the changes in the electricity and chemical consumption, N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions and the effects of land application of biosolids, among others...
November 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861024/gravity-cues-embedded-in-the-kinematics-of-human-motion-are-detected-in-form-from-motion-areas-of-the-visual-system-and-in-motor-related-areas
#5
Fabien Cignetti, Pierre-Yves Chabeauti, Jasmine Menant, Jean-Luc J J Anton, Christina Schmitz, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
The present study investigated the cortical areas engaged in the perception of graviceptive information embedded in biological motion (BM). To this end, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of human movements performed under normogravity and microgravity (parabolic flight). Movements were defined by motion cues alone using point-light displays. We found that gravity modulated the activation of a restricted set of regions of the network subtending BM perception, including form-from-motion areas of the visual system (kinetic occipital region, lingual gyrus, cuneus) and motor-related areas (primary motor and somatosensory cortices)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710569/low-shear-modeled-microgravity-grown-penicillium-chrysogenum-mediated-biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-and-its-anticancer-effect-in-human-liver-cancer-and-fibroblast-cells
#6
Sunirmal Sheet, Yesupatham Sathishkumar, Allur Subramaniyam Sivakumar, Kwan Seob Shim, Yang Soo Lee
Gravitational force and shear forces induce various changes in gene expression and metabolite production of microorganisms. Previous reports have shown that there are differences in the expression of different sets of proteins and enzymes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity. The aim of this study is to utilize culture filtrates of Penicillium chrysogenum grown under microgravity and normal conditions to synthesize silver nanoparticles and to examine whether there is any difference between their physiochemical and biological function...
July 14, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656641/putative-gravisensors-among-microtubule-associated-proteins
#7
Galina V Shevchenko
Despite of long period of investigation (over 100 years), still a lot of questions remain unclear about molecular mechanisms of plant graviperception. This requires designing new experiments and new approaches to be applied in gravitational biology. Investigation of plant cell reactions under clinorotation (plant disorientation in respect to gravity vector) is of significant importance to such type of research. Clinorotation is known to cause changes of cell polarity and exert mechanical stress in plant cells...
June 28, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649635/gravireceptors-in-eukaryotes-a-comparison-of-case-studies-on-the-cellular-level
#8
Donat-P Häder, Markus Braun, Daniela Grimm, Ruth Hemmersbach
We have selected five evolutionary very different biological systems ranging from unicellular protists via algae and higher plants to human cells showing responses to the gravity vector of the Earth in order to compare their graviperception mechanisms. All these systems use a mass, which may either by a heavy statolith or the whole content of the cell heavier than the surrounding medium to operate on a gravireceptor either by exerting pressure or by pulling on a cytoskeletal element. In many cases the receptor seems to be a mechanosensitive ion channel activated by the gravitational force which allows a gated ion flux across the membrane when activated...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431748/a-benchtop-biorobotic-platform-for-in-vitro-observation-of-muscle-tendon-dynamics-with-parallel-mechanical-assistance-from-an-elastic-exoskeleton
#9
Benjamin D Robertson, Siddarth Vadakkeveedu, Gregory S Sawicki
We present a novel biorobotic framework comprised of a biological muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanically coupled to a feedback controlled robotic environment simulation that mimics in vivo inertial/gravitational loading and mechanical assistance from a parallel elastic exoskeleton. Using this system, we applied select combinations of biological muscle activation (modulated with rate-coded direct neural stimulation) and parallel elastic assistance (applied via closed-loop mechanical environment simulation) hypothesized to mimic human behavior based on previously published modeling studies...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417322/are-midge-swarms-bound-together-by-an-effective-velocity-dependent-gravity
#10
Andrew M Reynolds, Michael Sinhuber, Nicholas T Ouellette
Midge swarms are a canonical example of collective animal behaviour where local interactions do not clearly play a major role and yet the animals display group-level cohesion. The midges appear somewhat paradoxically to be tightly bound to the swarm whilst at the same time weakly coupled inside it. The microscopic origins of this behaviour have remained elusive. Models based on Newtonian gravity do, however, agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. They are biologically plausible since gravitational interactions have similitude with long-range acoustic and visual interactions, and they correctly predict that individual attraction to the swarm centre increases linearly with distance from the swarm centre...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397688/engineering-of-a-synthetic-quadrastable-gene-network-to-approach-waddington-landscape-and-cell-fate-determination
#11
Fuqing Wu, Ri-Qi Su, Ying-Cheng Lai, Xiao Wang
The process of cell fate determination has been depicted intuitively as cells travelling and resting on a rugged landscape, which has been probed by various theoretical studies. However, few studies have experimentally demonstrated how underlying gene regulatory networks shape the landscape and hence orchestrate cellular decision-making in the presence of both signal and noise. Here we tested different topologies and verified a synthetic gene circuit with mutual inhibition and auto-activations to be quadrastable, which enables direct study of quadruple cell fate determination on an engineered landscape...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287706/nanoparticle-density-a-critical-biophysical-regulator-of-endothelial-permeability
#12
Chor Yong Tay, Magdiel Inggrid Setyawati, David Tai Leong
The integrity of the vasculature system is intrinsically sensitive to a short list of biophysical cues spanning from nano to micro scales. We have earlier found that certain nanomaterials could induce endothelial leakiness (nanoparticle induced endothelial leakiness, nanoEL). In this study, we report that the density of the nanomaterial, a basic intrinsic material property not implicated in many nanoparticle-mediated biological effects, predominantly dictates the nanoEL effect. We demonstrated that the impinging force exerted by a library of increasing effective densities but consistently sized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) could directly increase endothelial permeability...
March 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194160/highlights-in-the-knowledge-of-brown-spider-toxins
#13
REVIEW
Daniele Chaves-Moreira, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Martins Wille, Luiza Helena Gremski, Olga Meiri Chaim, Silvio Sanches Veiga
Brown spiders are venomous arthropods that use their venom for predation and defense. In humans, bites of these animals provoke injuries including dermonecrosis with gravitational spread of lesions, hematological abnormalities and impaired renal function. The signs and symptoms observed following a brown spider bite are called loxoscelism. Brown spider venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched in low molecular mass proteins (4-40 kDa). Characterization of the venom confirmed the presence of three highly expressed protein classes: phospholipases D, metalloproteases (astacins) and insecticidal peptides (knottins)...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125342/edible-nanoemulsions-as-carriers-of-active-ingredients-a-review
#14
Laura Salvia-Trujillo, Robert Soliva-Fortuny, M Alejandra Rojas-Graü, D Julian McClements, Olga Martín-Belloso
There has been growing interest in the use of edible nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic active substances, such as oil-soluble vitamins, antimicrobials, flavors, and nutraceuticals, because of their unique physicochemical properties. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions consist of oil droplets with diameters typically between approximately 30 and 200 nm that are dispersed within an aqueous medium. The small droplet size usually leads to an improvement in stability, gravitational separation, and aggregation...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039557/on-the-mechanical-analogue-of-dna
#15
Ludmila Yakushevich
The creation of mechanical analogues of biological systems is known as a useful instrument that helps to understand better the dynamical mechanisms of the functioning of living organisms. Mechanical analogues of biomolecules are usually constructed for imitation of their internal mobility, which is one of the most important properties of the molecules. Among the different types of internal motions, angular oscillations of nitrous bases are of special interest because they make a substantial contribution to the base pairs opening that in turn is an important element of the process of the DNA-protein recognition...
March 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810105/does-the-gravity-orientation-of-saccular-aneurysms-influence-hemodynamics-an-experimental-study-with-and-without-flow-diverter-stent
#16
Kamil J Chodzyński, Omer F Eker, Axel E Vanrossomme, Daniel Ribeiro de Sousa, Grégory Coussement, Luc Vanhamme, Frank Dubois, Alain Bonafé, Bastien Chopard, Guy Courbebaisse, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia
Most intracranial aneurysms morphologic studies focused on characterization of size, location, aspect ratio, relationship to the surrounding vasculature and hemodynamics. However, the spatial orientation with respect to the gravity direction has not been taken into account although it could trigger various hemodynamic conditions. The present work addresses this possibility. It was divided in two parts: 1) the orientations of 18, 3D time-of-flight MRI (3D TOF MRI), scans of saccular aneurysms were analyzed. This investigation suggested that there was no privileged orientation for cerebral aneurysms...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621057/transcriptomic-response-of-drosophila-melanogaster-pupae-developed-in-hypergravity
#17
Shannon Hateley, Ravikumar Hosamani, Shilpa R Bhardwaj, Lior Pachter, Sharmila Bhattacharya
Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene expression. Understanding this relationship between the physical environment and a biological response is important for NASA's space travel goals. We use RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile changes in early Drosophila melanogaster pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity (3g, or three times Earth's gravity). During the pupal stage, D. melanogaster rely upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupae under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity-dependent genetic pathways...
October 2016: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381480/the-biological-default-state-of-cell-proliferation-with-variation-and-motility-a-fundamental-principle-for-a-theory-of-organisms
#18
REVIEW
Ana M Soto, Giuseppe Longo, Maël Montévil, Carlos Sonnenschein
The principle of inertia is central to the modern scientific revolution. By postulating this principle Galileo at once identified a pertinent physical observable (momentum) and a conservation law (momentum conservation). He then could scientifically analyze what modifies inertial movement: gravitation and friction. Inertia, the default state in mechanics, represented a major theoretical commitment: there is no need to explain uniform rectilinear motion, rather, there is a need to explain departures from it...
October 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269583/searching-the-literature-for-proteins-facilitates-the-identification-of-biological-processes-if-advanced-methods-of-analysis-are-linked-a-case-study-on-microgravity-caused-changes-in-cells
#19
REVIEW
Johann Bauer, Markus Bussen, Petra Wise, Markus Wehland, Sabine Schneider, Daniela Grimm
BACKGROUND: More than one hundred reports were published about the characterization of cells from malignant and healthy tissues, as well as of endothelial cells and stem cells exposed to microgravity conditions. METHODS: We retrieved publications about microgravity related studies on each type of cells, extracted the proteins mentioned therein and analyzed them aiming to identify biological processes affected by microgravity culture conditions. RESULTS: The analysis revealed 66 different biological processes, 19 of them were always detected when papers about the four types of cells were analyzed...
July 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263416/physiological-recordings-from-the-zebrafish-lateral-line
#20
J Olt, A J Ordoobadi, W Marcotti, J G Trapani
During sensory transduction, external physical stimuli are translated into an internal biological signal. In vertebrates, hair cells are specialized mechanosensory receptors that transduce sound, gravitational forces, and head movements into electrical signals that are transmitted with remarkable precision and efficiency to afferent neurons. Hair cells have a conserved structure between species and are also found in the lateral line system of fish, including zebrafish, which serve as an ideal animal model to study sensory transmission in vivo...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
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