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Gravitational biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810105/does-the-gravity-orientation-of-saccular-aneurysms-influence-hemodynamics-an-experimental-study-with-and-without-flow-diverter-stent
#1
Kamil J Chodzyński, Omer F Eker, Axel E Vanrossomme, Daniel Ribeiro de Sousa, Grégory Coussement, Luc Vanhamme, Frank Dubois, Alain Bonafé, Bastien Chopard, Guy Courbebaisse, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia
Most intracranial aneurysms morphologic studies focused on characterization of size, location, aspect ratio, relationship to the surrounding vasculature and hemodynamics. However, the spatial orientation with respect to the gravity direction has not been taken into account although it could trigger various hemodynamic conditions. The present work addresses this possibility. It was divided in two parts: 1) the orientations of 18, 3D time-of-flight MRI (3D TOF MRI), scans of saccular aneurysms were analyzed. This investigation suggested that there was no privileged orientation for cerebral aneurysms...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621057/transcriptomic-response-of-drosophila-melanogaster-pupae-developed-in-hypergravity
#2
Shannon Hateley, Ravikumar Hosamani, Shilpa R Bhardwaj, Lior Pachter, Sharmila Bhattacharya
Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene expression. Understanding this relationship between the physical environment and a biological response is important for NASA's space travel goals. We use RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile changes in early Drosophila melanogaster pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity (3g, or three times Earth's gravity). During the pupal stage, D. melanogaster rely upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupae under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity-dependent genetic pathways...
September 10, 2016: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381480/the-biological-default-state-of-cell-proliferation-with-variation-and-motility-a-fundamental-principle-for-a-theory-of-organisms
#3
Ana M Soto, Giuseppe Longo, Maël Montévil, Carlos Sonnenschein
The principle of inertia is central to the modern scientific revolution. By postulating this principle Galileo at once identified a pertinent physical observable (momentum) and a conservation law (momentum conservation). He then could scientifically analyze what modifies inertial movement: gravitation and friction. Inertia, the default state in mechanics, represented a major theoretical commitment: there is no need to explain uniform rectilinear motion, rather, there is a need to explain departures from it...
July 2, 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269583/searching-the-literature-for-proteins-facilitates-the-identification-of-biological-processes-if-advanced-methods-of-analysis-are-linked-a-case-study-on-microgravity-caused-changes-in-cells
#4
Johann Bauer, Markus Bussen, Petra Wise, Markus Wehland, Sabine Schneider, Daniela Grimm
BACKGROUND: More than one hundred reports were published about the characterization of cells from malignant and healthy tissues, as well as of endothelial cells and stem cells exposed to microgravity conditions. METHODS: We retrieved publications about microgravity related studies on each type of cells, extracted the proteins mentioned therein and analyzed them aiming to identify biological processes affected by microgravity culture conditions. RESULTS: The analysis revealed 66 different biological processes, 19 of them were always detected when papers about the four types of cells were analyzed...
July 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263416/physiological-recordings-from-the-zebrafish-lateral-line
#5
J Olt, A J Ordoobadi, W Marcotti, J G Trapani
During sensory transduction, external physical stimuli are translated into an internal biological signal. In vertebrates, hair cells are specialized mechanosensory receptors that transduce sound, gravitational forces, and head movements into electrical signals that are transmitted with remarkable precision and efficiency to afferent neurons. Hair cells have a conserved structure between species and are also found in the lateral line system of fish, including zebrafish, which serve as an ideal animal model to study sensory transmission in vivo...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262847/effects-and-biological-limitations-of-gz-acceleration-on-the-autonomic-functions-related-circulation-in-rats
#6
Yasuhiro Nishida, Satoshi Maruyama, Ichiro Shouji, Takehito Kemuriyama, Akimasa Tashiro, Hiroyuki Ohta, Kohsue Hagisawa, Megumi Hiruma, Hidetake Yokoe
The effects of gravitational loading (G load) on humans have been studied ever since the early 20th century. After the dangers of G load in the vertical head-to-leg direction (+Gz load) became evident, many animal experiments were performed between 1920 and 1945 in an effort to identify the origins of high G-force-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC), which led to development of the anti-G suit. The establishment of norms and training for G-LOC prevention resulted in a gradual decline in reports of animal experiments on G load, a decline that steepened with the establishment of anti-G techniques in humans, such as special breathing methods and skeletal muscle contraction, called an anti-G straining maneuver, which are voluntary physiological functions...
June 4, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997893/deformation-of-a-micro-torque-swimmer
#7
Takuji Ishikawa, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Yohsuke Imai, Toshihiro Omori, Daiki Matsunaga
The membrane tension of some kinds of ciliates has been suggested to regulate upward and downward swimming velocities under gravity. Despite its biological importance, deformation and membrane tension of a ciliate have not been clarified fully. In this study, we numerically investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modelled as a capsule with a hyperelastic membrane enclosing a Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modelled as torques distributed above the cell body...
January 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643151/beyond-the-capture-of-circulating-tumor-cells-next-generation-devices-and-materials
#8
REVIEW
Brenda J Green, Tina Saberi Safaei, Adam Mepham, Mahmoud Labib, Reza M Mohamadi, Shana O Kelley
Over the last decade, significant progress has been made towards the development of approaches that enable the capture of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of cancer patients, a critical capability for noninvasive tumor profiling. These advances have leveraged new insights in materials chemistry and microfluidics and allowed the capture and enumeration of CTCs with unprecedented sensitivity. However, it has become increasingly clear that simply capturing and counting tumor cells launched into the bloodstream may not provide the information needed to advance our understanding of the biology of these rare cells, or to allow us to better exploit them in medicine...
January 22, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26637177/transient-intervals-of-hyper-gravity-enhance-endothelial-barrier-integrity-impact-of-mechanical-and-gravitational-forces-measured-electrically
#9
Robert Szulcek, Jan van Bezu, Johannes Boonstra, Jack J W A van Loon, Geerten P van Nieuw Amerongen
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cells (EC) guard vascular functions by forming a dynamic barrier throughout the vascular system that sensitively adapts to 'classical' biomechanical forces, such as fluid shear stress and hydrostatic pressure. Alterations in gravitational forces might similarly affect EC integrity, but remain insufficiently studied. METHODS: In an unique approach, we utilized Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) in the gravity-simulators at the European Space Agency (ESA) to study dynamic responses of human EC to simulated micro- and hyper-gravity as well as to classical forces...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510266/platelet-transfusion-in-chemotherapy-patients-comparison-of-the-effect-of-intravenous-infusion-pumps-versus-gravity-transfusion
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A Meess
Platelet concentrates are given to patients suffering with severe thrombocytopenia usually by a gravity transfusion procedure. Increasing patient numbers that are in need of this treatment increase the pressure on hospital staff and space. In order to combat time issues, the use of medical devices such as intravenous infusion pumps are thought to be beneficial for time and simultaneously for safety in transfusion practices. By using infusion pumps, platelet concentrates can be transfused in less time and provide accurate volume measurements...
2015: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26506009/muscle-bone-interactions-from-experimental-models-to-the-clinic-a-critical-update
#11
Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Frank Claessens, Sabine M P Verschueren, Dirk Vanderschueren, Evelien Gielen, Ferran Jardí
Bone is a biomechanical tissue shaped by forces from muscles and gravitation. Simultaneous bone and muscle decay and dysfunction (osteosarcopenia or sarco-osteoporosis) is seen in ageing, numerous clinical situations including after stroke or paralysis, in neuromuscular dystrophies, glucocorticoid excess, or in association with vitamin D, growth hormone/insulin like growth factor or sex steroid deficiency, as well as in spaceflight. Physical exercise may be beneficial in these situations, but further work is still needed to translate acceptable and effective biomechanical interventions like vibration therapy from animal models to humans...
September 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26460038/unconstrained-muscle-tendon-workloops-indicate-resonance-tuning-as-a-mechanism-for-elastic-limb-behavior-during-terrestrial-locomotion
#12
Benjamin D Robertson, Gregory S Sawicki
In terrestrial locomotion, there is a missing link between observed spring-like limb mechanics and the physiological systems driving their emergence. Previous modeling and experimental studies of bouncing gait (e.g., walking, running, hopping) identified muscle-tendon interactions that cycle large amounts of energy in series tendon as a source of elastic limb behavior. The neural, biomechanical, and environmental origins of these tuned mechanics, however, have remained elusive. To examine the dynamic interplay between these factors, we developed an experimental platform comprised of a feedback-controlled servo-motor coupled to a biological muscle-tendon...
October 27, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26378793/suppression-of-hydroxycinnamate-network-formation-in-cell-walls-of-rice-shoots-grown-under-microgravity-conditions-in-space
#13
Kazuyuki Wakabayashi, Kouichi Soga, Takayuki Hoson, Toshihisa Kotake, Takashi Yamazaki, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Toru Shimazu, Keiji Fukui, Ikuko Osada, Haruo Kasahara, Motoshi Kamada
Network structures created by hydroxycinnamate cross-links within the cell wall architecture of gramineous plants make the cell wall resistant to the gravitational force of the earth. In this study, the effects of microgravity on the formation of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates were examined using etiolated rice shoots simultaneously grown under artificial 1 g and microgravity conditions in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility on the International Space Station. Measurement of the mechanical properties of cell walls showed that shoot cell walls became stiff during the growth period and that microgravity suppressed this stiffening...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26338842/gravitational-venous-drainage-is-significantly-faster-in-patients-with-varicose-veins
#14
Christopher R Lattimer, Evi Kalodiki, Erika Mendoza
OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that varicose veins may be caused by a degree of impeded proximal venous drainage (pelvic venous obstruction) in the same way that biological tubes dilate in response to an obstruction. The venous drainage index (VDI) of air-plethysmography (APG) was used to test this hypothesis. A dependency to elevation manoeuvre was used to provoke gravitational venous drainage. A rapid reduction in calf volume implied good drainage. METHODS: This was a single centre, proof-of-concept study comparing gravitational venous drainage in varicose vein patients and controls...
September 2016: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26333575/analysis-of-the-influence-of-lunar-cycle-on-the-frequency-of-spontaneous-deliveries-a-single-centre-retrospective-study
#15
A S Laganà, M A Burgio, G Retto, A Pizzo, E Sturlese, R Granese, B Chiofalo, L Ciacimino, O Triolo
BACKGROUND: Man, since ancient times, has been convinced of, and has researched scientific evidence that the barometric and gravitational forces play an important role in structural and biological variation of the planets, influencing the various forms of life. In particular, the synergistic relationships between variations in atmospheric pressure and gravitational forces on human gestation period have been the subject of rigorous observations and statistical calculations, which have not led to a universal conclusion in literature...
October 2014: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26221724/feasibility-of-a-short-arm-centrifuge-for-mouse-hypergravity-experiments
#16
Hironobu Morita, Koji Obata, Chikara Abe, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Takashi Kudo, Satoru Takahashi
To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a novel mouse habitat cage unit that can be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility in the Kibo module of the International Space Station. The Cell Biology Experiment Facility has a short-arm centrifuge to produce artificial 1 g gravity in space for mouse experiments...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26012114/-identification-of-biological-processes-on-the-composition-of-the-urine-proteome-in-cosmonauts-on-the-first-day-after-long-space-flights
#17
L H Pastushkova, A S Kononihin, E S Tijs, O A Obraztsova, I V Dobrokhotov, V A Ivanisenko, E N Nikolaev, I M Larina
There are several difficulties that impede medical support of space missions. We can assume that the long-term space missions will be accompanied by functional changes in the organism. These changes will be a natural reaction to the factors of space flight. Complex action of factors can lead to the development of both non-specific changes (general adaptation syndrome), and specific changes. We analyzed the physiological changes after long space flights and carried out the correlation of these changes with previously identified proteins in the urine...
February 2015: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981782/spaceflight-exploration-in-plant-gravitational-biology
#18
Anna-Lisa Paul, Robert J Ferl
Before there was access to space, all experiments on plant tropisms were conducted upon the background of gravity. The gravity vector could be disrupted, such as with clinorotation and random positioning machines, and by manipulating incident angles of root growth with respect to gravity, such as with Darwin's plants on slanted plates, but gravity could not be removed from the experimental equation. Access to microgravity through spaceflight has opened new doors to plant research. Here we provide an overview of some of the methodologies of conducting plant research in the unique spaceflight environment...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981781/conducting-plant-experiments-in-space
#19
John Z Kiss
The growth and development of plants during spaceflight have important implications for both basic and applied research supported by NASA and other international space agencies. While there have been many reviews of plant space biology, the present chapter attempts to fill a gap in the literature on the actual process and methods of performing plant research in the spaceflight environment. The author has been a principal investigator on six spaceflight projects and has another two space experiments in development...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981780/use-of-microgravity-simulators-for-plant-biological-studies
#20
Raúl Herranz, Miguel A Valbuena, Aránzazu Manzano, Khaled Y Kamal, F Javier Medina
Simulated microgravity and partial gravity research on Earth is highly convenient for every space biology researcher due to limitations of access to spaceflight. However, the use of ground-based facilities for microgravity simulation is far from simple. Microgravity simulation usually results in the need to consider additional environmental parameters which appear as secondary effects in the generation of altered gravity. These secondary effects may interfere with gravity alteration in the changes observed in the biological processes under study...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
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