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Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yoon Jae Kim, Ae Jin Jeong, Myungjoon Kim, Chiwon Lee, Sang-Kyu Ye, Sungwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Gravity is omnipresent on Earth; however, humans in space, such as astronauts at the International Space Station, experience microgravity. Long-term exposure to microgravity is considered to elicit physiological changes, such as muscle atrophy, in the human body. In addition, certain types of cancer cells demonstrate inhibited proliferation under condition of time-averaged simulated microgravity (taSMG). However, the response of human Hodgkin's lymphoma cancer cells to reduced gravity, and the associated physiological changes in these cells, have not been elucidated...
April 20, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
Sebastian Koethe, Judith Bloemer, Klaus Lunau
Flower symmetry is considered a species-specific trait and is categorized in asymmetry, actinomorphic symmetry, bisymmetry and zygomorphic symmetry. Here we report on the intra-individual variation of flower symmetry in the genus Saxifraga and the influence of light, gravity and intrinsic factors on the development of flower symmetry. We tested five species-Saxifraga cuneifolia, Saxifraga imparilis, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Saxifraga stolonifera and Saxifraga umbrosa-concerning six flower parameters-angles between petals, petal length, petal pigmentation, angular position of carpels, movement of stamens and (only for S...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Li Xue, Yaohui Li, Jun Chen
Previous evidence has suggested that physical microenvironments and mechanical stresses, independent of soluble factors, influence mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. In the present study, simulated microgravity (SMG) was demonstrated to regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. This may be a novel strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Rat MSCs were cultured for 72 h or 10 days in either normal gravity or a clinostat to model microgravity, followed with culture in diverse differential media...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Vajiheh Zarrinpour, Zahra Hajebrahimi, Mojtaba Jafarinia
OBJECTIVES: Studies have confirmed that microgravity, as a mechanical factor, influences both differentiation and function of mesenchymal stem cells. Here we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on neural differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have used a fast rotating clinostat (clinorotation) to simulate microgravity condition. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry analysis were used to evaluate the regulation of neurotrophins, their receptors, and neural markers by simulated microgravity and their impact on neural differentiation of cells...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Ellen Polinski, Oliver Schueler, Lars Krause, Monika A Wimmer, Ruth Hemmersbach, Heiner E Goldbach
Future long-term spaceflight missions rely on bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) in order to provide the required resources for crew survival. Higher plants provide an essential part since they supply food and oxygen and recycle carbon dioxide. There are indications that under space conditions plants might be inefficient regarding the uptake, transport and distribution of nutrients, which in turn affects growth and metabolism. Therefore, Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) seeds were germinated and grown for five days under fast clinorotation (2-D clinostat, 60rpm) in order to simulate microgravity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Chenguang Deng, Ting Wang, Jingjing Wu, Wei Xu, Huasheng Li, Min Liu, Lijun Wu, Jinying Lu, Po Bian
Space particles have an inevitable impact on organisms during space missions; radio-adaptive response (RAR) is a critical radiation effect due to both low-dose background and sudden high-dose radiation exposure during solar storms. Although it is relevant to consider RAR within the context of microgravity, another major space environmental factor, there is no existing evidence as to its effects on RAR. In the present study, we established an experimental method for detecting the effects of gamma-irradiation on the primary root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which RAR of root growth was significantly induced by several dose combinations...
February 2017: Mutation Research
Hiroko Ikeda, Hikaru Souda, Anggraeini Puspitasari, Kathryn D Held, Jun Hidema, Takeshi Nikawa, Yukari Yoshida, Tatsuaki Kanai, Akihisa Takahashi
Outer space is an environment characterized by microgravity and space radiation, including high-energy charged particles. Astronauts are constantly exposed to both microgravity and radiation during long-term stays in space. However, many aspects of the biological effects of combined microgravity and space radiation remain unclear. We developed a new three-dimensional (3D) clinostat synchronized heavy-ion irradiation system for use in ground-based studies of the combined exposures. Our new system uses a particle accelerator and a respiratory gating system from heavy-ion radiotherapy to irradiate samples being rotated in the 3D clinostat with carbon-ion beams only when the samples are in the horizontal position...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
Jae Ho Chung, Chi Bum Ahn, Kuk Hui Son, Eunjue Yi, Ho Sung Son, Han-Sung Kim, Sung Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in medical technology, lung cancer metastasis remains a global health problem. The effects of microgravity on cell morphology, structure, functions, and their mechanisms have been widely studied; however, the biological effects of simulated microgravity on the interaction between cells and its eventual influence on the characteristics of cancer cells are yet to be discovered. We examined the effects of simulated microgravity on the metastatic ability of different lung cancer cells using a random positioning machine...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Dmitry M Davydov, Róża Czabak-Garbacz
Previous clinical and elderly population studies have found that affective well-being can be assessed by clino-orthostatic cardiovascular reactivity. This study explored this relationship in a young healthy sample, and with respect to cognitive appraisals of well-being. Four successive readings of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) after lying down (clinostatic probe) followed by four successive readings after standing up (orthostatic probe) were obtained from 52 healthy students along with questionnaire-reported well-being...
November 28, 2016: Biological Psychology
Elodie Boucheron-Dubuisson, Ana I Manzano, Isabel Le Disquet, Isabel Matía, Julio Sáez-Vasquez, Jack J W A van Loon, Raúl Herranz, Eugénie Carnero-Diaz, F Javier Medina
Environmental gravity modulates plant growth and development, and these processes are influenced by the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in meristems. Meristematic cells are characterized by the coordination between cell proliferation and cell growth, that is, by the accurate regulation of cell cycle progression and the optimal production of biomass for the viability of daughter cells after division. Thus, cell growth is correlated with the rate of ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xinjian Mao, Zhe Chen, Qing Luo, Bingyu Zhang, Guanbin Song
Exposure to microgravity during space flight affects almost all human physiological systems. Migration, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells are crucial for tissues repair and regeneration. However, the effect of microgravity on the migration potentials of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is unclear, which are important progenitor and supporting cells. Here, we utilized a clinostat to model simulated microgravity (SMG) and found that SMG obviously inhibited migration of rat BMSCs. We detected significant reorganization of F-actin filaments and increased Young's modulus of BMSCs after exposure to SMG...
December 2016: Cytotechnology
Zhe Chen, Qing Luo, Chuanchuan Lin, Dongdong Kuang, Guanbin Song
Microgravity induces observed bone loss in space flight, and reduced osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) partly contributes to this phenomenon. Abnormal regulation or functioning of the actin cytoskeleton induced by microgravity may cause the inhibited osteogenesis of BMSCs, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal changes regulate nuclear aggregation of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), which is indispensable for osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)...
2016: Scientific Reports
S De Sio, S Mandolesi, T Niglio, Aldo D'Alessandro, Alessandro D'Alessandro, A Vitarelli, S Ricci
BACKGROUND: The working posture affects the peripheral venous circulation, although the current literature does not report any correlation between working posture and the abnormalities of the jugular veins flow. The purpose of this preliminary research is to study, in female workers, the prevalence of Venous Compressive Syndrome (VCS) caused by total block of the internal jugular veins flow, so-called "White Compression". Due to complete compression by postural, muscular, fascial, anatomical or bone anomalies, White Compression is not visible by EchoColorDoppler (ECD) and its flow can only be detected by the rotational movements of the head or by Valsalva's maneuver...
May 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Yeong-Min Yoo, Tae-Young Han, Han Sung Kim
Microgravity exposure can cause cardiovascular and immune disorders, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, and loss of blood and plasma volume. A clinostat device is an effective ground-based tool for simulating microgravity. This study investigated how melatonin suppresses autophagy caused by simulated microgravity in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. In preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, clinostat rotation induced a significant time-dependent increase in the levels of the autophagosomal marker microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3), suggesting that autophagy is induced by clinostat rotation in these cells...
April 8, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vaibhav Shinde, Sonja Brungs, Margit Henry, Lucia Wegener, Harshal Nemade, Tamara Rotshteyn, Aviseka Acharya, Christa Baumstark-Khan, Christine E Hellweg, Jürgen Hescheler, Ruth Hemmersbach, Agapios Sachinidis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Embryonic developmental studies under microgravity conditions in space are very limited. To study the effects of altered gravity on the embryonic development processes we established an in vitro methodology allowing differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) under simulated microgravity within a fast-rotating clinostat (clinorotation) and capture of microarray-based gene signatures. METHODS: The differentiating mESCs were cultured in a 2D pipette clinostat...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Richard Barker, Benjamin Cox, Logan Silber, Arash Sangari, Amir Assadi, Patrick Masson
Arabidopsis thaliana was the first higher organism to have its genome sequenced and is now widely regarded as the model dicot. Like all plants, Arabidopsis develops distinct growth patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. This can be seen in the gravitropic response of roots. Methods to investigate this particular tropism are presented here. First, we describe a high-throughput time-lapse photographic analysis of root growth and curvature response to gravistimulation allowing the quantification of gravitropic kinetics and growth rate at high temporal resolution...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fei Shi, Tian-Zhi Zhao, Yong-Chun Wang, Xin-Sheng Cao, Chang-Bin Yang, Yuan Gao, Cheng-Fei Li, Jiang-Dong Zhao, Shu Zhang, Xi-Qing Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The potential role of caveolin-1 in modulating angiogenesis in microgravity environment is unexplored. METHODS: Using simulated microgravity by clinostat, we measured the expressions and interactions of caveolin-1 and eNOS in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. RESULTS: We found that decreased caveolin-1 expression is associated with increased expression and phosphorylation levels of eNOS in endothelial cells stimulated by microgravity, which causes a dissociation of eNOS from caveolin-1 complexes...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Leila Alidoust, Neda Soltani, Sima Modiri, Omid Haghighi, Aisan Azarivand, Khosro Khajeh, Hossein Shahbani Zahiri, Hojatollah Vali, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi
Among nine cyanobacterial strains isolated from oil-contaminated regions in southern Iran, an isolate with maximum cadmium uptake capacity was selected and identified on the basis of analysis of morphological criteria and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity as Nostoc entophytum (with 99% similarity). The isolate was tentatively designated N. entophytum ISC32. The phylogenetic affiliation of the isolates was determined on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence. The maximum amount of Cd(II) adsorbed by strain ISC32 was 302...
February 2016: Microbiology
Oliver Schüler, Ruth Hemmersbach, Maik Böhmer
During evolution, plants have developed mechanisms to adapt to a variety of environmental stresses, including drought, high salinity, changes in carbon dioxide levels and pathogens. Central signaling hubs and pathways that are regulated in response to these stimuli have been identified. In contrast to these well studied environmental stimuli, changes in transcript, protein and metabolite levels in response to a gravitational stimulus are less well understood. Amyloplasts, localized in statocytes of the root tip, in mesophyll cells of coleoptiles and in the elongation zone of the growing internodes comprise statoliths in higher plants...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
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