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alcohol local government regulation

Matt Egan, Alan Brennan, Penny Buykx, Frank De Vocht, Lucy Gavens, Daniel Grace, Emma Halliday, Matthew Hickman, Vivien Holt, John D Mooney, Karen Lock
Cumulative impact policies (CIPs) are widely used in UK local government to help regulate alcohol markets in localities characterised by high density of outlets and high rates of alcohol related harms. CIPs have been advocated as a means of protecting health by controlling or limiting alcohol availability. We use a comparative qualitative case study approach (n=5 English local government authorities, 48 participants) to assess how CIPs vary across different localities, what they are intended to achieve, and the implications for local-level alcohol availability...
September 2016: Health & Place
Dhananjay Dhokane, Shailesh Karre, Ajjamada C Kushalappa, Curt McCartney
BACKGROUND: Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum not only causes severe losses in yield, but also reduces quality of wheat grain by accumulating mycotoxins. Breeding for host plant resistance is considered as the best strategy to manage FHB. Resistance in wheat to FHB is quantitative in nature, involving cumulative effects of many genes governing resistance. The poor understanding of genetics and lack of precise phenotyping has hindered the development of FHB resistant cultivars...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
Night-time safety To promote a diverse night-time economy throughout Wales, while providing safe, accessible and attractive city and town centres, the Welsh Government has published a framework for managing the night-time economy. The framework is intended to help local health boards, local authorities, night-time economy teams, community safety leads and other stakeholders; the aim is to develop and deliver local plans and strategies to address drug and alcohol-related disorder, and antisocial behaviour, in towns and cities...
December 2015: Nursing Management (Harrow)
F de Vocht, Jon Heron, Colin Angus, Alan Brennan, John Mooney, Karen Lock, Rona Campbell, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: English alcohol policy is implemented at local government level, leading to variations in how it is put into practice. We evaluated whether differences in the presence or absence of cumulative impact zones and the 'intensity' of licensing enforcement--both aimed at regulating the availability of alcohol and modifying the drinking environment--were associated with harm as measured by alcohol-related hospital admissions. METHODS: Premises licensing data were obtained at lower tier local authority (LTLA) level from the Home Office Alcohol and Late Night Refreshment Licensing data for 2007-2012, and LTLAs were coded as 'passive', low, medium or highly active based on whether they made use of cumulative impact areas and/or whether any licences for new premises were declined...
March 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Nakul P Raykar, Rachel R Yorlets, Charles Liu, Sarah L M Greenberg, Meera Kotagal, Roberta Goldman, Nobhojit Roy, John G Meara, Rowan D Gillies
BACKGROUND: Billions of people worldwide are without access to safe, affordable, and timely surgical care. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) conducted a qualitative study to understand the contextual challenges to surgical care provision in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), and how providers overcome them. METHODS: A semi-structured interview was administered to 143 care providers in 21 LMICs using stratified purposive sampling to include both urban and rural areas and reputational case selection to identify individual providers...
April 27, 2015: Lancet
M Raj Lakshman, Karina Reyes-Gordillo, Ravi Varatharajalu, Jaime Arellanes-Robledo, Leslie C Leckey, Mamatha Garige, Ruchi Shah
Alcoholic steatosis, instead of being innocuous, plays a critical role in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis. The severity of fatty liver is governed by the concerted balance between lipid transport, synthesis, and degradation. Whereas scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-B1) is critical for reverse cholesterol uptake by the liver, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1α and -β (PGC1α and PGC1β) are critical for lipid degradation and synthesis, respectively. Because betaine is a lipotropic agent, we have evaluated its effects on alcoholic steatosis...
September 2014: Hepatology International
Alan R Clough, Katrina Bird
Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions...
April 2015: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kouichi Yoshimasu, Kanae Mure, Marowa Hashimoto, Shigeki Takemura, Kanami Tsuno, Mariko Hayashida, Kenji Kinoshita, Tatsuya Takeshita, Kazuhisa Miyashita
BACKGROUND: Although alcohol-related disorders (ARD) have been shown to be accompanied by comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders, and alcohol metabolic enzyme genes, ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms, have been associated with an increased risk of ARD, no studies have been conducted to evaluate the associations between these genetic polymorphisms and anxiety or depression. METHOD: A total of 1944 Japanese workers were interviewed regarding their depressive and anxiety disorders, including suicidality, by a brief psychiatric structured interview (MINI)...
February 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Eliza Goszczyńiska
It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. 'Iherefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees...
2013: Medycyna Pracy
Kypros Kypri, Brett Maclennan
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In many high-income countries, the responsibility for alcohol regulation is being devolved from central to local governments. Although seeking public input is typically required by law, there remains little empirical evidence on whether and how the public is involved. We investigated public participation in local liquor licensing and related regulation in New Zealand. DESIGN AND METHODS: In 2007, we randomly sampled 2337 residents from the national electoral roll in seven communities and invited them to complete a postal questionnaire assessing their level of general community engagement, whether they had taken action on alcohol issues, and barriers to participation they perceived or encountered...
January 2014: Drug and Alcohol Review
Qiang Li, Rebekah L Fleming, Shawn K Acheson, Roger D Madison, Scott D Moore, Mary-Louise Risher, Wilkie A Wilson, H Scott Swartzwelder
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use, especially exposure to alcohol during adolescence or young adulthood, is closely associated with cognitive deficits that may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is essential to identify possible neuronal mechanisms underlying the observed deficits in learning and memory. Hippocampal interneurons play a pivotal role in regulating hippocampus-dependent learning and memory by exerting strong inhibition on excitatory pyramidal cells. The function of these interneurons is regulated not only by synaptic inputs from other types of neurons but is also precisely governed by their own intrinsic membrane ionic conductances...
December 2013: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Teddy Charles Adias, Everton Egerton, Osaro Erhabor
Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability, and death in high, middle, and low-income countries. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and avoidable disease burden worldwide and has a major impact on public health. The aim of this present cross-sectional study was to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on coagulation parameters and liver enzymes of subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Two hundred adults consisting of 120 alcohol dependent subjects and 80 age, gender-matched nondrinkers aged 25-65 years (mean age 45...
2013: International Journal of General Medicine
James F Mosher, Ryan D Treffers
The substantial health and economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption make its reduction a major public health and economic concern. The Community Preventive Services Task Force, based on a systematic review of the research literature, concluded that restricting alcohol retail outlet density through local land use and zoning regulations is an effective strategy for reducing these costs. Yet the implementation of the Task Force's recommendation is limited by state pre-emption, which determines the extent to which states allow local government to adopt policies and enact legislation...
April 2013: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Lillian Eby, Kerrin George, B Lindsay Brown
In an effort to reduce patient tobacco dependence and create healthier work environments, New York State (NYS) mandated 100% tobacco-free addiction treatment programs for state funded or certified facilities in 2008. We present the results of a longitudinal study examining how local implementation features shape clinician reactions to the regulation and influence post-regulation clinician behavior and strain. A cohort of 147 clinicians associated with 13 treatment organizations throughout NYS completed a survey prior to the passage of the regulation and again approximately 1 year post-regulation...
March 2013: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Raghavendra Gunnaiah, Ajjamada C Kushalappa, Raj Duggavathi, Stephen Fox, Daryl J Somers
BACKGROUND: Resistance in plants to pathogen attack can be qualitative or quantitative. For the latter, hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified, but the mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. Integrated non-target metabolomics and proteomics, using high resolution hybrid mass spectrometry, were applied to identify the mechanisms of resistance governed by the fusarium head blight resistance locus, Fhb1, in the near isogenic lines derived from wheat genotype Nyubai...
2012: PloS One
Heidi M B Lesscher, Julia M Houthuijzen, Marian J Groot Koerkamp, Frank C P Holstege, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Alcoholism is a devastating brain disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. The development of alcoholism is caused by alcohol-induced maladaptive changes in neural circuits involved in emotions, motivation, and decision-making. Because of its involvement in these processes, the amygdala is thought to be a key neural structure involved in alcohol addiction. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of alcoholism are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that in a limited access choice paradigm, C57BL/6J mice progressively escalate their alcohol intake and display important behavioral characteristic of alcohol addiction, in that they become insensitive to quinine-induced adulteration of alcohol...
2012: PloS One
Patricia A McKee, Toben F Nelson, Traci L Toomey, Scott T Shimotsu, Peter J Hannan, Rhonda J Jones-Webb
PURPOSE: To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. APPROACH: An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. SETTING: Nine large U.S. cities in seven states...
January 2012: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Jiyeon Choi, Tomohiro Konno, Madoka Takai, Kazuhiko Ishihara
We fabricated multi-layered hydrogels on titanium alloy (Ti) surfaces by applying alternating layers of a water-soluble phospholipid polymer (PMBV) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This was accomplished by a layer-by-layer (LbL) process that is based on the formation of reversible covalent bonds between the boronic acid subunits in the PMBV and the hydroxyl groups in the PVA. When placed in an aqueous medium, PMBV acquires a polymeric aggregate structure with hydrophobic domains that can effectively solubilize hydrophobic molecules such as the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) used in this study...
January 2012: Biomaterials
Deborah C Girasek
The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of traffic safety culture (TSC) by identifying its constituent components. A review of existing safety culture literature was conducted. Next, 18 international experts participated in a Delphi Technique to rate candidate TSC components. Corresponding survey items were then developed and pretested. Our final survey instrument was mailed to a representative sample of 1700 US households. Their data were used to conduct a factor analysis that yielded a 15 factor structure...
2012: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Carolyne Njue, Helene A C M Voeten, Pieter Remes
BACKGROUND: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. RESULTS: Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents...
2011: BMC Public Health
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