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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214951/inhibition-of-jak-stat-pathway-restrains-tslp-activated-dendritic-cells-mediated-inflammatory-t-helper-type-2-cell-response-in-allergic-rhinitis
#1
Zhaohui Shi, Weihong Jiang, Min Wang, Xiaocheng Wang, Xiaoyuan Li, Xiaodong Chen, Li Qiao
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has recently been implicated as a key molecule for initiating allergic rhinitis (AR) at the cell-dendritic cell (DC) interface. Previous studies demonstrated that TSLP activated DCs to express more OX40 ligand (OX40L), which is associated with the initiation of T helper type 2 (Th2) cell responses. STAT phosphorylation has been reported to be promoted by TSLP. Thus, we investigated if the JAK/STAT pathway inhibitor CYT387 could affect TSLP-DC-mediated Th2 cell response in naive T cell and AR mice model...
February 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214928/dendritic-cell-rehab-new-strategies-to-unleash-therapeutic-immunity-in-ovarian-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Chang-Suk Chae, Eli Teran-Cabanillas, Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz
Immune-based therapies that induce remarkable and durable responses against melanoma and lung cancer have unfortunately demonstrated limited success in ovarian cancer patients. This is likely due to the exceptional immunoregulatory nature of ovarian tumors, which employ numerous strategies to effectively suppress anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize a decade of research indicating that ovarian cancers possess an exquisite capacity to subvert the activity of host dendritic cells (DCs) as a key mechanism to impede the development and maintenance of protective T cell-based immune responses...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214915/evaluation-of-the-gard-assay-in-a-blind-cosmetics-europe-study
#3
Henrik Johansson, Robin Gradin, Andy Forreryd, Maria Agemark, Kathrin Zeller, Angelica Johansson, Olivia Larne, Erwin van Vliet, Carl Borrebaeck, Malin Lindstedt
Chemical hypersensitivity is an immunological response towards foreign substances, commonly referred to as sensitizers, which gives rise primarily to the clinical symptoms known as allergic contact dermatitis. For the purpose of mitigating risks associated with consumer products, chemicals are screened for sensitizing effects. Historically, such predictive screenings have been performed using animal models. However, due to industrial and regulatory demand, animal models for the purpose of sensitization assessment are being replaced by animal-free testing methods, a global trend that is spreading across industries and market segments...
February 17, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214774/multimodality-imaging-of-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cell-migration-and-antitumor-immunity
#4
Su-Bi Ahn, Sang Bong Lee, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Sung Jin Cho, Sang Kyoon Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Sang-Woo Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
Here, we sought to monitor bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) migration and antitumor effects using a multimodal reporter imaging strategy in living mice. BMDCs were transduced with retroviral vector harboring human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS, nuclear imaging reporter), firefly luc2 (optical imaging reporter), and thy1.1 (surrogate marker of NIS and luc2) genes (BMDC/NF cells). No significant differences in biological functions, including cell proliferation, antigen uptake, phenotype expression, and migration ability, were observed between BMDC and BMDC/NF cells...
February 16, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214610/virosome-bound-antigen-enhances-dc-dependent-specific-cd4-t-cell-stimulation-inducing-a-th1-and-treg-profile-in-vitro
#5
Rebecca A M Blom, Mario Amacker, Christian Moser, R Maarten van Dijk, Raffaela Bonetti, Emilie Seydoux, Sean R R Hall, Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank
There is considerable interest to develop antigen-carriers for immune-modulatory clinical applications, but insufficient information is available on their effects on antigen-presenting cells. We employed virosomes coupled to ovalbumin (OVA) to study their interaction with murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and modulation of downstream T cell responses. BMDCs were treated in vitro with virosomes or liposomes prior to determining BMDC phenotype, viability, and intra-cellular trafficking. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell activation was measured by co-culture of BMDCs with DO11...
February 15, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214225/a-relay-pathway-between-arginine-and-tryptophan-metabolism-confers-immunosuppressive-properties-on-dendritic-cells
#6
Giada Mondanelli, Roberta Bianchi, Maria Teresa Pallotta, Ciriana Orabona, Elisa Albini, Alberta Iacono, Maria Laura Belladonna, Carmine Vacca, Francesca Fallarino, Antonio Macchiarulo, Stefano Ugel, Vincenzo Bronte, Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Auke Verhaar, Maikel Peppelenbosch, Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza, Silvio Bicciato, Yasmina Laouar, Laura Santambrogio, Paolo Puccetti, Claudia Volpi, Ursula Grohmann
Arginase 1 (Arg1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) are immunoregulatory enzymes catalyzing the degradation of l-arginine and l-tryptophan, respectively, resulting in local amino acid deprivation. In addition, unlike Arg1, IDO1 is also endowed with non-enzymatic signaling activity in dendritic cells (DCs). Despite considerable knowledge of their individual biology, no integrated functions of Arg1 and IDO1 have been reported yet. We found that IDO1 phosphorylation and consequent activation of IDO1 signaling in DCs was strictly dependent on prior expression of Arg1 and Arg1-dependent production of polyamines...
February 13, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214198/tumor-derived-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-inhibit-dendritic-cells-function-by-ctla-4
#7
Xin Chen, Yong Du, Qingqing Hu, ZhiMing Huang
PURPOSE: CD4+CD25+regulatoryT cells (Tregs) play an important role in anti-tumor immune responses. Poor prognosis and declining survival rates have intimate connection with high Treg expression in cancer patients. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA-4) is one of the most prominent molecules on Treg. In our previous research, we have demonstrated that HCC-derived Tregs can interfere with Dendritic cells (DCs) function and down-modulate CD80/CD86 on DCs in vitro in a cell-contact dependent way...
December 21, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214177/dendritic-cells-in-host-response-to-biologic-scaffolds
#8
REVIEW
Cynthia A Leifer
Tissue regeneration and repair require a highly complex and orchestrated series of events that require inflammation, but can be compromised when inflammation is excessive or becomes chronic. Macrophages are one of the first cells to contact and respond to implanted materials, and mediate the inflammatory response. The series of events following macrophage association with biomaterials has been well-studied. Dendritic cells (DCs) also directly interact with biomaterials, are critical for specific immune responses, and can be activated in response to interactions with biomaterials...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213784/microglia-in-the-primate-macula-specializations-in-microglial-distribution-and-morphology-with-retinal-position-and-with-aging
#9
Janani Singaravelu, Lian Zhao, Robert N Fariss, T Michael Nork, Wai T Wong
Microglia, the principal resident immune cell in the retina, play constitutive roles in immune surveillance and synapse maintenance, and are also associated with retinal disease, including those occurring in the macula. Perspectives on retinal microglia function have derived largely from rodent models and how these relate to the macula-bearing primate retina is unclear. In this study, we examined microglial distribution and cellular morphology in the adult rhesus macaque retina, and performed comparative characterizations in three retinal locations along the center-to-periphery axis (parafoveal, macular, and the peripheral retina)...
February 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213757/germinal-centre-frequency-is-decreased-in-pancreatic-lymph-nodes-from-individuals-with-recent-onset-type-1-diabetes
#10
Abby Willcox, Sarah J Richardson, Lucy S K Walker, Sally C Kent, Noel G Morgan, Kathleen M Gillespie
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) are critical sites for the initial interaction between islet autoantigens and autoreactive lymphocytes, but the histology of PLNs in tissue from individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been analysed in detail. The aim of this study was to examine PLN tissue sections from healthy donors compared with those at risk of, or with recent-onset and longer-duration type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Immunofluorescence staining was used to examine PLN sections from the following donor groups: non-diabetic (n=15), non-diabetic islet autoantibody-positive (n=5), recent-onset (≤1...
February 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213442/amplitude-normalization-of-dendritic-epsps-at-the-soma-of-binaural-coincidence-detector-neurons-of-the-medial-superior-olive
#11
Bradley D Winters, Shan-Xue Jin, Kenneth R Ledford, Nace L Golding
The principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) encode cues for horizontal sound localization through comparisons of the relative timing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). To understand how the timing and amplitude of EPSPs is maintained during propagation in the dendrites, we made dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings from MSO principal neurons in brain slices from Mongolian gerbils. In somatic recordings, EPSP amplitudes were largely uniform following minimal stimulation of excitatory synapses at visualized locations along the dendrites...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213366/tumor-infiltrating-and-peripheral-blood-t-cell-immunophenotypes-predict-early-relapse-in-localized-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Nicolas A Giraldo, Etienne Becht, Yann Vano, Florent Petitprez, Laetitia Lacroix, Pierre Validire, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Alexandre Ingels, Stephane Marie Oudard, Audrey Moatti, Bénédicte Buttard, Sarah Bourras, Claire Germain, Xavier Cathelineau, Wolf-Herman Fridman, Catherine Sautes-Fridman
PURPOSE: The efficacy of PD-1 Checkpoint Blockade (ChB) as adjuvant therapy in localized clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) is currently unknown. The identification of tumor microenvironment (TME) prognostic biomarkers in this setting may help to define which patients could benefit from ChB and to uncover new therapeutic targets. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed multiparametric flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of T cells isolated from tumor tissue (TIL), adjacent non-malignant renal tissue (RIL) and peripheral blood (PBL), in a cohort of patients (n=40) with localized ccRCC...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212788/immunology-of-alveolar-and%C3%A2-cystic-echinococcosis-ae-and-ce
#13
B Gottstein, P Soboslay, E Ortona, J Wang, A Siracusano, D Α Vuitton
Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are severe chronic helminthic diseases caused by the cystic growth or the intrahepatic tumour-like growth of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively. Both parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape host immune responses, mainly by manipulating and directing this immune response towards anergy and/or tolerance. Recent research studies have revealed a number of respective immunoregulatory mechanisms related to macrophages and dendritic cell as well as T cell activities (regulatory T cells, Tregs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212707/astrobiological-implications-of-dim-light-phototrophy-in-deep-sea-red-clays
#14
Anindita Das, Tanya Singh, P A LokaBharathi, Prashant K Dhakephalkar, Sweta Mallik, Pranav R Kshirsagar, N H Khadge, B Nagender Nath, Satadru Bhattacharya, Aditya Kumar Dagar, Prabhjot Kaur, Dwijesh Ray, Anil D Shukla, Christabelle E G Fernandes, Sheryl O Fernandes, Tresa Remya A Thomas, Mamatha S S, Babu Shashikant Mourya, Ram Murti Meena
Red clays of Central Indian Basin (CIB) under influence of trace of Rodriguez Triple Junction exhibited chemoautotrophy, low temperature hydrothermal alterations and photoautotrophic potential. Seamount flank TVBC-08, hosting such signatures revealed dominance of aerobic anoxygenic phototroph Erythrobacter, with 93% of total 454 pyrosequencing tags. Subsequently, enrichments for both aerobic (Erythrobacter) and anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (green and purple sulphur bacteria) under red and white LED light illumination, with average irradiance 30...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212670/characterization-of-schistosoma-japonicum-cp1412-protein-as-a-novel-member-of-the-ribonuclease-t2-molecule-family-with-immune-regulatory-function
#15
Xue-Dan Ke, Shuang Shen, Li-Jun Song, Chuan-Xin Yu, Mihoko Kikuchi, Kenji Hirayama, Hong Gao, Jie Wang, Xuren Yin, Yuan Yao, Qian Liu, Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Schistosome infection typically induces a polarized Th2 type host immune response. As egg antigen molecules play key roles in this immunoregulatory process, clarifying their functions in schistosomiasis would facilitate the development of vaccine and immunotherapeutic methods. Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) CP1412 (GenBank: AY57074.1) has been identified as a new member of the RNase T2 family with immune regulatory functions. METHODS: The expression plasmid Sj CP1412-pET28a was constructed and transformed into bacteria for production of recombinant Sj CP1412 protein (rSj CP1412) via IPTG induction...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212439/correction-type-i-interferon-receptor-deficiency-in-dendritic-cells-facilitates-systemic-murine-norovirus-persistence-despite-enhanced-adaptive-immunity
#16
Timothy J Nice, Lisa C Osborne, Vesselin T Tomov, David Artis, E John Wherry, Herbert W Virgin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005684.].
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212151/antibody-mediated-rejection-in-the-cardiac-allograft-diagnosis-treatment-and-future-considerations
#17
M Elizabeth H Hammond, Abdallah G Kfoury
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the latest publications dealing with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and defines areas of controversy and future steps that may improve the outcome for patients with this virulent form of rejection. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent progress includes publication of standardized pathologic criteria for acute AMR by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) and guidelines for treatment of acute AMR by the American Heart Association, endorsed by ISHLT as well...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209996/transient-cannabinoid-receptor-2-blockade-during-immunization-heightens-intensity-and-breadth-of-antigen-specific-antibody-responses-in-young-and-aged-mice
#18
Emmanuel Dotsey, Irina Ushach, Egest Pone, Rie Nakajima, Algis Jasinskas, Donovan A Argueta, Andrea Dillon, Nicholas DiPatrizio, Huw Davies, Albert Zlotnik, Peter D Crompton, Philip L Felgner
The hallmark of vaccines is their ability to prevent the spread of infectious pathogens and thereby serve as invaluable public health tool. Despite their medical relevance, there is a gap in our understanding of the physiological factors that mediate innate and adaptive immune response to vaccines. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a critical modulator of homeostasis in vertebrates. Our results indicate that macrophages and dendritic cells produce the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) upon antigen activation...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209974/rabconnectin-3%C3%AE-is-required-for-the-morphological-maturation-of-gnrh-neurons-and-kisspeptin-responsiveness
#19
Brooke K Tata, Carole Harbulot, Zsolt Csaba, Stéphane Peineau, Sandrine Jacquier, Nicolas de Roux
A few hundred hypothalamic neurons form a complex network that controls reproduction in mammals by secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Timely postnatal changes in GnRH secretion are essential for pubertal onset. During the juvenile period, GnRH neurons undergo morphological remodeling, concomitantly achieving an increased responsiveness to kisspeptin, the main secretagogue of GnRH. However, the link between GnRH neuron activity and their morphology remains unknown. Here, we show that brain expression levels of Dmxl2, which encodes the vesicular protein rabconnectin-3α, determine the capacity of GnRH neurons to be activated by kisspeptin and estradiol...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209776/distance-dependent-gradient-in-nmdar-driven-spine-calcium-signals-along-tapering-dendrites
#20
Alison S Walker, Guilherme Neves, Federico Grillo, Rachel E Jackson, Mark Rigby, Cian O'Donnell, Andrew S Lowe, Gema Vizcay-Barrena, Roland A Fleck, Juan Burrone
Neurons receive a multitude of synaptic inputs along their dendritic arbor, but how this highly heterogeneous population of synaptic compartments is spatially organized remains unclear. By measuring N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-driven calcium responses in single spines, we provide a spatial map of synaptic calcium signals along dendritic arbors of hippocampal neurons and relate this to measures of synapse structure. We find that quantal NMDAR calcium signals increase in amplitude as they approach a thinning dendritic tip end...
February 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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