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alcohol local regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#1
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929966/-a-case-with-scalp-pruritus-caused-by-dermanysus-gallinae-order-mesostigmata
#2
Mustafa Şengül, Nida Kaçar, Mehmet Karaca, Sedef Zeliha Öner, Çağrı Ergin
Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the important hematophagous ectoparasite species of poultry like chicken, pigeon and wild bird species. These ectoparasites in the form of nymphs or adults who can not find their hosts are also seen in mammals and even in humans. For this reason, they are considered as important for public health. The ectoparasite causes a clinical condition named gamasoidosis among pet owners and people who live or work close to animal shelters, barns and chicken farms. Pruritus dermatitis is also caused by D...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921469/microbial-factors-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancers
#3
Hong Sheng Ong, Howard Chi Ho Yim
The intestinal microbes form a symbiotic relationship with their human host to harvest energy for themselves and their host and to shape the immune system of their host. However, alteration of this relationship, which is named as a dysbiosis, has been associated with the development of different inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is found that metabolites, cellular components, and virulence factors derived from the gut microbiota interact with the host locally or systemically to modulate the dysbiosis and the development of these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895792/rash-impulsiveness-and-negative-mood-but-not-alexithymia-or-reward-sensitivity-differentiate-young-to-middle-aged-chronic-daily-smokers-from-never-smokers
#4
Michael Lyvers, Monique Bremner, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
Given the well-established associations of the personality traits alexithymia, impulsivity, and reward sensitivity with problematic use of a variety of substances, including alcohol and cannabis, the present study sought to determine whether daily tobacco smoking is similarly linked to these traits. Male and female adults aged 18 to 40 years were recruited from the local Australian community, allowing comparison of demographically similar samples of current daily smokers (n = 47) to never-smokers (n = 59) on the relevant self-report measures...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887301/the-phospholipase-pnpla7-functions-as-a-lysophosphatidylcholine-hydrolase-and-interacts-with-lipid-droplets-through-its-catalytic-domain
#5
Christoph Heier, Benedikt Kien, Feifei Huang, Thomas O Eichmann, Hao Xie, Rudolf Zechner, Ping-An Chang
Mammalian patatin-like phospholipase domain containing proteins (PNPLAs) are lipid metabolizing enzymes with essential roles in energy metabolism, skin barrier development, and brain function. A detailed annotation of enzymatic activities and structure-function relationships remains an important prerequisite to understand PNPLA functions in (patho-)physiology, for example, in disorders such as neutral lipid storage disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and neurodegenerative syndromes. In this study, we characterized the structural features controlling the subcellular localization and enzymatic activity of PNPLA7, a poorly annotated phospholipase linked to insulin signaling and energy metabolism...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818508/the-role-of-the-il-8-signaling-pathway-in-the-infiltration-of-granulocytes-into-the-livers-of-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#6
S W French, A S Mendoza, N Afifiyan, B Tillman, E Vitocruz, B A French
BACKGROUND AND AIM: IL-8 (C-X-L motif chemokine ligase 8) and CXCR2 (C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 2) are up regulated in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) liver biopsies. One of the consequences is the attraction and chemotactic neutrophilic infiltrate seen at the AH stage of alcoholic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies from patients who have AH were studied by (2.1) RNA sequencing, (2.2) PCR and (2.3) semi quantitation of specific proteins in biopsy sections using immunohistochemical measurements of antibody fluorescent intensity with morphometric technology...
August 14, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802862/microrna-21-expression-in-oligodendrocytes-and-correlation-with-low-myelin-mrnas-in-depression-and-alcoholism
#7
José Javier Miguel-Hidalgo, Katherine O Hall, Hannah Bonner, Anna M Roller, Maryam Syed, Casey J Park, Jana P Ball, Marc E Rothenberg, Craig A Stockmeier, Damian G Romero
MiR-21 is a microRNA implicated in cancer, development, and cardiovascular diseases and expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), especially after injury. However, the cellular expression of miR-21 in the adult CNS has not been clearly established either in mice or human subjects, while its alteration in psychiatric disorders is unknown. MiR-21 expression was characterized in reporter mice expressing β-galactosidase (LacZ) under the endogenous miR-21 promoter (miR-21/LacZ). Brain co-localization of miR-21/LacZ with specific neural markers was examined by double immunofluorescence in reporter mice, while extent of immunostaining for myelin basic protein and PDGFRα was determined in miR-21 knockout and wild-type mice...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738291/inflammation-responsive-self-regulated-drug-release-from-ultrathin-hydrogel-coating
#8
Min He, Qian Wang, Zhenqiang Shi, Yi Xie, Weifeng Zhao, Changsheng Zhao
Heterotopic ossification(HO) is a potential severe complication after many biomaterial implanting surgeries, and the inflammation environment caused by the implanting-associated infections is considered as the main nosogenesis. Herein, an inflammation-responsive drug release system was designed by chemically conjugating indometacin (via ester group) onto hydrogel coating to realize local self-regulated drug release to prevent HO. In our strategy, poly(3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane-co-acrylic acrylate and polyvinyl alcohol (providing anchoring sites for drug molecules) were firstly synthesized and functionalized with ene-groups, then a hydrogel layer was formed and covalently attached onto thiol-modified substrate via thiol-ene click chemistry, followed by grafting indometacin...
July 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735060/individual-roles-of-brain-and-serum-alcohol-dehydrogenase-isoforms-in-regulation-of-alcohol-consumption-in-spf-wistar-rats
#9
Vsevolod V Pavshintsev, Nikita A Mitkin, Olga Y Frolova, Ekaterina A Kushnir, Olga A Averina, Maxim L Lovat
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are key enzymes of ethanol metabolism that mediate its oxidation to acetaldehyde. ADHs are also able to oxidize some types of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Increased level of ADHs activity, induced by chronic alcohol consumption, is presumably associated with disturbed neurotransmitters metabolism that leads to stable alcohol craving. As earlier reported, intraperitoneal administration of 4-methilpirasole (non-specific inhibitor of ADHs) has shown to provide a short-term anti-alcoholic effect, but individual roles of ADH isoforms in this process were still unclear...
July 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#10
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673698/restaurant-menu-labeling-laws-and-alcohol-use
#11
Brandon J Restrepo, Mir M Ali
The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of local and state mandatory restaurant menu labeling laws on alcohol use. Using a difference-in-differences estimation approach and data on adults aged 21 and older (n=2,157,722) from the 2002-2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimated the effect of menu labeling laws on self-reported consumption of alcoholic beverages in the past month. The regression analysis indicates that on average implementation of menu labeling laws is associated with a 1...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664666/judicial-intervention-in-alcohol-regulation-an-empirical-legal-analysis
#12
Janani Muhunthan, Blake Angell, Andrew Wilson, Belinda Reeve, Stephen Jan
OBJECTIVE: While governments draft law and policy to promote public health, it is through cases put before the judiciary that the implementation of law can be challenged and where its practical implications are typically determined. In this paper, we examine the role of court judgements on efforts in Australia to regulate the harmful use of alcohol. METHODS: Australian case law (2010 to June 2015) involving the judicial review of administrative decisions relating to development applications or liquor licences for retail liquor outlets (bottle shops), hotels, pubs and clubs was identified using a case law database (WestLaw AU)...
June 29, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656627/cb1-and-ethanol-effects-on-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-central-amygdala-of-male-and-female-msp-and-wistar-rats
#13
Dean Kirson, Christopher Shaun Oleata, Loren Howell Parsons, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Marisa Roberto
The central amygdala (CeA) is involved in the processing of anxiety and stress and plays a role in ethanol consumption. Chronic ethanol recruits stress systems in the CeA, leading to aversive withdrawal symptoms. Although primarily GABAergic, CeA contains glutamatergic afferents, and we have reported inhibitory effects of ethanol on locally evoked glutamatergic responses in CeA of Wistar and Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. Notably, msP rats display enhanced anxiety, stress and alcohol drinking, simulating the alcohol-dependent phenotype...
June 28, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602867/effect-of-gangjihwan-on-hepatic-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#14
Jong Seong Roh, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Jeongjun Kim, Heejung Yang, Yooshik Yoon, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gangjihwan (DF), a polyherbal drug composed of Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C. A. Mayer (Ephedraceae), Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold et Zuccarini (Borraginaceae), and Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), is used to treat obesity in local Korean clinics. The constituents of DF have traditionally been reported to exert anti-obesity and anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of DF on obesity and NAFLD and the underlying mechanisms...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600126/chemokine-cc-motif-receptor-like-2-mrna-is-expressed-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-is-positively-associated-with-characteristics-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice-and-men
#15
Sebastian Zimny, Rebekka Pohl, Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Elisabeth M Haberl, Sabrina Krautbauer, Thomas S Weiss, Christa Buechler
Chemokine (CC-motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is a decoy receptor and regulates the local responses of the chemokine chemerin. Recently our group has shown that the functional chemerin receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), correlates with fibrosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) score in males only. In our current study, we wanted to know whether CCRL2 shows similar correlations as CMKLR1. Therefore, we analyzed the hepatic expression of CCRL2 in murine NASH and in liver tissues obtained from 85 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 33 controls...
August 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591717/peretinoin-an-acyclic-retinoid-suppresses-steatohepatitis-and-tumorigenesis-by-activating-autophagy-in-mice-fed-an-atherogenic-high-fat-diet
#16
Hikari Okada, Riuta Takabatake, Masao Honda, Kai Takegoshi, Taro Yamashita, Mikiko Nakamura, Takayoshi Shirasaki, Yoshio Sakai, Tetsuro Shimakami, Naoto Nagata, Toshinari Takamura, Takuji Tanaka, Shuichi Kaneko
The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is still unclear and the prevention of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been established. We established an atherogenic and high-fat diet mouse model that develops hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and liver tumors at a high frequency. Using two NASH-HCC mouse models, we showed that peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, significantly improved liver histology and reduced the incidence of liver tumors. Interestingly, we found that peretinoin induced autophagy in the liver of mice, which was characterized by the increased co-localized expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B-II and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, and increased autophagosome formation and autophagy flux in the liver...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538665/molecular-basis-of-alcohol-related-gastric-and-colon-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Na, Ja Young Lee
Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482104/mediating-alcohol-use-in-eastern-nigeria-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-role-of-popular-media-in-young-people-s-recreational-drinking
#18
Emeka W Dumbili, Lesley Henderson
Nigeria has high levels of alcohol consumption, and little or no regulation of the alcohol industry. There is a dearth of studies exploring young adults' drinking in a Nigerian context with only a few predominantly quantitative surveys. These do not explore the social meanings attached to drinking practices nor do they shed light on potential gender differences and how these are mediated by popular media. This qualitative study addresses this gap with semi-structured interviews involving 31 undergraduate students...
June 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444769/lesion-of-the-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-attenuates-sleepiness-and-adenosine-after-alcohol-consumption
#19
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Alcohol has a profound effect on sleep. However, neuronal substrates mediating sleep-promoting effects of alcohol are unknown. Since the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons are implicated in the homeostatic regulation of sleep, we hypothesized that the BF cholinergic neurons may have an important role in sleepiness observed after alcohol consumption. 192-IgG-saporin (bilateral BF infusions) was used to selectively lesion BF cholinergic neurons in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Standard surgical procedures were used to implant sleep recording electrodes or microdialysis guide cannulas...
September 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398003/midkine-in-the-mouse-ventral-tegmental-area-limits-ethanol-intake-and-ccl2-gene-expression
#20
H Chen, D He, A W Lasek
Midkine (MDK) is a cytokine and neurotrophic factor that is more highly expressed in the brains of alcoholics and in mice predisposed to drink large amounts of ethanol, suggesting that MDK may regulate ethanol consumption. Here we measured ethanol consumption in male and female Mdk knockout (-/-) mice using the two-bottle choice and the drinking in the dark (DID) tests. We found that Mdk -/- mice consumed significantly more ethanol than wild-type controls in both tests. To determine if MDK acts in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to regulate ethanol consumption, we delivered lentivirus expressing a Mdk shRNA into the VTA of male C57BL/6J mice to locally knockdown Mdk and performed the DID test...
September 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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