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alcohol local regulation

Takayuki Koga, Pei-Li Yao, Maryam Goudarzi, Iain A Murray, Gayathri Balandaram, Frank J Gonzalez, Gary H Perdew, Albert J Fornace, Jeffrey M Peters
Alcoholic liver disease is a pathological condition caused by over-consumption of alcohol. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, there remains a need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its etiology and to develop new treatments. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects, the present study examined alterations in gene expression that may contribute to this disease. Chronic ethanol treatment causes increased hepatic CYP2B10 expression in Pparβ/δ+/+ mice, but not in Pparβ/δ-/- mice...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Grete Mehus, Alf Gunnar Mehus, Sidsel Germeten, Nils Henriksen
INTRODUCTION: Snowmobiling among young people in Scandinavia frequently leads to accidents and injuries. Systematic studies of accidents exist, but few studies have addressed young drivers' experiences. The aim of this article is to reveal how young people experience and interpret accidents, and to outline a prevention strategy. METHODS: Thirty-one girls and 50 boys aged 16-23 years from secondary schools in Northern Norway and on Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, participated in 17 focus groups segregated by gender...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Christie L M Petrenko, Michelle E Alto
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are present across countries and cultures, with prevalence rates threatening to rise in the coming years. In order to support children and families with FASD around the world, researchers must work to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions. However, each cultural context presents unique elements and barriers to the implementation process. This review considers the challenges of addressing FASD in an international context. It summarizes existing FASD interventions that have empirical support in the domains of parenting and education, attention and self-regulation, adaptive functioning, and nutrition and medication...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Serge Ayissi, Krisztián Palotás, Hanna Qin, Lijuan Yang, Paul A Charpentier
Rutile-monoclinic phase transitions of vanadium oxide (VO2) nanocrystals adsorbed on graphene-based substrates are of current scientific interest, although their adsorption and growth mechanisms have not been investigated theoretically. In this study, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations for determining the binding energies and predicting the corresponding directions of growth of VO2 nanostructures (rutile and M1-monoclinic) interacting with both pure graphene and functionalized graphene nanoribbons...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Miguel Araujo, Eduardo Illanes, Evelina Chapman, Eugênia Rodrigues
Globally, 49% of deaths from traffic crashes occur among vulnerable road users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists. Approximately, a quarter of those killed are motorcyclists. The authors carried out a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent motorcycle crashes and the associated morbidity and mortality. The studies included in this review provide evidence for the effectiveness of helmet use, protective clothing, training, and penalties for alcohol consumption and speeding in preventing injury and death to motorcyclists...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Takashi Okabe, Rohit Chavan, Sara S Fonseca Costa, Andrea Brenna, Jürgen A Ripperger, Urs Albrecht
REV-ERBα (Nr1d1) is a nuclear receptor that is part of the circadian clock mechanism and regulates metabolism and inflammatory processes. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1) influences similar processes, but is not part of the circadian clock although glucocorticoid signaling affects resetting of the circadian clock in peripheral tissues. Because of their similar impact on physiological processes we studied the interplay between these two nuclear receptors. We found that REV-ERBα binds to the C-terminal part and GR to the N-terminal part of HSP90, a chaperone responsible for the activation of proteins to ensure survival of a cell...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Yusuke Nakatsu, Yasuka Matsunaga, Takeshi Yamamotoya, Koji Ueda, Yuki Inoue, Keiichi Mori, Hideyuki Sakoda, Midori Fujishiro, Hiraku Ono, Akifumi Kushiyama, Tomoichiro Asano
Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer's disease...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marek Schwendt, M Foster Olive
Type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) activate protein kinase C (PKC) via coupling to Gαq/11 protein signaling. We have previously demonstrated that the epsilon isoform of PKC (PKCɛ) is a critical downstream target of mGluR5 in regulating behavioral and biochemical responses to alcohol. Recent evidence suggests that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR5 can lead to receptor desensitization and internalization. We therefore sought to examine the specific involvement of PKCɛ in the regulation of mGluR5 surface expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key regulator of alcohol-associated behaviors...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Alan R Clough, Stephen A Margolis, Adrian Miller, Anthony Shakeshaft, Christopher M Doran, Robyn McDermott, Rob Sanson-Fisher, Simon Towle, David Martin, Valmae Ypinazar, Jan A Robertson, Michelle S Fitts, Katrina Bird, Bronwyn Honorato, Caryn West
BACKGROUND: Favourable impacts are reported from complex alcohol control strategies, known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) implemented 14 years ago in 19 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Queensland (Australia). However, it is not clear that all communities benefited and that positive impacts were sustained. Service providers, key stakeholders and community leaders provided insights about issues and impacts. METHODS: Participants (N=382) were recruited from knowledgeable and experienced persons using agency lists and by recommendation across sectors which have a mandate for managing alcohol-related issues and consequences of AMP policies in communities...
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Huihui Bi, Sukanya Luang, Yuan Li, Natalia Bazanova, Sarah Morran, Zhihong Song, M Ann Perera, Maria Hrmova, Nikolai Borisjuk, Sergiy Lopato
A plant cuticle forms a hydrophobic layer covering plant organs, and plays an important role in plant development and protection from environmental stresses. We examined epicuticular structure, composition, and a MYB-based regulatory network in two Australian wheat cultivars, RAC875 and Kukri, with contrasting cuticle appearance (glaucousness) and drought tolerance. Metabolomics and microscopic analyses of epicuticular waxes revealed that the content of β-diketones was the major compositional and structural difference between RAC875 and Kukri...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Natalia A Osna, Wayne G Carter, Murali Ganesan, Irina A Kirpich, Craig J McClain, Dennis R Petersen, Colin T Shearn, Maria L Tomasi, Kusum K Kharbanda
It is likely that the majority of proteins will undergo post-translational modification, be it enzymatic or non-enzymatic. These modified protein(s) regulate activity, localization and interaction with other cellular molecules thereby maintaining cellular hemostasis. Alcohol exposure significantly alters several of these post-translational modifications leading to impairments of many essential physiological processes. Here, we present new insights into novel modifications following ethanol exposure and their role in the initiation and progression of liver injury...
July 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Matt Egan, Alan Brennan, Penny Buykx, Frank De Vocht, Lucy Gavens, Daniel Grace, Emma Halliday, Matthew Hickman, Vivien Holt, John D Mooney, Karen Lock
Cumulative impact policies (CIPs) are widely used in UK local government to help regulate alcohol markets in localities characterised by high density of outlets and high rates of alcohol related harms. CIPs have been advocated as a means of protecting health by controlling or limiting alcohol availability. We use a comparative qualitative case study approach (n=5 English local government authorities, 48 participants) to assess how CIPs vary across different localities, what they are intended to achieve, and the implications for local-level alcohol availability...
September 2016: Health & Place
Nadine Gehrke, Marcus A Wörns, Yvonne Huber, Moritz Hess, Beate K Straub, Nadine Hövelmeyer, Ari Waisman, Yong Ook Kim, Detlef Schuppan, Peter R Galle, Jörn M Schattenberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pathomechanisms underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the involved molecular regulators are incompletely explored. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-cofactor gene B cell leukemia-3 (Bcl-3) plays a critical role in altering the transcriptional capacity of NF-κB - a key inducer of inflammation - but also of genes involved in cellular energy metabolism. METHODS: To define the role of Bcl-3 in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), we developed a novel transgenic mouse model with hepatocyte-specific overexpression of Bcl-3 (Bcl-3(Hep)) and employed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary feeding model...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Fang Zheng, Amanda Sparkes, Patrick De Baetselier, Steve Schoonooghe, Benoit Stijlemans, Serge Muyldermans, Véronique Flamand, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Nick Devoogdt, Geert Raes, Alain Beschin
PURPOSE: Kupffer cells (KCs), the liver resident macrophages, are important mediators of tissue homeostasis and pathogen clearance. However, depending on the inflammatory stimuli, KCs have been involved in divergent hepato-protective or hepato-destructive immune responses. The versatility of KCs in response to environmental triggers, in combination with the specific biomarkers they express, make these macrophages attractive in vivo targets for non-invasive monitoring of liver inflammation or pathogenicity...
June 23, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Chan Song Park, Young Sam Go, Mi Chung Suh
The aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are covered by a cuticular wax layer, which protects the plants from environmental stresses such as desiccation, high irradiance, and UV radiation. Cuticular wax deposition is regulated in an organ-specific manner; Arabidopsis stems have more than 10-fold higher wax loads than leaves. In this study, we found that WRINKLED4 (WRI4), encoding an AP2/ERF transcription factor (TF), is predominantly expressed in stem epidermis, is upregulated by salt stress, and is involved in activating cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis stems...
June 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Soong-Taek Hwang, Dongsu Choi
OsHIGDs was identified as a novel hypoxia-responsive protein family. Among them, OsHIGD2 is characterized as a mitochondrial protein and is related to hypoxia signalling through interacting with mitochondrial proteins of critical functions in reducing cell damages caused by hypoxia. Recent evidence supports ethylene as a key factor in modulating plant responses to submergence stress. Meanwhile, there has been general consent that ethylene is not the only signal for the submergence-induced stem growth. In this study, we confirmed that hypoxia also promotes stem elongation in deepwater rice even in the absence of ethylene...
October 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Dhananjay Dhokane, Shailesh Karre, Ajjamada C Kushalappa, Curt McCartney
BACKGROUND: Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum not only causes severe losses in yield, but also reduces quality of wheat grain by accumulating mycotoxins. Breeding for host plant resistance is considered as the best strategy to manage FHB. Resistance in wheat to FHB is quantitative in nature, involving cumulative effects of many genes governing resistance. The poor understanding of genetics and lack of precise phenotyping has hindered the development of FHB resistant cultivars...
2016: PloS One
Andriy A Sibirny
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. In yeasts, peroxisomes play important roles in cell metabolism, especially in different catabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the glyoxylic shunt and methanol metabolism, as well as some biosynthetic processes. In addition, peroxisomes are the compartment in which oxidases and catalase are localized. New peroxisomes mainly arise by fission of pre-existing ones, although they can also be formed from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
June 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Chunjun Zhan, Songwei Wang, Yang Sun, Xiaofeng Dai, Xiuxia Liu, Linda Harvey, Brian McNeil, Yankun Yang, Zhonghu Bai
Promoter of alcohol oxidase I (PAOX1) is the most efficient promoter involved in the regulation of recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). PAOX1 is tightly repressed by the presence of glycerol in the culture medium; thus, glycerol must be exhausted before methanol can be taken up by P. pastoris and the expression of the heterologous protein can be induced. In this study, a candidate glycerol transporter (GT1, GeneID: 8197545) was identified, and its role was confirmed by further studies (e...
June 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
L Aurelian, K T Warnock, I Balan, A Puche, H June
Alcohol dependence is a complex disorder that initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking known as binge drinking, and has a 50-60% risk contribution from inherited susceptibility genes. Cognitive impulsivity is a heritable trait that may set the stage for transition to alcohol dependence but its role in the ethanol-seeking behavior and the involved genes are still poorly understood. We have previously shown that alcohol-preferring P rats have innately elevated levels of a neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that controls the initiation of excessive alcohol drinking...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
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