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alcohol local regulation

Chen Qu, Dandan Zheng, Sai Li, Yingjun Liu, Anna Lidofsky, Jacinta A Holmes, Jianning Chen, Lu He, Lan Wei, Yadi Liao, Hui Yuan, Qimeng Jin, Zelong Lin, Qiaoting Hu, Yuchuan Jiang, Mengxian Tu, Xijun Chen, Weiming Li, Wenyu Lin, Bryan C Fuchs, Raymond T Chung, Jian Hong
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) plays a critical role in immune cell signaling pathways and has been reported as a novel biomarker for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We sought to investigate the mechanism by which SYK promotes liver fibrosis and to evaluate SYK as a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We evaluated the cellular localization of SYK and the association between SYK expression and liver fibrogenesis in normal, HBV-infected, HCV-infected and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) liver tissue (n=36, 127, 22 and 30, respectively)...
March 14, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Zhaomeng Wu, Qingyi Zhu, Yingying Yin, Dan Kang, Runyi Cao, Qian Tian, Yu Zhang, Shan Lu, Ping Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a combined therapeutic result in cancer treatment by integrating holistic and local therapeutical effects, by which TCM can enhance the curative effect and reduce the side effect. In this study, we analyzed the effect of CFF-1 (alcohol extract from an anticancer compound Chinese medicine) on prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines and studied in detail the mechanism of cell death induced by CFF-1 in vitro and in vivo. From our data, we found for the first time that CFF-1 obviously arrested cell cycle in G1 phase, decreased cell viability and then increased nuclear rupture in a dose-dependent manner and finally resulted in apoptosis in prostate cancer cells...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Shihua Zhang, Liang Zhang, Yijun Wang, Jian Yang, Mingzhi Liao, Shoudong Bi, Zhongwen Xie, Chi-Tang Ho, Xiaochun Wan
Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages consumed worldwide. Numerous bioactive constituents of tea were confirmed to possess healthy benefits via the mechanisms of regulating gene expressions or protein activities. However, a complete interacting profile between tea bioactive compounds (TBCs) and their target genes is lacking, which put an obstacle in the study of healthy function of tea. To fill this gap, we developed a database of target genes of TBCs (TBC2target, based on a pharmacophore mapping approach...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lotte Kors, Elena Rampanelli, Geurt Stokman, Loes Butter, Ntsiki M Held, Nike Claessen, Per W B Larsen, Joanne Verheij, Coert J Zuurbier, Gerhard Liebisch, Gerd Schmitz, Stephen E Girardin, Sandrine Florquin, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Jaklien C Leemans
NOD-like receptor (NLR)X1 (NLRX1) is an ubiquitously expressed inflammasome-independent NLR that is uniquely localized in mitochondria with as yet unknown effects on metabolic diseases. Here, we report that NLRX1 is essential in regulating cellular metabolism in non-immune parenchymal hepatocytes by decreasing mitochondrial fatty acid-dependent oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and promoting glycolysis. NLRX1 loss in mice has a profound impact on the prevention of diet-induced metabolic syndrome parameters, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression, and renal dysfunction...
March 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Adam Obad, Ahmed Peeran, Janay I Little, Georges E Haddad, Sima T Tarzami
Alcohol is one of the most commonly abused substances in the United States. Chronic consumption of ethanol has been responsible for numerous chronic diseases and conditions globally. The underlying mechanism of liver injury has been studied in depth, however, far fewer studies have examined other organs especially the heart and the central nervous system (CNS). The authors conducted a narrative review on the relationship of alcohol with heart disease and dementia. With that in mind, a complex relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular disease and dementia has been long proposed but inflammatory biomarkers have gained more attention lately...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Luca Meoli, Nitin K Gupta, Nima Saeidi, Courtney Panciotti, Sudha B Biddinger, Kathleen E Corey, Nicholas Stylopoulos
Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) focuses on the underlying metabolic syndrome, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains one of the most effective options. In rodents and human patients, RYGB induces an increase in the gene and protein expression levels of the M2 isoenzyme of Pyruvate Kinase (PKM2) in the jejunum. Since PKM2 can be secreted in the circulation, our hypothesis was that the circulating levels of PKM2 increase after RYGB. Our data, however, revealed an unexpected finding and a potential new role of PKM2 for the natural history of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
L Ottria, V Candotto, F Cura, L Baggi, C Arcuri, M Nardone, R M Gaudio, R Gatto, F Spadari, F Carinci
In addition to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the two main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), recent studies have revealed infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) as an additional risk factor for OSCC development. In the field of head and neck malignancies, the prevalence of HPV infections in oropharyngeal cancer (OC) ranges in different studies up to 84%. While HPV infection is discussed as an independent risk factor in this region, its distinguished role in carcinogenesis of tumours localized to the oral cavity remains uncertain...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Xinhong Zhu, Ting Xiong, Peiyi Liu, Xiaoping Guo, Lin Xiao, Feng Zhou, Yuhan Tang, Ping Yao
The consumption of a quercetin-rich diet has been well-established as a feasible method against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of NAFLD and its intervention by quercetin remain largely obscure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat diet (HFD), and HepG2 cells stimulated with free fatty acid, were treated with quercetin and various pharmacological reagents to explore the effect of signaling pathways involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress on very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and lipophagy...
February 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Carla J Berg, Lisa Henriksen, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Regine Haardoerfer, Bridget Freisthler
The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults...
February 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Maria Lauda Tomasi, Komal Ramani, Minjung Ryoo, Carla Cossu, Andrea Floris, Ben J Murray, Ainhoa Iglesias-Ara, Ylenia Spissu, Nirmala Mavila
Alcohol acts through numerous pathways leading to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), an ethanol-inducible enzyme, metabolizes ethanol-producing toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is regulated at the posttranslational level. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylation is a posttranslational modification that involves the addition of SUMOs, which modulate protein stability, activity, and localization. We demonstrated that ubiquitin-conjugation enzyme 9, the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, is induced in the livers of an intragastric ethanol mouse model...
January 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Valentina Castelli, Anna Brancato, Angela Cavallaro, Gianluca Lavanco, Carla Cannizzaro
The past two decades of data derived from addicted individuals and preclinical animal models of addiction implicate a role for the excitatory glutamatergic transmission within the mesolimbic structures in alcoholism. The cellular localization of the glutamatergic receptor subtypes, as well as their signaling efficiency and function, are highly dependent upon discrete functional constituents of the postsynaptic density, including the Homer family of scaffolding proteins. The consequences of repeated alcohol administration on the expression of the Homer family proteins demonstrate a crucial and active role, particularly for the expression of Homer2 isoform, in regulating alcohol-induced behavioral and cellular neuroplasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Deborah A Finn, Vanessa A Jimenez
The term neurosteroid refers to rapid membrane actions of steroid hormones and their derivatives that can modulate physiological functions and behavior via their interactions with ligand-gated ion channels. This chapter will highlight recent advances pertaining to the modulatory effects of a select group of neurosteroids that are primarily potent positive allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acidA receptors (GABAARs). Nanomolar concentrations of neurosteroids, which occur in vivo, potentiate phasic and tonic forms of GABAAR-mediated inhibition, indicating that both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs possess sensitivity to neurosteroids and contribute to the overall ability of neurosteroids to modulate central nervous system excitability...
December 15, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Claire Thompson, Sarah Milton, Matt Egan, Karen Lock
BACKGROUND: Recognising the lack of research on daytime drinking practices in areas with managed night-time economies (NTEs), this qualitative study explores the phenomena in the London Borough of Islington; a rapidly gentrifying area with a highly regulated night-time economy (NTE). The objectives were to (i) Characterise the daytime drinking spaces of the local alcohol environment and (ii) Theorise the ways in which these spaces, and the practices and performativities within them, are situated within broader social and economic trends...
February 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Mikko Salaspuro
Ethanol is neither genotoxic nor mutagenic. Its first metabolite acetaldehyde, however, is a powerful local carcinogen. Point mutation in ALDH2 gene proves the causal relationship between acetaldehyde and upper digestive tract cancer in humans. Salivary acetaldehyde concentration and exposure time are the two major and quantifiable factors regulating the degree of local acetaldehyde exposure in the ideal target organ, oropharynx. Instant microbial acetaldehyde formation from alcohol represents >70% of total ethanol associated acetaldehyde exposure in the mouth...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Jaanus Suurväli, Pierre Boudinot, Jean Kanellopoulos, Sirje Rüütel Boudinot
Extracellular nucleotides have been recognized as important mediators of activation, triggering multiple responses via plasma membrane receptors known as P2 receptors. P2 receptors comprise P2X ionotropic receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are expressed in many tissues, where they are involved in a number of functions including synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, platelet aggregation, inflammation, macrophage activation, differentiation and proliferation, neuropathic and inflammatory pain...
October 2017: Biomedical Journal
Karuna Rasineni, Terrence M Donohue, Paul G Thomes, Li Yang, Dean J Tuma, Mark A McNiven, Carol A Casey
Background: Lipid droplets (LDs), the organelles central to alcoholic steatosis, are broken down by lipophagy, a specialized form of autophagy. Here, we hypothesize that ethanol administration retards lipophagy by down-regulating Dynamin 2 (Dyn2), a protein that facilitates lysosome re-formation, contributing to hepatocellular steatosis. Methods: Primary hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats fed Lieber-DeCarli control or EtOH liquid diets for 6-8 wk. Hepatocytes were incubated in complete medium (fed) or nutrient-free medium (fasting) with or without the Dyn2 inhibitor Dynasore or the Src inhibitor SU6656...
August 2017: Hepatology Communications
Xi Cheng, Manli Li, Dahui Li, Jinyun Zhang, Qing Jin, Lingling Sheng, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
The content of stone cells has significant effects on the flavour and quality of pear fruit. Previous research suggested that lignin deposition is closely related to stone cell formation. In the lignin biosynthetic pathway, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), dehydrogenase/reductase family members, catalyse the last two steps in monolignol synthesis. However, there is little knowledge of the characteristics of the CCR and CAD families in pear and their involvement in lignin synthesis of stone cells...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
Leon G Coleman, Jian Zou, Liya Qin, Fulton T Crews
Neuroimmune activation is a key feature of the pathologies of numerous psychiatric disorders including alcoholism, depression, and anxiety. Both HMGB1 and IL-1β have been implicated in brain disorders. Previous studies find HMGB1 andIL-1β form heterocomplexes in vitro with enhanced immune responses, lead to our hypothesis that HMGB1 and IL-1β heterocomplexes formed in vivo to contribute to the pathology of alcoholism. HMGB1/IL-1β heterocomplexes were prepared in vitro and found to potentiate IL-1β receptor proinflammatory gene induction compared to IL-1β alone in hippocampal brain slice culture...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Tingting Gao, Zhi Yang, Chaoji Chen, Yiju Li, Kun Fu, Jiaqi Dai, Emily M Hitz, Hua Xie, Boyang Liu, Jianwei Song, Bao Yang, Liangbing Hu
Space cooling is a predominant part of energy consumption in people's daily life. Although cooling the whole building is an effective way to provide personal comfort in hot weather, it is energy-consuming and high-cost. Personal cooling technology, being able to provide personal thermal comfort by directing local heat to the thermally regulated environment, has been regarded as one of the most promising technologies for cooling energy and cost savings. Here, we demonstrate a personal thermal regulated textile using thermally conductive and highly aligned boron nitride (BN)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite (denoted as a-BN/PVA) fibers to improve the thermal transport properties of textiles for personal cooling...
November 28, 2017: ACS Nano
Serena Stopponi, Yannick Fotio, Ana Domi, Anna Maria Borruto, Luis Natividad, Marisa Roberto, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Nazzareno Cannella
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that prominently degrades the major endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide). Inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased anandamide levels in brain regions that modulate stress and anxiety. Recently, we found that genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats display hyperactive FAAH in amygdalar regions that was associated with increased stress sensitivity and a hyper-anxious phenotype. Our previous work has also demonstrated that msPs display an innate preference for and excessive consumption of alcohol, potentially reflecting a form of self-medication to gain relief from hyper-anxious states...
October 26, 2017: Addiction Biology
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