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alcohol local regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144388/hepatic-structural-enhancement-and-insulin-resistance-amelioration-due-to-at1-receptor-blockade
#1
EDITORIAL
Vanessa Souza-Mello
Over the last decade, the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the development of obesity and its comorbidities has been extensively addressed. Both circulating and local RAS components are up-regulated in obesity and involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease onset. Pharmacological manipulations of RAS are viable strategies to tackle metabolic impairments caused by the excessive body fat mass. Renin inhibitors rescue insulin resistance, but do not have marked effects on hepatic steatosis. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) yield beneficial hepatic remodeling...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119971/spectroscopic-investigation-of-bio-mimetic-solvolysis-of-6-n-n-dimethylamino-2-3-naphthalic-anhydride-in-confined-nanocavities
#2
Falguni Chandra, Suman Mallick, Apurba L Koner
Enzymes are biological catalysts that can vastly accelerate the reaction rate of a substrate by accommodating it within the active site. The local environment provided by the active site of a natural catalyst causes a significant rate-enhancement of the reaction as compared to that without catalyst. The solvolysis reaction of a 6-(N,N-dimethylamino)-2,3-naphthalic anhydride probe is investigated using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in pure alcohols and in bio-mimetic nano-sized environments like surfactants, macrocyclic hosts and protein nanocavities...
January 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108359/synaptic-targets-chronic-alcohol-actions
#3
REVIEW
Marisa Roberto, Florence P Varodayan
Alcohol acts on numerous cellular and molecular targets to regulate neuronal communication within the brain. Chronic alcohol exposure and acute withdrawal generate prominent neuroadaptations at synapses, including compensatory effects on the expression, localization and function of synaptic proteins, channels and receptors. The present article reviews the literature describing the synaptic effects of chronic alcohol exposure and their relevance for synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This review is not meant to be comprehensive, but rather to highlight the effects that have been observed most consistently and that are thought to contribute to the development of alcohol dependence and the negative aspects of withdrawal...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106368/programmable-shape-recovery-process-of-water-responsive-shape-memory-poly-vinyl-alcohol-by-wettability-contrast-strategy
#4
Zhiqiang Fang, Yudi Kuang, Panpan Zhou, Siyi Ming, Penghui Zhu, Yu Liu, Honglong Ning, Gang Chen
Water-responsive shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are desirable for biomedical applications, but their limited shape recovery process is problematic. Herein, we demonstrate a shape-memory poly(vinyl alcohol) (SM-PVA) with programmable multistep shape recovery processes in water via a wettability contrast strategy. A hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)-treated SiO2 nanoparticle layer with varying loading weights was rationally deposited onto the surface of SM-PVA, aiming to create surface-wettability contrast. The varying wettability led to different water adsorption behaviors of SM-PVA that could be well-described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model...
February 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063004/tubulin-alpha-8-is-expressed-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-is-induced-in-transformed-hepatocytes
#5
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Rebekka Pohl, Elisabeth M Haberl, Sebastian Zimny, Maximilian Neumann, Kristina Eisinger, Thomas S Weiss, Sabrina Krautbauer, Christa Buechler
Tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) is highly abundant in murine liver tumors suggesting a role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a risk factor for HCC. In mice that are fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet for two weeks to induce advanced murine NASH, we do see increased hepatic levels of TUBA8 protein. In animals given a high-fat diet for 14 weeks or an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks, hepatic TUBA8 is unchanged. TUBA8 is highly expressed in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and co-localizes with the HSC marker desmin in the murine liver...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028356/sirtuins-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
Fatiha Nassir, Jamal A Ibdah
Mammalian sirtuins are seven members belonging to the silent information regulator 2 family, a group of Class III histone/protein deacetylases. Sirtuins (SIRT 1-7) have different subcellular localization and function and they regulate cellular protein function through various posttranslational modifications. SIRT1 and 3, the most studied sirtuins, use the product of cellular metabolism nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor to post-translationally deacetylate cellular proteins and consequently link the metabolic status of the cell to protein function...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978938/-mechanism-of-action-of-the-sirt1-foxo1-adipor2-signaling-pathway-in-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Z Sun, J Y Zhou
Long-term alcohol stimulation may inhibit the expression of silent information regulator 1 in hepatocytes, which increases the acetylation level of forkhead box transcription factor O1, reduces nuclear localization, and reduces the binding capacity of DNA sequence. This further downregulates the expression of downstream adiponectin receptor 2 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, causes lipid metabolism disorders and triglyceride deposition in hepatocytes by affecting adiponectin signal transduction and synthesis of very-low-density lipoprotein, and finally promotes the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973460/adrenal-disorders-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Labrini Papanastasiou, Stelios Fountoulakis, Ioannis A Vatalas
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the developed world and its pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial. It is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is the leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis. This review aims to present current knowledge on the involvement of the adrenal glands in the development of NAFLD. Clinical and animal studies have shown that excess glucocorticoids (GC) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD seem to have a subtle chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis leading to a state of subclinical hypercortisolism...
December 14, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940345/characterization-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-reductase-from-brassica-and-lactuca-spp-and-its-modulation-during-plant-development
#9
Tereza Tichá, Lucie Činčalová, David Kopečný, Michaela Sedlářová, Martina Kopečná, Lenka Luhová, Marek Petřivalský
Cellular homeostasis of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a major cache of nitric oxide bioactivity in plants, is controlled by the NADH-dependent S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) belonging to the family of class III alcohol dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.1). GSNOR is a key regulator of S-nitrosothiol metabolism and is involved in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This study was focused on GSNOR from two important crop plants, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, BoGSNOR) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa, LsGSNOR)...
December 8, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906104/the-effects-of-computer-based-mindfulness-training-on-self-control-and-mindfulness-within-ambulatorily-assessed-network-systems-across-health-related-domains-in-a-healthy-student-population-smash-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Zarah Rowland, Mario Wenzel, Thomas Kubiak
BACKGROUND: Self-control is an important ability in everyday life, showing associations with health-related outcomes. The aim of the Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains (SMASH) study is twofold: first, the effectiveness of a computer-based mindfulness training will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Second, the SMASH study implements a novel network approach in order to investigate complex temporal interdependencies of self-control networks across several domains...
December 1, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896020/identification-of-phenolic-secondary-metabolites-from-schotia-brachypetala-sond-fabaceae-and-demonstration-of-their-antioxidant-activities-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Mansour Sobeh, Esraa ElHawary, Herbenya Peixoto, Rola M Labib, Heba Handoussa, Noha Swilam, Ahmed H El-Khatib, Farukh Sharapov, Tamer Mohamed, Sonja Krstin, Michael W Linscheid, Abdel Nasser Singab, Michael Wink, Nahla Ayoub
BACKGROUND: Schotia brachypetala Sond. (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree of Southern Africa whose phytochemistry and pharmacology were slightly studied. The present work aimed at profiling the major phenolics compounds present in the hydro-alcohol extract from S. brachypetala leaves (SBE) using LC/HRESI/MS/MS and NMR and prove their antioxidant capabilities using novel methods. METHODS: In vitro assays; DPPH, TEAC persulfate decolorizing kinetic and FRAP assays, and in vivo assays: Caenorhabditis elegans strains maintenance, Intracellular ROS in C...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894904/from-niche-to-stigma-headshops-to-prison-exploring-the-rise-and-fall-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-among-young-adults
#12
Shane Blackman, Rick Bradley
The aim of this paper will be to consider the rise and subsequent fall in NPS use at national and local level with a focus on synthetic cannabinoid products in Kent. We will examine the local practice and policy responses by Kent's Young Persons' Drug and Alcohol Service towards a possible change in patterns of NPS drug consumption. The county has seen an expansion in the number of Headshops and we present local media coverage on NPS, and the Trading Standards and Kent Police intervention Operation Lantern to regulate Headshops...
November 25, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806574/aldo-keto-reductase-regulation-by-the-nrf2-system-implications-for-stress-response-chemotherapy-drug-resistance-and-carcinogenesis
#13
Trevor M Penning
Human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases that convert aldehydes and ketones to primary and secondary alcohols for subsequent conjugation reactions and can be referred to as "phase 1" enzymes. Among all the human genes regulated by the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway, they are consistently the most overexpressed in response to Nrf2 activators. Although these enzymes play clear cytoprotective roles and deal effectively with carbonyl stress, their upregulation by the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway also has a potential dark-side, which can lead to chemotherapeutic drug resistance and the metabolic activation of lung carcinogens (e...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798128/a-functional-switch-in-tonic-gaba-currents-alters-the-output-of-central-amygdala-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-neurons-following-chronic-ethanol-exposure
#14
Melissa A Herman, Candice Contet, Marisa Roberto
: The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system in the central amygdala (CeA) has been implicated in the effects of acute ethanol and the development of alcohol dependence. We previously demonstrated that CRF receptor 1 (CRF1) neurons comprise a specific component of the CeA microcircuitry that is selectively engaged by acute ethanol. To investigate the impact of chronic ethanol exposure on inhibitory signaling in CRF1+ CeA neurons, we used CRF1:GFP mice subjected to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation and examined changes in local inhibitory control, the effects of acute ethanol, and the output of these neurons from the CeA...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765815/regulation-of-cytochrome-p450-2b10-cyp2b10-expression-in-liver-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-modulation-of-sp1-promoter-occupancy
#15
Takayuki Koga, Pei-Li Yao, Maryam Goudarzi, Iain A Murray, Gayathri Balandaram, Frank J Gonzalez, Gary H Perdew, Albert J Fornace, Jeffrey M Peters
Alcoholic liver disease is a pathological condition caused by overconsumption of alcohol. Because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, there remains a need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its etiology and to develop new treatments. Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects, the present study examined alterations in gene expression that may contribute to this disease. Chronic ethanol treatment causes increased hepatic CYP2B10 expression inPparβ/δ(+/+) mice but not in Pparβ/δ(-/-) mice...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764952/young-people-and-snowmobiling-in-northern-norway-accidents-injury-prevention-and-safety-strategies
#16
Grete Mehus, Alf Gunnar Mehus, Sidsel Germeten, Nils Henriksen
INTRODUCTION: Snowmobiling among young people in Scandinavia frequently leads to accidents and injuries. Systematic studies of accidents exist, but few studies have addressed young drivers' experiences. The aim of this article is to reveal how young people experience and interpret accidents, and to outline a prevention strategy. METHODS: Thirty-one girls and 50 boys aged 16-23 years from secondary schools in Northern Norway and on Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, participated in 17 focus groups segregated by gender...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742482/interventions-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-an-international-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Christie L M Petrenko, Michelle E Alto
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are present across countries and cultures, with prevalence rates threatening to rise in the coming years. In order to support children and families with FASD around the world, researchers must work to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions. However, each cultural context presents unique elements and barriers to the implementation process. This review considers the challenges of addressing FASD in an international context. It summarizes existing FASD interventions that have empirical support in the domains of parenting and education, attention and self-regulation, adaptive functioning, and nutrition and medication...
January 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731430/nanostructural-adsorption-of-vanadium-oxide-on-functionalized-graphene-a-dft-study
#18
Serge Ayissi, Krisztián Palotás, Hanna Qin, Lijuan Yang, Paul A Charpentier
Rutile-monoclinic phase transitions of vanadium oxide (VO2) nanocrystals adsorbed on graphene-based substrates are of current scientific interest, although their adsorption and growth mechanisms have not been investigated theoretically. In this study, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations for determining the binding energies and predicting the corresponding directions of growth of VO2 nanostructures (rutile and M1-monoclinic) interacting with both pure graphene and functionalized graphene nanoribbons...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690735/effectiveness-of-interventions-to-prevent-motorcycle-injuries-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
Miguel Araujo, Eduardo Illanes, Evelina Chapman, Eugênia Rodrigues
Globally, 49% of deaths from traffic crashes occur among vulnerable road users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists. Approximately, a quarter of those killed are motorcyclists. The authors carried out a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent motorcycle crashes and the associated morbidity and mortality. The studies included in this review provide evidence for the effectiveness of helmet use, protective clothing, training, and penalties for alcohol consumption and speeding in preventing injury and death to motorcyclists...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686098/rev-erb%C3%AE-influences-the-stability-and-nuclear-localization-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#20
Takashi Okabe, Rohit Chavan, Sara S Fonseca Costa, Andrea Brenna, Jürgen A Ripperger, Urs Albrecht
REV-ERBα (encoded by Nr1d1) is a nuclear receptor that is part of the circadian clock mechanism and regulates metabolism and inflammatory processes. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, encoded by Nr3c1) influences similar processes, but is not part of the circadian clock, although glucocorticoid signaling affects resetting of the circadian clock in peripheral tissues. Because of their similar impact on physiological processes, we studied the interplay between these two nuclear receptors. We found that REV-ERBα binds to the C-terminal portion and GR to the N-terminal portion of HSP90α and HSP90β, a chaperone responsible for the activation of proteins to ensure survival of a cell...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
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