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Christian Geier, Jessica Davis, Marc Siegel
A previously healthy 66-year-old woman living in the Mid-Atlantic USA presented to the hospital with lethargy, ataxia and slurred speech. 2 weeks prior she had removed a tick from her right groin. She reported malaise, fevers, diarrhoea, cough and a rash. Physical examination revealed a maculopapular rash on her chest, and lung auscultation revealed bi-basilar rales. Laboratory tests were remarkable for hyponatraemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Chest X-ray demonstrated bilateral pleural effusions with pulmonary oedema...
October 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Deborah C Jaworski, Chuanmin Cheng, Arathy D S Nair, Roman R Ganta
Monocytic ehrlichiosis in people caused by the intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, is an emerging infectious disease transmitted by the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Tick transmission disease models for ehrlichiosis require at least two hosts and two tick blood feeding episodes to recapitulate the natural transmission cycle. One blood feeding is necessary for the tick to acquire the infection from an infected host and the next feeding is needed to transmit the bacterium to a naïve host...
September 28, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Amy Cheng, Feifei Williams, James Fortenberry, Catherine Preissig, Steven Salinas, Pradip Kamat
Ehrlichiosis, caused by transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis to humans through the bite of an infected lone star tick, can lead to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening condition caused by uncontrolled activation of the cellular immune system. We describe a child with HLH secondary to ehrlichiosis who developed multiorgan failure and was successfully managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 9-year-old boy developed headaches, fever, and sore throat after suspected tick exposure...
September 15, 2016: Pediatrics
Saraniya Sathiamoorthi, Wendy M Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tick-borne diseases are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution. Several diseases endemic to the United States have ophthalmic manifestations, including the most common tick-borne disease, Lyme borreliosis. As ocular complaints may lead a patient to seek medical evaluation, it is important to be aware of the systemic and ophthalmic manifestations of tick-borne diseases in order to make the correct diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Vision-threatening ophthalmic manifestations are relatively common in Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Rachel M Kaplan, Stanley A Swat, Benjamin D Singer
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis can manifest as a disease causing multi-organ failure. Rarely, it can cause secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for both ehrlichiosis and HLH is lifesaving. Therefore, clinical suspicion of HLH must remain high in the setting of an ehrlichiosis infection.
November 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
A Russell Moore, Emily Coffey, Sarah E Leavell, Greta Krafsur, Colleen Duncan, Kristy Dowers, Kelly S Santangelo
A 6-year-old, male castrated, mixed-breed dog was referred to the James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University for bicavitary effusion. On examination, the dog was tachycardic and tachypneic with bilaterally decreased lung sounds. Thoracic and abdominal ultrasonic examination revealed pleural and peritoneal effusions, which were aspirated and submitted for fluid analysis and cytology. Both cavity fluids were classified as exudates with a large population of vacuolated mononuclear cells...
September 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Mingqun Lin, Hongyan Liu, Qingming Xiong, Hua Niu, Zhihui Cheng, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Yasuko Rikihisa
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes a potentially fatal emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. E. chaffeensis has a limited capacity for biosynthesis and metabolism and thus depends mostly on host-synthesized nutrients for growth. Although the host cell cytoplasm is rich with these nutrients, as E. chaffeensis is confined within the early endosome-like membrane-bound compartment, only host nutrients that enter the compartment can be used by this bacterium. How this occurs is unknown...
August 19, 2016: Autophagy
Mario Santoro, Vincenzo Veneziano, Nicola D'Alessio, Francesca Di Prisco, Maria Gabriella Lucibelli, Giorgia Borriello, Anna Cerrone, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Domenico Otranto, Giorgio Galiero
Ehrlichiosis and Q fever caused by the intracellular bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Coxiella burnetii, respectively, are tick-borne diseases with zoonotic potential and widespread geographical distribution. This study investigated the prevalence of both infections in wild mammals in southern Italy. Tissue samples obtained from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), European badger (Meles meles), gray wolf (Canis lupus), beech marten (Martes foina), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) were processed for molecular detection of both pathogens...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Rebeca Movilla, Carlos García, Susanne Siebert, Xavier Roura
BACKGROUND: Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) have become a major concern for canine and human public health. The aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for CVBD, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national survey conducted in Mexico. METHODS: Seventy-four veterinary centres located in 21 federal Mexican states were asked to test dogs with clinical signs suspect for CVBD and healthy dogs, for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Anaplasma spp...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Robert H Six, David R Young, Melanie R Myers, Sean P Mahabir
BACKGROUND: The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, infests dogs and cats in North America and transmits the pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, which cause monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans, and Cytauxzoon felis which causes cytauxzoonosis in cats. A parasiticide's speed of kill is important to minimize the direct deleterious effects [related to blood-feeding] of tick infestation and reduce the risk of transmission of tick-borne pathogens...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Kalyan Sarma, D B Mondal, M Saravanan
Tick-borne infectious diseases constitute an emerging problem in Veterinary Medicine. The study was undertaken to find out the ultrasonographic changes of liver and spleen in 101 positive cases of tick borne intracellular haemoparasitic diseases in dogs. Abdominal survey of ultrasonography revealed hypo echogenicity of liver, gall bladder distension, splenomegaly, hepato-splenomegaly and ascites in various tick born intracellular diseases viz. ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, hepatozoonosis and in mixed infection...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Huitao Liu, Laxmi U M R Jakkula, Tonia Von Ohlen, Roman R Ganta
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium which causes the disease, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Ehrlichia chaffeensis contains only two sigma factors, σ(32) and σ(70) It is difficult to study E. chaffeensis gene regulation due to lack of a transformation system. We developed an Escherichia coli-based transcription system to study E. chaffeensis transcriptional regulation. An E. coli strain with its σ(70) repressed with trp promoter is used to express E. chaffeensis σ(70) The E...
July 8, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Marjolein Lisette den Toom, Tetyda Paulina Dobak, Els Marion Broens, Chiara Valtolina
BACKGROUND: In dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), respiratory signs are uncommon and clinical and radiographic signs of interstitial pneumonia are poorly described. However, in human monocytic ehrlichiosis, respiratory signs are common and signs of interstitial pneumonia are well known. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is classified based on the underlying disease and its treatment is aimed at reducing the clinical signs and, if possible, addressing the primary disease process...
2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Taslima T Lina, Paige S Dunphy, Tian Luo, Jere W McBride
UNLABELLED: Ehrlichia chaffeensis preferentially targets mononuclear phagocytes and survives through a strategy of subverting innate immune defenses, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown E. chaffeensis type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors are involved in diverse molecular pathogen-host interactions, such as the TRP120 interaction with the Notch receptor-cleaving metalloprotease ADAM17. In the present study, we demonstrate E. chaffeensis, via the TRP120 effector, activates the canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote intracellular survival...
2016: MBio
Frans Jongejan, Dionne Crafford, Heidi Erasmus, Josephus J Fourie, Bettina Schunack
BACKGROUND: The ability of the topical spot-on Advantix(®) (50 % permethrin/10 % imidacloprid) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs has previously been reported. The recent market introduction of chewable tablets containing the novel compounds, afoxolaner (NexGard™) and fluralaner (Bravecto™) enabled us to conduct a comparative efficacy study with respect to the ability of these three products to block transmission of E. canis by ticks to dogs...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Shahrzad Motaghipisheh, Baharak Akhtardanesh, Reza Ghanbarpour, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Mohammad Khalili, Saeed Reza Nourollahifard, Saghar Mokhtari
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Recently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemiology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog's owners...
June 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Taslima T Lina, Tierra Farris, Tian Luo, Shubhajit Mitra, Bing Zhu, Jere W McBride
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Maria Theresa Montales, Alexandria Beebe, Arun Chaudhury, Dirk Haselow, Sowmya Patil, Sue Weinstein, Richard Taffner, Naveen Patil
Tick-borne diseases are illnesses transmitted by ticks harboring wide variety of pathogens. Arkansas is reported as one of the states with a high incidence of tick-borne diseases. In Arkansas the four most frequently occurring tick-borne diseases are Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF, also known as Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis), Ehrlichiosis, Tularemia and Anaplasmosis. Lyme disease, on the other hand, is not acquired in Arkansas and is only acquired by traveling to states where Lyme disease is endemic. The majority of tick-borne diseases are diagnosed based on a history of tick bite or exposure and the individual's clinical presentation...
May 2016: Journal of the Arkansas Medical Society
Gabriel L Cicuttin, María N De Salvo, Federico E Gury Dohmen
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
A-Yu Popova, A N Kulichenko, O V Maletskaya, N F Vasilenko, L I Shaposhnikova, E S Kotenev, V M Dubyansky, A S Volynkina, Ya V Lisitskaya, I V Samarina, N A Penkovskaya, I L Evstafiev, N N Tovpinets, N V Tsapko, O A Belova, D S Agapitov, T N Samoded, A A Nadolny, I S Kovalenko, S N Yakunin, N K Shvarsalon, L S Zinich, S N Tikhonov, G I Lyamkin, I V Zharnikova, Yu M Evchenko
AIM: Analysis of epidemic manifestations of natural-foci infections (NFI), clarification of spectrum of their causative agents, determination of epizootic activity of natural foci in the Crimea Federal District (KFD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epizootologic examination of 10 administrative districts of KDF was carried out. 291 pools (2705 specimens) of ixodes ticks and 283 samples of organs of small mammals were studied by PCRmethod for the presence of DNA/RNA of causative agents of a number of NFI...
March 2016: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
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