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Vijay K Eedunuri, Yuntao Zhang, Chuanmin Cheng, Li Chen, Huitao Liu, Anders Omsland, Dan Boyle, Roman R Ganta
Ehrlichia chaffeensis, a tick-transmitted rickettsial bacterium, is the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Biochemical characterization of this and other related Rickettsiales remains a major challenge, as they require a host cell for their replication. We investigated the use of an axenic medium for E. chaffeensis growth, assessed by protein and DNA synthesis, in the absence of a host cell. E. chaffeensis organisms harvested from in vitro cultures grown in a vertebrate cell line were fractionated into infectious dense-core cells (DC) and the non-infectious replicating form, known as reticulate cells (RC) by renografin density gradient centrifugation and incubated in the axenic medium containing amino acids, nucleotides, and different energy sources...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kirsty Thomson, Tal Yaaran, Alex Belshaw, Lucia Curson, Laurence Tisi, Sarah Maurice, Guy Kiddle
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichiosis is an important emerging infectious disease of the canid family and humans worldwide. To date, no extensive evaluation or validation of a molecular diagnostic test for ehrlichiosis has been published. Here, we present data for a newly designed TaqMan assay and compare its performance to a commercial technology (PCRun®). Both of these real-time methods of analysis were evaluated using a comprehensive number of prospective and retrospective samples collected from dogs exhibiting symptoms of ehrlichiosis...
June 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Boondarika Nambooppha, Amarin Rittipornlertrak, Muncharee Tattiyapong, Sahatchai Tangtrongsup, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Yang-Tsung Chung, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
Ehrlichia canis is the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). While there is a high prevalence of CME in Thailand, genetic diversity of E. canis is still poorly defined. This study examined the molecular characteristics of E. canis using PCR and phylogenetic analysis of the dsb, gp19 and gp36 genes. DNA was extracted from 220 whole blood samples of naturally infected dogs, and all had clinical signs compatible with tick-borne diseases. Of these, 16.4% (36/220) provided positive E. canis DNA via the dsb and gp19 genes...
May 28, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Muhammad I Malik, Muhammad Qamar, Quratul Ain, Malik F Hussain, Mustapha Dahmani, Mazhar Ayaz, Asim K Mahmood, Bernard Davoust, Rehan S Shaikh, Furhan Iqbal
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by an intracellular alpha-proteobacterium, Ehrlichia canis, which replicates within mononuclear cells in the host. This study was designed to use a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the molecular detection of E. canis by the amplification of a portion of its 16S rRNA gene, as well as the effects of this alpha-proteobacterium on the haematological parameters of the sampled dogs and the risk factors associated with E. canis infection. A total of 151 blood samples were collected from dogs of various breeds at three sampling sites (Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad and Multan) in Punjab, Pakistan...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Guang Xu, Patrick Pearson, Stephen M Rich
Ehrlichia muris is an agent of human ehrlichiosis. To determine its geographic spread in the United States, during 2016-2017, we tested 8,760 ticks from 45 states. A distinct clade of E. muris found in 3 Ixodes cookei ticks from the northeastern United States suggests transmission by these ticks in this region.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Chandramouli Kondethimmanahalli, Roman Ganta
The rickettsial pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis causes a tick-borne disease, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Mutations within certain genomic locations of the pathogen aid in understanding the pathogenesis and in developing attenuated vaccines. Our previous studies demonstrated that mutations in different genomic sites in E. chaffeensis caused variable impacts on their growth and attenuation in vertebrate and tick hosts. Here, we assessed the effect of three mutations on transcriptional changes using RNA deep-sequencing technology...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Allison Mah, George M Viola, Ella Ariza Heredia, Katayoun Rezvani, Partow Kebriaei, Micah M Bhatti, Xin Han, Elizabeth J Shpall, Victor E Mulanovich
We present a case of possible transfusion-transmitted Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in a heavily transfused cord blood transplant recipient, resulting in severe infection and graft loss. Transfusion-transmitted, vector-borne infections in immunocompromised individuals can have severe consequences, and should be considered in hospitalized patients receiving blood products with unexplained fever or sepsis.
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Emil Hovius, Arnout de Bruin, Leo Schouls, Joppe Hovius, Niels Dekker, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Various tick-borne infections often occur without specific clinical signs and are therefore notoriously hard to diagnose separately in veterinary practice. Longitudinal studies over multiple tick seasons performing clinical, serological and molecular investigations in parallel, may elucidate the relationship between infection and disease. In this regard, six related Rhodesian Ridgeback dogs living as a pack became subject of lifetime studies due to ongoing tick infestations and recurring clinical problems...
April 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Tian Luo, Shubhajit Mitra, Jere W McBride
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that exhibits tropism for mononuclear phagocytes. The mechanisms involved in E. chaffeensis infection of the host cell and evasion of host defenses are not fully defined, but a subset of type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors play important roles. Recently, we determined molecular interactions of TRP120, TRP47, and TRP32 with the eukaryotic host cell. In this investigation, we used yeast two-hybrid analysis to reveal that another E...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
Olukayode Olugbenga Daramola, Michael Irewole Takeet, Ibironke Kofoworola Oyewusi, Mufutau Atanda Oyekunle, Adewale Oladele Talabi
Canine ehrlichiosis is an important tick-borne rickettsial disease mainly caused by Ehrlichia canis. This study aimed to detect and characterise E. canis in dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria by microscopy and nested PCR. Blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, thin smears were made, field-stained, and DNA was extracted from the blood samples. A partial region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced unidirectionally. Ehrlichial morulae were detected in three dogs (1.5%)...
March 2018: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Jilei Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Chengming Wang
We report the complete genome sequence of Ehrlichia canis strain YZ-1, which was isolated from a beagle with fever, anorexia, depression, lethargy, weight loss, and thrombocytopenia. E. canis is the tick-borne agent of canine and human monocytic ehrlichiosis.
March 1, 2018: Genome Announcements
Rochelle Haidee D Ybañez, Adrian P Ybañez, Lyra Lee A Arnado, Laila Monika P Belarmino, Knowlie Gay F Malingin, Paul Bien C Cabilete, Ziggy Ryan O Amores, Maxfrancis G Talle, Mingming Liu, Xuenan Xuan
Background: Ehrlichia , Anaplasma , and Babesia spp. are canine pathogens transmitted by the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick which can cause varied clinical signs. These pathogens have been investigated in the Philippines, but coinfection has not been reported yet. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dogs from seven different veterinary establishments in Cebu, Philippines, were examined for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp...
January 2018: Veterinary World
Itamar Aroch, Gad Baneth, Harold Salant, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Asaf Berkowitz, Merav Shamir, Orit Chai
An 8-year-old mixed-breed dog was presented for acute, progressive weakness and ataxia, inappetence, and weight loss. The patient was mentally normal, but nonambulatory, with a right head tilt, right positional ventral strabismus, and slight head tremors. A neurologic lesion was localized to the cerebellum and right brainstem. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly increased protein concentration and mixed pleocytosis, with eosinophil predominance (44%), intracytoplasmic inclusions within eosinophils, consistent with Ehrlichia canis (E canis) morulae, and Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) or Neospora caninum (N caninum) tachyzoites within eosinophils and monocytes...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Lars Eisen
The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative agent of ehrlichiosis)...
March 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Garry W Buchko, Stephen N Hewitt, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Peter J Myler
Thioredoxins are small ubiquitous proteins that participate in a diverse variety of redox reactions via the reversible oxidation of two cysteine thiol groups in a structurally conserved active site. Here, the NMR solution structures of a reduced and oxidized thioredoxin from Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ec-Trx, ECH_0218), the etiological agent responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis, are described. The overall topology of the calculated structures is similar in both redox states and is similar to those of other thioredoxins: a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet (β1-β3-β2-β4-β5) surrounded by four α-helices...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Rebecca J Eisen, Lars Eisen
In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of seven human pathogens, including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ehrlichiosis associated with Ehrlichia muris eauclarensis. In addition to an accelerated rate of discovery of I. scapularis-borne pathogens over the past two decades, the geographic range of the tick, and incidence and range of I. scapularis-borne disease cases, have increased. Despite knowledge of when and where humans are most at risk of exposure to infected ticks, control of I...
April 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Fui Xian Koh, Kai Ling Kho, Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi, Li Ping Wong, Awang Bulgiba, Poai Ean Tan, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Chandrawathani Panchadcharam, Sun Tee Tay
Little information is available on human anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in Southeast Asia despite increasing reports of the detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in the ticks. We report herein the serological findings against the tick-borne pathogens in a group of animal farm workers (n = 87) and indigenous people (n = 102) in Peninsular Malaysia. IgG antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis were detected from 29.9% and 34.3% of farm workers and indigenous people, respectively, using commercial indirect immunofluorescence assays...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Omid Teymournejad, Mingqun Lin, Yasuko Rikihisa
The obligatory intracellular pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis lacks most genes that confer resistance to oxidative stress but can block reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by host monocytes-macrophages. Bacterial and host molecules responsible for this inhibition have not been identified. To infect host cells, Ehrlichia uses the C terminus of its surface invasin, entry-triggering protein of Ehrlichia (EtpE; EtpE-C), which directly binds the mammalian cell surface receptor glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein DNase X...
November 21, 2017: MBio
Ying Wang, Lanjing Wei, Huitao Liu, Chuanmin Cheng, Roman R Ganta
Obligate intracellular bacteria (obligates) belonging to Rickettsiales and Chlamydiales cause diseases in hundreds of millions of people worldwide and in many animal species. Lack of an efficient system for targeted mutagenesis in obligates remains a major impediment in understanding microbial pathogenesis. Challenges in creating targeted mutations may be attributed to essential nature of majority of the genes and intracellular replication dependence. Despite success in generating random mutations, a method that works well in creating mutations in specific genes of interest followed by complementation remains problematic for obligates and is a highly sought-after goal...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
B R Catherine, M G Jayathangaraj, C Soundararajan, C Bala Guru, D Yogaraj
Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi )...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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