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Temperature regulation in brain injury

Junyun He, Leanne Young, Xiaofeng Jia
Cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Fast, reversible and controllable pharmaceutical-induced hypothermia (PIH) is strongly desired to treat ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 cation channel (TRPV1), is an emerging candidate for PIH. Its capability to lower body temperature has been validated in both healthy and stroke animal models. However, DHC has shown cardiovascular effects and its safety and feasibility in a CA model has not been tested...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Junyun He, Leanne Young, Xiaofeng Jia, Junyun He, Leanne Young, Xiaofeng Jia, Xiaofeng Jia, Leanne Young, Junyun He
Cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Fast, reversible and controllable pharmaceutical-induced hypothermia (PIH) is strongly desired to treat ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 cation channel (TRPV1), is an emerging candidate for PIH. Its capability to lower body temperature has been validated in both healthy and stroke animal models. However, DHC has shown cardiovascular effects and its safety and feasibility in a CA model has not been tested...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Junfeng Yi, Genlin He, Ju Yang, Zhen Luo, Xuesen Yang, Xue Luo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mechanisms underlying the protective role of heat acclimation (HA) in heat stroke (HS)-induced brain injury are still unclear. The autophagy-lysosome pathway is known to pay an important role in protecting stressed or diseased cells from death. Nevertheless, whether autophagy and lysosomes are involved in HA-mediated neuroprotection following HS exposure remains unclear. METHODS: The protective effects of HA were assessed by rectal temperature, hematoxylin-eosin staining, transmission electron microscopic analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining, and Fluoro Jade B staining, after mice were subjected to HS...
January 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Marta Machado-Pereira, Tiago Santos, Liliana Bernardino, Raquel Ferreira
Angiogenesis and inflammation are clearly interconnected and interdependent processes that are dysregulated in a series of systemic and brain pathologies. Herein, key aspects regarding endothelial cell function and tissue remodelling that are particularly affected or aggravated by inflammation are presented. Most importantly, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular regulation of the inflammatory processes occurring in several brain disorders and how they impact on disease/injury progression are detailed, highlighting potential targets for therapy...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Ling Cui, Wen-Jing He, Fan Xu, Li Jiang, Ming-Liang Lv, Hui Huang, Ji-Ping Xu, Yu Wu, Hai-Bin Zhong, Shao-Yang Zhang, Li-Fei Chen, Chao-Lan Shen, Gang Yao, Li Li, Min Li, Si-Ming Zeng
HS-1-associated protein X-1 (Hax-1) has been suggested to be expressed in various rodent and human tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Hax‑1 exerts an anti‑apoptotic effect in neurological diseases. Furthermore, it has also been reported that Hax‑1 interacts with various apoptosis‑associated proteins, including high temperature-regulated A2 (HtrA2) and caspase‑3. Previous studies have indicated that abnormal expression of Hax‑1 may be associated with the development of the nervous system and with the pathophysiology of neurological diseases, including traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia...
November 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mimily Harsono, Massroor Pourcyrous, Elliott J Jolly, Amy de Jongh Curry, Alexander L Fedinec, Jianxiong Liu, Shyamali Basuroy, Daming Zhuang, Charles W Leffler, Helena Parfenova
Epileptic seizures in neonates cause cerebrovascular injury and impairment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. In the bicuculline model of seizures in newborn pigs, we tested the hypothesis that selective head cooling prevents deleterious effects of seizures on cerebral vascular functions. Preventive or therapeutic ictal head cooling was achieved by placing two head ice packs during the preictal and/or ictal states, respectively, for the ∼2-h period of seizures. Head cooling lowered the brain and core temperatures to 25...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
N Talma, W F Kok, C F de Veij Mestdagh, N C Shanbhag, H R Bouma, R H Henning
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is the induced cooling of the entire body or specific organs to help prevent ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, as may occur during major surgery, cardiac resuscitation, traumatic brain injury and stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion induce neuronal damage by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative injury, ER stress, neuronal excitotoxicity, and a neuroinflammatory response, which may lead to activation of apoptosis pathways. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The aim of the current review is to discuss TTM targets that convey neuroprotection and to identify potential novel pharmacological intervention strategies for the prevention of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Allen W Heinemann, Jin-Shei Lai, Alex Wong, Jessica Dashner, Susan Magasi, Elizabeth A Hahn, Noelle E Carlozzi, David S Tulsky, Sara Jerousek, Patrick Semik, Ana Miskovic, David B Gray
OBJECTIVES: To develop a measure of natural environment and human-made change features (Chapter 2 of the international classification of functioning, disability, and health) and evaluate the influence of perceived barriers on health-related quality of life. METHODS: A sample of 570 adults with stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury residing in community settings reported their functioning in home, outdoor, and community settings (mean age = 47...
May 20, 2016: Quality of Life Research
W Reith, U Yilmaz, C Kraus
The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) or shaking trauma describes the occurrence of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage and diffuse injury to the brain by vigorous shaking of an infant that has a poor prognosis. Rapid cranial acceleration and deceleration leads to tearing of bridging veins, retinal hemorrhages and diffuse brain injuries. In addition to clinical symptoms, such as irritability, feeding difficulties, somnolence, apathy, seizures, apnea and temperature regulation disorders, vomiting also occurs due to increased intracranial pressure...
May 2016: Der Radiologe
Lin Wu, He-Liang Sun, Yu Gao, Kang-Li Hui, Miao-Miao Xu, Hao Zhong, Man-Lin Duan
Therapeutic hypothermia is well known for its protective effect against brain injury after cardiac arrest, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), a member of cold shock protein, enables mammalian cells to withstand decreased temperature by regulating gene translation. However, the role of CIRP in global cerebral ischemia after therapeutic hypothermia has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, rats resuscitated from 4 min of cardiac arrest were separately treated with therapeutic hypothermia (immediately after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); targeted temperature at 33 °C) and therapeutic normothermia (targeted temperature at 36...
March 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Chunyan Li, Pei-ming Wu, Zhizhen Wu, Kanokwan Limnuson, Neal Mehan, Cameron Mozayan, Eugene V Golanov, Chong H Ahn, Jed A Hartings, Raj K Narayan
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) plays a critical role in the exchange of nutrients and metabolites at the capillary level and is tightly regulated to meet the metabolic demands of the brain. After major brain injuries, CBF normally decreases and supporting the injured brain with adequate CBF is a mainstay of therapy after traumatic brain injury. Quantitative and localized measurement of CBF is therefore critically important for evaluation of treatment efficacy and also for understanding of cerebral pathophysiology...
October 2015: Biomedical Microdevices
Anthony R Bain, Lars Nybo, Philip N Ainslie
This review provides an in-depth update on the impact of heat stress on cerebrovascular functioning. The regulation of cerebral temperature, blood flow, and metabolism are discussed. We further provide an overview of vascular permeability, the neurocognitive changes, and the key clinical implications and pathologies known to confound cerebral functioning during hyperthermia. A reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), derived primarily from a respiratory-induced alkalosis, underscores the cerebrovascular changes to hyperthermia...
July 1, 2015: Comprehensive Physiology
John R P Knight, Anne E Willis
Controlled whole-body cooling has been used since the 1950s to protect the brain from injury where cerebral blood flow is reduced. Therapeutic hypothermia has been used successfully during heart surgery, following cardiac arrest and with varied success in other instances of reduced blood flow to the brain. However, why reduced temperature is beneficial is largely unknown. Here we review the use of therapeutic hypothermia with a view to understanding the underlying biology contributing to the phenomenon. Interestingly, the benefits of cooling have recently been extended to treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases in two mouse models...
June 2015: Biochemical Society Transactions
Xiaohuan Gu, Zheng Zachory Wei, Alyssa Espinera, Jin Hwan Lee, Xiaoya Ji, Ling Wei, Thomas A Dix, Shan Ping Yu
Neonatal brain trauma is linked to higher risks of mortality and neurological disability. The use of mild to moderate hypothermia has shown promising potential against brain injuries induced by stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in various experimental models and in clinical trials. Conventional methods of physical cooling, however, are difficult to use in acute treatments and in induction of regulated hypothermia. In addition, general anesthesia is usually required to mitigate the negative effects of shivering during physical cooling...
May 2015: Experimental Neurology
Guo-Chung Dong, Che-Yung Kuan, Sadhasivam Subramaniam, Jiong-Yao Zhao, Savitha Sivasubramaniam, Hwan-You Chang, Feng-Huei Lin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an extremely cataclysmic neurological disorder and the inhibition of oxidative stress following TBI could effectively protect the brain from further impairments. An injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/β-Glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel for the controlled release of the phenolic antioxidant ferulic acid (FA) to inhibit the neurological oxidative stress was demonstrated. The C/G/GP hydrogel ensures an excellent clinical expediency with a gelation temperature of 32...
April 2015: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Aarti Gautam, Peter D'Arpa, Duncan E Donohue, Seid Muhie, Nabarun Chakraborty, Brian T Luke, Dmitry Grapov, Erica E Carroll, James L Meyerhoff, Rasha Hammamieh, Marti Jett
Acute responses to intense stressors can give rise to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD diagnostic criteria include trauma exposure history and self-reported symptoms. Individuals who meet PTSD diagnostic criteria often meet criteria for additional psychiatric diagnoses. Biomarkers promise to contribute to reliable phenotypes of PTSD and comorbidities by linking biological system alterations to behavioral symptoms. Here we have analyzed unbiased plasma metabolomics and other stress effects in a mouse model with behavioral features of PTSD...
2015: PloS One
Serena Boccella, Valentina Vacca, Francesco Errico, Sara Marinelli, Marta Squillace, Francesca Guida, Anna Di Maio, Daniela Vitucci, Enza Palazzo, Vito De Novellis, Sabatino Maione, Flaminia Pavone, Alessandro Usiello
D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid found in the mammalian brain with a temporal-dependent concentration based on the postnatal expression of its metabolizing enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-Asp acts as an agonist on NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Accordingly, high levels of D-Asp in knockout mice for Ddo gene (Ddo (-/-)) or in mice treated with D-Asp increase NMDAR-dependent processes. We have here evaluated in Ddo (-/-) mice the effect of high levels of free D-Asp on the long-term plastic changes along the nociceptive pathway occurring in chronic and acute pain condition...
2015: BioMed Research International
Przemysław Sosnowski, Kinga Mikrut, Hanna Krauss
This review focuses on the physiological responses and pathophysiological changes induced by hypothermia. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain thermal homeostasis. The human body can be divided arbitrarily into two thermal compartments: a core compartment (trunk and head), with precisely regulated temperature around 37°C, and a peripheral compartment (skin and extremities) with less strictly controlled temperature, and lower than the core temperature. Thermoregulatory processes occur in three phases: afferent thermal sensing, central regulation, mainly by the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, and efferent response...
2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
L P Filaretova, T R Bagaeva, O Y Morozova, D Zelena
OBJECTIVE: Gastric erosion is widespread side effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To examine the complexity of the brain-gut axis regulation, indomethacin-induced gastric erosion formation was studied in connection with somatic and behavioral changes. METHODS: During a constant telemetric recording of heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion of male rats we examined the effects of 24 h fasting, indomethacin (35 mg/kg s.c.) injection, and refeeding at 4 h...
October 2014: Endocrine Regulations
Aisah A Aubdool, Rabea Graepel, Xenia Kodji, Khadija M Alawi, Jennifer V Bodkin, Salil Srivastava, Clive Gentry, Richard Heads, Andrew D Grant, Elizabeth S Fernandes, Stuart Bevan, Susan D Brain
The cold-induced vascular response, consisting of vasoconstriction followed by vasodilatation, is critical for protecting the cutaneous tissues against cold injury. Whilst this physiological reflex response is historic knowledge, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Here by using a murine model of local environmental cold exposure, we show that TRPA1 acts as a primary vascular cold sensor, as determined through TRPA1 pharmacological antagonism or gene deletion. The initial cold-induced vasoconstriction is mediated via TRPA1-dependent superoxide production that stimulates α2C-adrenoceptors and Rho-kinase-mediated MLC phosphorylation, downstream of TRPA1 activation...
December 11, 2014: Nature Communications
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