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Hypothalamus temperature regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031329/dogs-with-macroadenomas-have-lower-body-temperature-and-heart-rate-than-dogs-with-microadenomas
#1
Ghita Benchekroun, Loic Desquilbet, Michael E Herrtage, Nick D Jeffery, Dan Rosenberg, Nicolas Granger
Pituitary macroadenomas compress the hypothalamus, which partly regulates heart rate and body temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heart rate and/or body temperature could aid in clinically differentiating dogs with macroadenomas from dogs with microadenomas (i.e. small non-compressive pituitary mass). Two groups of dogs diagnosed with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (i.e. Cushing's disease) were included. Heart rate and body temperature were collected on initial presentation before any procedure...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023516/hypothalamic-control-systems-show-differential-gene-expression-during-spontaneous-daily-torpor-and-fasting-induced-torpor-in-the-djungarian-hamster-phodopus-sungorus
#2
Ceyda Cubuk, Hanna Markowsky, Annika Herwig
Djungarian hamsters are able to use spontaneous daily torpor (SDT) during the winter season as well as fasting-induced torpor (FIT) at any time of the year to cope with energetically challenging environmental conditions. Torpor is a state of severely reduced metabolism with a pronounced decrease in body temperature, which enables animals to decrease their individual energy requirements. Despite sharing common characteristics, such as reduced body mass before first torpor expression and depressed metabolism and body temperature during the torpid state, FIT and SDT differ in several physiological properties including torpor bout duration, minimal body temperature, fuel utilization and circadian organization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980233/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-mechanisms-of-avian-seasonal-reproduction
#3
T Katherine Tamai, Takashi Yoshimura
Animals living outside tropical zones experience seasonal changes in the environment and accordingly, adapt their physiology and behavior in reproduction, molting, and migration. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of seasonal reproduction because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. For example, testicular weight typically changes by more than a 100-fold. In birds, the eyes are not necessary for seasonal reproduction, and light is instead perceived by deep brain photoreceptors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943102/hypothalamic-pathways-regulate-the-anorectic-action-of-p-chloro-diphenyl-diselenide-in-rats
#4
Cristiani F Bortolatto, Cristina W Nogueira, Begoña Porteiro, Mónica Imbernón, Ruben Nogueiras
Behavioral studies have suggested that (p-ClPhSe)2 elicits an anorectic-like action in rats by inducing multiple effects such as satiety-enhancing effect, malaise and specific flavor; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic action remain unclarified. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats received acute and sub-chronic intraperitoneal treatments with (p-ClPhSe)2; thereafter, in vivo and ex vivo analyses were carried out. The present study reveals that the reduction of food intake resulting from a single treatment with (p-ClPhSe)2 (1mg/kg, i...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825946/injury-of-the-hypothalamus-in-patients-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#5
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
OBJECTIVES: The survival rate for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI-BI) is less than 20%. Several brain regions, including the caudate, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, are vulnerable to HI-BI. Hypothalamus is involved in regulation of temperature, sleep-wakefulness cycle, emotional behavior, and memory function. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we examined injury of the hypothalamus in patients with HI-BI. METHODS: Twelve patients with HI-BI and 27 healthy control subjects were recruited...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772276/the-hypothalamic-preoptic-area-and-body-weight-control
#6
Sangho Yu, Marie François, Clara Huesing, Heike Münzberg
<br>The preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus is involved in many physiological and behavioral processes thanks to its inter-connections to many brain areas and ability to respond to diverse humoral factors. One main function of the POA is to manage body temperature homeostasis, e.g. in response to ambient temperature change, which is achieved in part by controlling brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. The POA is also importantly involved in modulating food intake in response to temperature change, thus making it relevant for body weight homeostasis and obesity research...
August 2, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736241/oxytocin-release-via-activation-of-trpm2-and-cd38-in-the-hypothalamus-during-hyperthermia-in-mice-implication-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Haruhiro Higashida, Teruko Yuhi, Shirin Akther, Sarwat Amina, Jing Zhong, Mingkun Liang, Tomoko Nishimura, Hong-Xiang Liu, Olga Lopatina
Oxytocin (OT) is a critical molecule for social recognition that mediates social and emotional behaviors. OT is released during stress and acts as an anxiolytic factor. To know the precise molecular mechanisms underlying OT release into the brain during stress is important. It has been reported that intracellular concentrations of free calcium in the hypothalamic neurons are elevated by simultaneous stimulation of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and heat. We have reported in vitro and in vivo data that supports the idea that release of OT in the brain of male mice is regulated by cADPR and fever in relation to stress conditions...
July 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714085/neural-control-of-sweat-secretion-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Y Hu, C Converse, M C Lyons, W H Hsu
Humans have 4 million exocrine sweat glands, which can be classified into two types: eccrine and apocrine glands. Sweat secretion is a constitutive feature, which is directly involved in thermoregulation and metabolism. Sweat secretion is regulated by both the central nervous system(1) and autonomic nervous system.(2) In peripheral areas, the ANS, especially the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), mediates the transmission of neurotransmitters to sweat glands. Two principal chemical mediators, acetylcholine and noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), are released by the SNS, which stimulate sweat secretion...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596466/-clocks-behavior-and-cognition
#9
Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Motoyasu Honma, Ryuta Kinno, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533422/paternal-hyperglycemia-in-rats-exacerbates-the-development-of-obesity-in-offspring
#10
Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongyin Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Parental history with obesity or diabetes will increase the risk for developing metabolic diseases in offspring. However, literatures as to transgenerational inheritance of metabolic dysfunctions through male lineage are relatively scarce. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate influences of paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic phenotypes in offspring. Male SD rats were i.p. injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or citrate buffer (CB, as control). STZ-injected rats with glucose levels higher than 16.7 mM were selected to breed with normal female rats...
August 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444394/tissue-specific-dissociation-of-diurnal-transcriptome-rhythms-during-sleep-restriction-in-mice
#11
Jana Husse, Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Johanna L Barclay, Nadine Naujokat, Judit Meyer-Kovac, Hendrik Lehnert, Henrik Oster
Study objectives: Shortened or mistimed sleep affects metabolic homeostasis, which may in part be mediated by dysregulation of endogenous circadian clocks. In this study, we assessed the contribution of sleep disruption to metabolic dysregulation by analysing diurnal transcriptome regulation in metabolic tissues of mice subjected to a sleep restriction (SR) paradigm. Methods: Male mice were subjected to 2 × 5 days of SR with enforced waking during the first 6 hours of the light phase...
June 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433253/neuropeptide-s-increases-motor-activity-and-thermogenesis-in-the-rat-through-sympathetic-activation
#12
Takuya Ensho, Keiko Nakahara, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Noboru Murakami
The central role of neuropeptide S (NPS), identified as the endogenous ligand for GPR154, now named neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), has not yet been fully clarified. We examined the central role of NPS for body temperature, energy expenditure, locomotor activity and adrenal hormone secretion in rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NPS increased body temperature in a dose-dependent manner. Energy consumption and locomotor activity were also significantly increased by icv injection of NPS. In addition, icv injection of NPS increased the peripheral blood concentration of adrenalin and corticosterone...
April 13, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365894/gene-expression-analysis-and-microdialysis-suggest-hypothalamic-triiodothyronine-t3-gates-daily-torpor-in-djungarian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#13
Jonathan H H Bank, Ceyda Cubuk, Dana Wilson, Eddy Rijntjes, Julia Kemmling, Hanna Markovsky, Perry Barrett, Annika Herwig
Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating seasonal adaptations of mammals. Several studies suggested that reduced availability of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) in the hypothalamus is required for the physiological adaptation to winter in Djungarian hamsters. We have previously shown that T3 is involved in the regulation of daily torpor, but it remains unclear, whether T3 affects torpor by central or peripheral mechanisms. To determine the effect of T3 concentrations within the hypothalamus in regulating daily torpor, we tested the hypothesis that low hypothalamic T3 metabolism would favour torpor and high T3 concentrations would not...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348515/transcriptome-analysis-of-hypothalamic-gene-expression-during-daily-torpor-in-djungarian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#14
Ceyda Cubuk, Julia Kemmling, Andrej Fabrizius, Annika Herwig
Animals living at high or temperate latitudes are challenged by extensive changes in environmental conditions over seasons. Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) are able to cope with extremely cold ambient temperatures and food scarcity in winter by expressing spontaneous daily torpor. Daily torpor is a circadian controlled voluntary reduction of metabolism that can reduce energy expenditure by up to 65% when used frequently. In the past decades it has become more and more apparent, that the hypothalamus is likely to play a key role in regulating induction and maintenance of daily torpor, but the molecular signals, which lead to the initiation of daily torpor, are still unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332601/trpm8-in-the-negative-regulation-of-tnf%C3%AE-expression-during-cold-stress
#15
Xin-Pei Wang, Xuan Yu, Xiao-Jin Yan, Fan Lei, Yu-Shuang Chai, Jing-Fei Jiang, Zhi-Yi Yuan, Dong-Ming Xing, Li-Jun Du
Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8 (TRPM8) reportedly plays a fundamental role in a variety of processes including cold sensation, thermoregulation, pain transduction and tumorigenesis. However, the role of TRPM8 in inflammation under cold conditions is not well known. Since cooling allows the convergence of primary injury and injury-induced inflammation, we hypothesized that the mechanism of the protective effects of cooling might be related to TRPM8. We therefore investigated the involvement of TRPM8 activation in the regulation of inflammatory cytokines...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317427/fatigue-is-it-all-neurochemistry
#16
Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
Fatigue during exercise can be approached from different angles. Peripheral fatigue is usually described as an impairment located in the muscle and characterized by a metabolic end point, while central fatigue is defined as a failure of the central nervous system to adequately drive the muscle. The aim of the present narrative review paper is to look at the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of fatigue during prolonged exercise, predominantly from a brain neurochemical point of view. From studies in rodents it is clear that exercise increases the release of several neurotransmitters in different brain regions, and that the onset of fatigue can be manipulated when dopaminergic influx in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus is increased, interfering with thermoregulation...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278364/methyl-cpg-level-at-distal-part-of-heat-shock-protein-promoter-hsp70-exhibits-epigenetic-memory-for-heat-stress-by-modulating-recruitment-of-pou2f1-associated-nucleosome-remodeling-deacetylase-nurd-complex
#17
Tatiana Kisliouk, Tomer Cramer, Noam Meiri
Depending on its stringency, exposure to heat in early life leads to either resilience or vulnerability to heat stress later in life. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in genes belonging to the cell proteostasis pathways are attributed to long-term responses to heat stress. Epigenetic regulation of the mRNA expression of the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 (HSPA2) was evaluated in the chick hypothalamus during the critical period of thermal-control establishment on day 3 post-hatch and during heat challenge on day 10...
May 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264977/constant-light-desynchronizes-olfactory-versus-object-and-visuospatial-recognition-memory-performance
#18
Shu K E Tam, Sibah Hasan, Harry M C Choi, Laurence A Brown, Aarti Jagannath, Steven Hughes, Mark W Hankins, Russell G Foster, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, David M Bannerman, Stuart N Peirson
Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254751/glycinergic-inhibition-of-bat-sympathetic-premotor-neurons-in-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#19
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
The rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) contains sympathetic premotor neurons controlling thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We sought to determine whether a tonic activation of glycineA receptors (GlyAR) in the rRPa contributes to the inhibitory regulation of BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and of cardiovascular parameters in anesthetized rats. Nanoinjection of the GlyAR antagonist, strychnine (STR), into the rRPa of intact rats increased BAT SNA (peak: +495%), BAT temperature (TBAT, +1.1°C), expired CO2, (+0...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118407/effect-of-physical-exercise-on-the-febrigenic-signaling-is-modulated-by-preoptic-hydrogen-sulfide-production
#20
Jonatas E Nogueira, Renato N Soriano, Rodrigo A R Fernandez, Heloísa D C Francescato, Rafael S Saia, Terezila M Coimbra, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Luiz G S Branco
We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation...
2017: PloS One
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