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Hypothalamus temperature regulation

Y Qi, L Purtell, M Fu, K Sengmany, K Loh, L Zhang, S Zolotukhin, A Sainsbury, L Campbell, H Herzog
Germline deletion of the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) candidate gene Snord116 in mice leads to some classical symptoms of human PWS, notably reductions in body weight, linear growth and bone mass. However, Snord116 deficient mice (Snord116(-/-)) do not develop an obese phenotype despite their increased food intake and the underlying mechanism for that is unknown. We tested the phenotypes of germline Snord116(-/-) as well as neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuron specific Snord116(lox/lox)/NPY(cre/+) mice at 30°C, the thermoneutral temperature of mice, and compared these to previous reports studies conducted at normal room temperature...
October 27, 2016: Neuropeptides
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Martin Jastroch, Sylvain Giroud, Perry Barrett, Fritz Geiser, Gerhard Heldmaier, Annika Herwig
Endothermic mammals and birds require intensive energy turnover to sustain high body temperatures and metabolic rates. To cope with energetic bottlenecks associated with the change of seasons, and to minimise energy expenditure, complex mechanisms and strategies, such as daily torpor and hibernation, are used. During torpor metabolic depression and low body temperatures save energy. However, these bouts of torpor lasting for hours to weeks are interrupted by active 'euthermic' phases with high body temperatures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Chan Lek Tan, Elizabeth K Cooke, David E Leib, Yen-Chu Lin, Gwendolyn E Daly, Christopher A Zimmerman, Zachary A Knight
Thermoregulation is one of the most vital functions of the brain, but how temperature information is converted into homeostatic responses remains unknown. Here, we use an unbiased approach for activity-dependent RNA sequencing to identify warm-sensitive neurons (WSNs) within the preoptic hypothalamus that orchestrate the homeostatic response to heat. We show that these WSNs are molecularly defined by co-expression of the neuropeptides BDNF and PACAP. Optical recordings in awake, behaving mice reveal that these neurons are selectively activated by environmental warmth...
September 22, 2016: Cell
Georgia Coleman, John Gigg, Maria Mercè Canal
The postnatal light environment that a mouse experiences during the critical first three postnatal weeks has long-term effects on both its circadian rhythm output and clock gene expression. Furthermore, data from our lab suggest that postnatal light may also impact the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a key regulator of stress. To test the effect of postnatal light exposure on adult stress responses and circadian rhythmicity, we raised mice under either 24-h light-dark cycles (LD), constant light (LL) or constant dark (DD) during the first three postnatal weeks...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kun Song, Hong Wang, Gretel B Kamm, Jörg Pohle, Fernanda de Castro Reis, Paul Heppenstall, Hagen Wende, Jan Siemens
Body temperature homeostasis is critical for survival and requires precise regulation by the nervous system. The hypothalamus serves as the principal thermostat that detects and regulates internal temperature. We demonstrate that the ion channel TRPM2 [of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family] is a temperature sensor in a subpopulation of hypothalamic neurons. TRPM2 limits the fever response and may detect increased temperatures to prevent overheating. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation and inhibition of hypothalamic TRPM2-expressing neurons in vivo decreased and increased body temperature, respectively...
September 23, 2016: Science
Zhi Zhang, Ewout Foppen, Yan Su, Peter H Bisschop, Andries Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers, Anita Boelen
Thyroid hormone is a key regulator of energy metabolism. Apart from its direct effects on peripheral metabolism, thyroid hormone exerts acute metabolic effects via distinct nuclei within the hypothalamus. Recently we developed a method for chronic and local intrahypothalamic T3 administration in rats. The present study evaluated the metabolic effects of T3 delivered during either 7 or 28 days to the paraventricular or ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN or VMH). T3 administration for 7 days in the PVN decreased only plasma T3...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Jing Zhong, Sarwat Amina, Mingkun Liang, Shirin Akther, Teruko Yuhi, Tomoko Nishimura, Chiharu Tsuji, Takahiro Tsuji, Hong-Xiang Liu, Minako Hashii, Kazumi Furuhara, Shigeru Yokoyama, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Okamoto, Yong Juan Zhao, Hon Cheung Lee, Makoto Tominaga, Olga Lopatina, Haruhiro Higashida
Hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) is released into the brain by cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) with or without depolarizing stimulation. Previously, we showed that the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) that seems to trigger OT release can be elevated by β-NAD(+), cADPR, and ADP in mouse oxytocinergic neurons. As these β-NAD(+) metabolites activate warm-sensitive TRPM2 cation channels, when the incubation temperature is increased, the [Ca(2+)]i in hypothalamic neurons is elevated. However, it has not been determined whether OT release is facilitated by heat in vitro or hyperthermia in vivo in combination with cADPR...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Cristina Contreras, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Gema Medina-Gómez, Miguel López
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been also considered as the main thermogenic organ responsible of maintenance body temperature through heat production. However, a new type of thermogenic fat has been characterized during the last years, the beige or brite fat, that is developed from white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to different stimuli by a process known as browning. The activities of brown and beige adipocytes ameliorate metabolic disease, including obesity in mice and correlate with leanness in humans...
August 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Kanna Oura, Airi Otsuka, Tetsuya Shiuchi, Sachiko Chikahisa, Noriyuki Shimizu, Hiroyoshi Séi
AIMS: Sleep and feeding behaviors closely interact to maintain energy homeostasis. While it is known that sleep disorders can lead to various metabolic issues such as insulin resistance, the mechanism for this effect is poorly understood. We thus investigated whether different feeding rhythms during the active period affect sleep-wake regulation. MAIN METHODS: For 2weeks, mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 feeding schedules as follows: free access to lab chow during the active period (ZT12-24, Ad-lib group), free access to lab chow during the first half of the active period (ZT12-18; Morning group), or free access to lab chow during the second half of the active period (ZT18-24, Evening group)...
September 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Jonathan F Gill, Julien Delezie, Gesa Santos, Christoph Handschin
OBJECTIVE: Food intake and whole-body energy homeostasis are controlled by agouti-related protein (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Key energy sensors, such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), are essential in AgRP and POMC cells to ensure proper energy balance. In peripheral tissues, the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α closely associates with these sensors to regulate cellular metabolism...
July 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Hong-Xiang Liu, Shuang Ma, Yong Nan, Wan-Hua Yang
In recent studies, oxytocin showed potential for the treatment of mental diseases. CD38 is essential for oxytocin release, and hence plays a critical role in social behavior. CD38 catalyzes β-NAD into cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR), which could elevate the intracellular Ca by Ca-permeable channels for oxytocin secretion. The temperature-sensitive cation channel, transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2), is a cation-nonselective cation and has been shown to affect oxytocin indirectly. The aim of the present study was to verify the participation of temperature and TRPM2 in CD38-regulated oxytocin release...
August 17, 2016: Neuroreport
Rahim Ullah, Yi Shen, Yu-Dong Zhou, Ke Huang, Jun-Fen Fu, Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab
The physiology of reproduction is very complex and is regulated by multiple factors, including a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides. In last few decades, various neuropeptides have been discovered to be involved in stimulation or inhibition of reproduction. In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues uncovered gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a neuropeptide generating inhibitory drive to the reproductive axis, in the brain of Coturnix quail. Afterward, GnIH orthologs were discovered in other vertebrates from fish to mammals including human...
May 24, 2016: Neuropeptides
Mary S Matsui, Edward Pelle, Kelly Dong, Nadine Pernodet
Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism's rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional-translational autoregulatory loops...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lars Walløe
Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. They are densely innervated by adrenergic axons. When they are open, they provide a low-resistance connection between arteries and veins, shunting blood directly into the venous plexuses of the limbs. The AVAs play an important role in temperature regulation in humans in their thermoneutral zone, which for a naked resting human is about 26°C to 36°C, but lower when active and clothed...
January 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Hikaru Nakagawa, Takeru Matsumura, Kota Suzuki, Chisa Ninomiya, Takayuki Ishiwata
Brain monoamines, such as noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), regulate many important physiological functions including thermoregulation. The purpose of this study was to clarify changes in NA, DA, and 5-HT levels in several brain regions in response to heat acclimation while also recording body temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR), and locomotor activity (Act). Rats were exposed to a heated environment (32°C) for 3h (3H), 1 day (1D), 7 days, 14 days (14D), 21 days, or 28 days (28D). After heat exposure, each of the following brain regions were immediately extracted and homogenized: the caudate putamen (CPu), preoptic area (PO), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), frontal cortex (FC), and hippocampus (Hip)...
May 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Jackie Lau, Yan-Chuan Shi, Herbert Herzog
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a key neuropeptide with predominant expression in the hypothalamus central to the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake and energy expenditure. While there is considerable information on CART's role in the control of feeding, little is known about its thermoregulatory potential. Here we show the consequences of lack of CART signaling on major parameters of energy homeostasis in CART(-/-) mice under standard ambient housing (RT, 22°C), which is considered a mild cold exposure for mice, and thermoneutral conditions (TN, 30°C)...
April 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
N Belanger-Willoughby, V Linehan, M Hirasawa
In homeotherms, the hypothalamus controls thermoregulatory and adaptive mechanisms in energy balance, sleep-wake and locomotor activity to maintain optimal body temperature. Orexin neurons may be involved in these functions as they promote thermogenesis, food intake and behavioral arousal, and are sensitive to temperature and metabolic status. How thermal and energy balance signals are integrated in these neurons is unknown. Thus, we investigated the cellular mechanisms of thermosensing in orexin neurons and their response to a change in energy status using whole-cell patch clamp on rat brain slices...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
Shaun F Morrison
Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the experimental underpinnings of our current model of the CNS pathways controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction controlling heat loss, and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific, core efferent pathways within the CNS that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input...
April 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Gerald N Audet, Shauna M Dineen, Carrie M Quinn, Lisa R Leon
It has been suggested that heat-induced hypothalamic damage mediates core temperature (Tc) disturbances during heat stroke (HS) recovery; this is significant as hypothermia and/or fever have been linked to severity and overall pathological insult. However, to date there has been a lack of histological evidence in support of these claims. We hypothesized that local hypothalamic cytokines and/or chemokines, known regulators of Tc, are mediating the elevation in Tc during HS recovery even in the absence of histological damage...
April 15, 2016: Brain Research
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