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Hypothalamus temperature regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905656/pain-processing-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-before-during-and-after-the-application-of-noxious-heat-stimuli
#1
P W Stroman, G Ioachim, J M Powers, R Staud, C Pukall
Descending regulation of spinal cord responses to nociceptive signaling has a strong influence on pain perception. Prior studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that in addition to reactive responses to nociceptive signals there is a continuous component to regulation, and that it may vary with differences in pain sensitivity. We hypothesize that this continuous regulation component occurs routinely in fMRI studies prior to noxious stimulation, as well as during, and following stimulation...
June 12, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899035/prostaglandin-transporter-oatp2a1-slco2a1-is-essential-for-body-temperature-regulation-during-fever
#2
Yoshinobu Nakamura, Takeo Nakanishi, Hiroaki Shimada, Junya Shimizu, Rika Aotani, Shio Maruyama, Kei Higuchi, Takashi Okura, Yoshiharu Deguchi, Ikumi Tamai
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) in the hypothalamus is a principal mediator of the febrile response. However, the role of organic anion transporting polypeptide 2A1 (OATP2A1/ SLCO2A1 ), a prostaglandin transporter, in facilitating this response is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of Slco2a1 deficiency on the body core temperature (Tc) and on the PGE2 concentration in hypothalamus interstitial fluid ( C isf ) and CSF ( C csf ) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, i.p.)-treated mice of both sexes. Slco2a1 -/- mice did not develop a febrile response...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859883/trpcing-around-the-hypothalamus
#3
REVIEW
Martin J Kelly, Jian Qiu, Oline K Rønnekleiv
All of the canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) with the exception of TRPC 2 are expressed in hypothalamic neurons and are involved in multiple homeostatic functions. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptors have been shown to be coupled to TRPC channel activation in cortical and sub-cortical brain regions, in the hypothalamus multiple amine and peptidergic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and growth factor/cytokine receptors are linked to activation of TRPC channels that are vital for reproduction, temperature regulation, arousal and energy homeostasis...
May 31, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703377/the-parabrachial-nucleus-cgrp-neurons-function-as-a-general-alarm
#5
REVIEW
Richard D Palmiter
The parabrachial nucleus (PBN), which is located in the pons and is dissected by one of the major cerebellar output tracks, is known to relay sensory information (visceral malaise, taste, temperature, pain, itch) to forebrain structures including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and extended amygdala. The availability of mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase selectively in subsets of PBN neurons and viruses for Cre-dependent gene expression is beginning to reveal the connectivity and functions of PBN component neurons...
May 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660399/cacybp-sip-a-hsp90-binding-chaperone-in-cellular-stress-response
#6
Agnieszka Góral, Katarzyna Bartkowska, Ruzanna L Djavadian, Anna Filipek
CacyBP/SIP interacts with Hsp90 and is able to protect proteins from denaturation and/or aggregation induced by elevated temperature. In this work we studied the influence of different stress factors on CacyBP/SIP level in HEp-2 cells. We have found that H2 O2 and radicicol treatment resulted in a significant increase (up to 40%) in the CacyBP/SIP level. We have also found that HEp-2 cells overexpressing CacyBP/SIP were more resistant to stress-induced death. Further studies have revealed that the Hsf1 transcription factor binds to the CacyBP/SIP gene promoter and up-regulates CacyBP/SIP expression under stress conditions...
June 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650350/loss-of-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-glp-1-signaling-reduces-bat-thermogenesis-and-increases-adiposity
#7
Shin J Lee, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Angelica Pignalosa, Puck N Norell, Alyssa Cortella, Klaus G Pettersen, Dubravka Vrdoljak, Matthew R Hayes, Scott Kanoski, Wolfgang Langhans, Alan G Watts
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the hindbrain densely innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a nucleus strongly implicated in body weight regulation and the sympathetic control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Therefore, DMH GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are well placed to regulate energy balance by controlling sympathetic outflow and BAT function. METHODS: We investigate this possibility in adult male rats by using direct administration of GLP-1 (0...
May 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593657/lipoprotein-lipase-expression-in-hypothalamus-is-involved-in-the-central-regulation-of-thermogenesis-and-the-response-to-cold-exposure
#8
Elise Laperrousaz, Raphaël G Denis, Nadim Kassis, Cristina Contreras, Miguel López, Serge Luquet, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Christophe Magnan
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is expressed in different areas of the brain, including the hypothalamus and plays an important role in neural control of the energy balance, including feeding behavior and metabolic fluxes. This study tested the hypothesis that hypothalamic LPL participates in the control of body temperature. We first showed that cold exposure induces decreased activity and expression of LPL in the mouse hypothalamus. We then selectively deleted LPL in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) through an adeno-associated virus approach in LPL-floxed mice and generated MBHΔ Lpl mice with 30-35% decrease in hypothalamic LPL activity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374307/cellular-populations-and-thermosensing-mechanisms-of-the-hypothalamic-thermoregulatory-center
#9
REVIEW
Jan Siemens, Gretel B Kamm
Temperature affects all aspects of life down to the diffusion rates of biologically active molecules and reaction rates of enzymes. The reciprocal argument holds true as well and every biological process down to enzymatic reactions influences temperature. In order to assure biological stability, mammalian organisms possess the remarkable ability to maintain internal body temperature within a narrow range, which in humans and mice is close to 37 °C, despite wide environmental temperature variations and different rates of internal heat production...
January 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364220/studying-the-hypothalamic-insulin-signal-to-peripheral-glucose-intolerance-with-a-continuous-drug-infusion-system-into-the-mouse-brain
#10
Reni Ajoy, Szu-Yi Chou
Insulin regulates systematic metabolism in the hypothalamus and the peripheral insulin response. An inflammatory reaction in peripheral adipose tissues contributes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development and appetite regulation in the hypothalamus. Chemokine CCL5 and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) levels have been suggested to mediate arteriosclerosis and glucose intolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, CCL5 plays a neuroendocrine role in the hypothalamus by regulating food intake and body temperature, thus, prompting us to investigate its function in hypothalamic insulin signaling and the regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288825/inhibitory-effects-of-aconiti-lateralis-radix-preparata-on-chronic-intermittent-cold-induced-inflammation-in-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#11
Wonnam Kim, Wonil Lee, Jin Gyu Choi, In Gyoung Ju, Yun-Kyung Kim, Tae Hee Lee, Myung Sook Oh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata (AR) is the most frequently used herb to generate heat and treat symptoms associated with coldness in Asia. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The hypothalamus is one of the master regulators to maintain constant core body temperature. Chronic exposure to cold stress disturbs homeostatic regulation, gradually resulting in hypothalamic inflammation. This study investigate the effects of AR, on the chronic intermittent cold (CIC)-induced release of pro-inflammatory signaling molecules in the mouse hypothalamus...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217450/cadm2-regulates-body-weight-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mice
#12
Xin Yan, Zhen Wang, Vanessa Schmidt, Anton Gauert, Thomas E Willnow, Matthias Heinig, Matthew N Poy
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is strongly linked to genes regulating neuronal signaling and function, implicating the central nervous system in the maintenance of body weight and energy metabolism. Genome-wide association studies identified significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and multiple loci near Cell adhesion molecule2 (CADM2), which encodes a mediator of synaptic signaling enriched in the brain. Here we sought to further understand the role of Cadm2 in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and weight gain...
February 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209779/central-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-and-energy-homeostasis-dependent-on-food-availability
#13
REVIEW
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198725/circadian-clock-mediated-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#14
REVIEW
Lauren G Douma, Michelle L Gumz
Most bodily functions vary over the course of a 24h day. Circadian rhythms in body temperature, sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, and blood pressure (BP) are just a few examples. These circadian rhythms are controlled by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks located throughout the body. Light and food cues entrain these clocks to the time of day and this synchronicity contributes to the regulation of a variety of physiological processes with effects on overall health...
May 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075844/changes-in-thermoregulation-and-monoamine-release-in-freely-moving-rats-during-cold-exposure-and-inhibition-of-the-ventromedial-dorsomedial-or-posterior-hypothalamus
#15
Takayuki Ishiwata, Benjamin N Greenwood
The hypothalamus is critical for regulating thermogenesis, but the role of monoamines in specific hypothalamic subregions in thermogenesis is not thoroughly established. The purpose of this study was to confirm changes of body temperature (T b ) and thermoregulatory parameters upon inhibition of neural activity in hypothalamic subregions in freely moving rats. In addition, the pattern of monoamine release in these nuclei was measured during active thermoregulation using microdialysis. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was perfused into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), or posterior hypothalamus (PH) at two different ambient temperatures (5 or 23 °C)...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074372/sequence-and-localization-of-kcnk10a-in-the-brain-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#16
Kavinash Loganathan, Shogo Moriya, Mageswary Sivalingam, Kai We Ng, Ishwar S Parhar
kcnk10a has been predicted in zebrafish to be a member of the two-pore domain potassium ion (K(+)) channel-related K(+) (TREK) channel family known as a thermoreceptor. Since reproduction is affected by temperature, Kcnk10a could be involved in the regulation of reproduction. However, expression of kcnk10a in the zebrafish brain and association with reproduction has not been identified. In this study, the full length sequence and localization of kcnk10a in the brain was investigated and gene expressions of the TREK channel family were examined to investigate association with reproduction...
December 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031329/dogs-with-macroadenomas-have-lower-body-temperature-and-heart-rate-than-dogs-with-microadenomas
#17
Ghita Benchekroun, Loic Desquilbet, Michael E Herrtage, Nick D Jeffery, Dan Rosenberg, Nicolas Granger
Pituitary macroadenomas compress the hypothalamus, which partly regulates heart rate and body temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heart rate and/or body temperature could aid in clinically differentiating dogs with macroadenomas from dogs with microadenomas (i.e. small non-compressive pituitary mass). Two groups of dogs diagnosed with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (i.e. Cushing's disease) were included. Heart rate and body temperature were collected on initial presentation before any procedure...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023516/hypothalamic-control-systems-show-differential-gene-expression-during-spontaneous-daily-torpor-and-fasting-induced-torpor-in-the-djungarian-hamster-phodopus-sungorus
#18
Ceyda Cubuk, Hanna Markowsky, Annika Herwig
Djungarian hamsters are able to use spontaneous daily torpor (SDT) during the winter season as well as fasting-induced torpor (FIT) at any time of the year to cope with energetically challenging environmental conditions. Torpor is a state of severely reduced metabolism with a pronounced decrease in body temperature, which enables animals to decrease their individual energy requirements. Despite sharing common characteristics, such as reduced body mass before first torpor expression and depressed metabolism and body temperature during the torpid state, FIT and SDT differ in several physiological properties including torpor bout duration, minimal body temperature, fuel utilization and circadian organization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980233/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-mechanisms-of-avian-seasonal-reproduction
#19
T Katherine Tamai, Takashi Yoshimura
Animals living outside tropical zones experience seasonal changes in the environment and accordingly, adapt their physiology and behavior in reproduction, molting, and migration. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of seasonal reproduction because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. For example, testicular weight typically changes by more than a 100-fold. In birds, the eyes are not necessary for seasonal reproduction, and light is instead perceived by deep brain photoreceptors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943102/hypothalamic-pathways-regulate-the-anorectic-action-of-p-chloro-diphenyl-diselenide-in-rats
#20
Cristiani F Bortolatto, Cristina W Nogueira, Begoña Porteiro, Mónica Imbernón, Ruben Nogueiras
Behavioral studies have suggested that (p-ClPhSe)2 elicits an anorectic-like action in rats by inducing multiple effects such as satiety-enhancing effect, malaise and specific flavor; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic action remain unclarified. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats received acute and sub-chronic intraperitoneal treatments with (p-ClPhSe)2; thereafter, in vivo and ex vivo analyses were carried out. The present study reveals that the reduction of food intake resulting from a single treatment with (p-ClPhSe)2 (1mg/kg, i...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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