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Temperature regulation

Wen-Yi Zhang, Cui-Juan Niu, Bo-Jian Chen, Kenneth B Storey
Turtles are well known for their stress tolerance, including an ability to deal with temperature extremes or rapid thermal change. To know more about the comprehensive molecular basis of thermal stress responses in turtles, we assessed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the brain, liver and kidney of juvenile soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis, after acute cold stress (28 °C-8 °C acute transfer and held for 12 h) and following recovery (back to 28 °C and held for 24 h) by digital gene expression profiling...
February 20, 2018: Cryobiology
Takahiro Fujioka, Haruka Takeuchi, Hiroaki Tanaka, Hitoshi Kodamatani
The security of recycled water quality in potable reuse can be enhanced by improving the credibility of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment for the removal of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). This study evaluated the potential of online monitoring of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) before and after RO treatment as a surrogate indicator for TOrC removal by RO. This pilot-scale study monitored NDMA concentrations in RO feedwater (ultrafiltration-treated wastewater) and RO permeate every 22 min using novel online NDMA analyzers-high-performance liquid chromatography followed by photochemical reaction and chemiluminescence detection...
February 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Nerea Ubierna, Anthony Gandin, Asaph B Cousins
Mesophyll conductance (gm) limits rates of C3 photosynthesis but little is known about its role in C4 photosynthesis. If gm were to limit C4 photosynthesis, it would likely be at low CO2 concentrations (pCO2). However, data on C4-gm across ranges of pCO2 are scarce. We describe the response of C4-gm to short-term variation in pCO2, at three temperatures in Setaria viridis, and at 25 °C in Zea mays. Additionally, we quantified the effect of finite gm calculations of leakiness (ϕ) and the potential limitations to photosynthesis imposed by stomata, mesophyll, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) across pCO2...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yangjin Jung, Christopher L Rupert, Benjamin Chapman, Anna C S Porto Fett, John B Luchansky
In total, 115 marinade samples (58 fresh marinades and 57 spent marinades) were collected over 12 months from specialty retailers (four individual stores) near Raleigh, NC. These marinades were screened for total mesophilic aerobic plate count (M-APC), total psychrotrophic aerobic plate count (P-APC), and Enterobacteriaceae. These marinades were also screened for the seven regulated serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Stores A and B used immersion to marinade raw beef cuts, whereas stores C-1 and C-2 used vacuum tumbling...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ava M Hoffman, Meghan L Avolio, Alan K Knapp, Melinda D Smith
Extremes in climate, such as heat waves and drought, are expected to become more frequent and intense with forecasted climate change. Plant species will almost certainly differ in their responses to these stressors. We experimentally imposed a heat wave and drought in the tallgrass prairie ecosystem near Manhattan, Kansas, USA to assess transcriptional responses of two ecologically important C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans . Based on previous research, we expected that S. nutans would regulate more genes, particularly those related to stress response, under high heat and drought...
2018: PeerJ
Feifei Wei, Kenji Sakata, Taiga Asakura, Yasuhiro Date, Jun Kikuchi
Data-driven approaches were applied to investigate the temporal and spatial changes of 1,022 individuals of wild yellowfin goby and its potential interaction with the estuarine environment in Japan. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed that growth stage is a primary factor affecting muscle metabolism. Then, the metabolic, elemental and microbial profiles of the pooled samples generated according to either the same habitat or sampling season as well as the river water and sediment samples from their habitats were measured using NMR spectra, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and next-generation 16 S rRNA gene sequencing...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
George N Somero
The secondary and tertiary orders of RNA structure are crucial for a suite of RNA-related functions, including regulation of translation, gene expression and RNA turnover. The temperature sensitivity of RNA secondary and tertiary structures is exploited by bacteria to fabricate RNA thermosensing systems that allow a rapid adaptive response to temperature change. RNA thermometers (RNATs) present in non-coding regions of certain mRNAs of pathogenic bacteria enable rapid upregulation of translation of virulence proteins when the temperature of the bacterium rises after entering a mammalian host...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Riikka Tapanainen, Darren J Parker, Maaria Kankare
To function properly, organisms must adjust their physiology, behavior and metabolism in response to a suite of varying environmental conditions. One of the central regulators of these changes is organisms' internal circadian clock, and recent evidence has suggested that the clock genes are also important in the regulation of seasonal adjustments. In particular, thermosensitive splicing of the core clock gene timeless in a cosmopolitan fly, Drosophila melanogaster , has implicated this gene to be involved in thermal adaptation...
February 22, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Masoomeh Mahmoodi-Darian, Stefan E Huber, Andreas Mauracher, Michael Probst, Stephan Denifl, Paul Scheier, Tilmann D Märk
Dissociative electron attachment to three isomers of bromo-chlorotoluene was investigated in the electron energy range from 0 to 2 eV for gas temperatures in the range of 392-520 K using a crossed electron-molecular beam apparatus with a temperature regulated effusive molecular beam source. For all three molecules, both Cl- and Br- are formed. The ion yields of both halogenides show a pronounced temperature effect. In the case of Cl- and Br- , the influence of the gas temperature can be observed at the threshold peak close to 0 eV...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Michelle Thompson, Susan Cunningham, Andrew E McKechnie
Deserts are physiologically challenging environments for birds, with scarce, unpredictable water resources combined with air temperatures (Tair ) regularly exceeding avian body temperature (Tb ). For arid-zone birds, mismatches between water supply and demand are a constant threat, yet interspecific variation in trade-offs between hyperthermia avoidance and dehydration avoidance remain poorly understood, particularly for free-ranging individuals. We examined behavioural and physiological responses to high Tair in nine species representing three orders that vary substantially in their heat dissipation thresholds, specifically pant50 , the Tair at which panting behaviour is present in 50% of observations...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
George P Lisi, Allen A Currier, J Patrick Loria
The enzyme imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) is a model for studies of long-range allosteric regulation in enzymes. Binding of the allosteric effector ligand N'-[5'-phosphoribulosyl)formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) stimulates millisecond (ms) timescale motions in IGPS that enhance its catalytic function. We studied the effect of temperature on these critical conformational motions and the catalytic mechanism of IGPS from the hyperthermophile Thermatoga maritima in an effort to understand temperature-dependent allostery...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Wilfredo Falcón, Rich P Baxter, Samuel Furrer, Martin Bauert, Jean-Michel Hatt, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Arpat Ozgul, Nancy Bunbury, Marcus Clauss, Dennis M Hansen
We studied the temperature relations of wild and zoo Aldabra giant tortoises ( Aldabrachelys gigantea ) focusing on (1) the relationship between environmental temperature and tortoise activity patterns ( n  = 8 wild individuals) and (2) on tortoise body temperature fluctuations, including how their core and external body temperatures vary in relation to different environmental temperature ranges (seasons; n  = 4 wild and n  = 5 zoo individuals). In addition, we surveyed the literature to review the effect of body mass on core body temperature range in relation to environmental temperature in the Testudinidae...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Junbo Du, Hengke Jiang, Xin Sun, Yan Li, Yi Liu, Mengyuan Sun, Zhou Fan, Qiulin Cao, Lingyang Feng, Jing Shang, Kai Shu, Jiang Liu, Feng Yang, Weiguo Liu, Taiwen Yong, Xiaochun Wang, Shu Yuan, Liang Yu, Chunyan Liu, Wenyu Yang
Plants use shade avoidance strategy to escape the canopy shade when grown under natural conditions. Previous studies showed that the Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) is involved in shade avoidance syndrome. However, the mechanisms of ER in modulating SAR by promoting hypocotyl elongation are unknown yet. Here, we report that ER regulated hypocotyl elongation in shade avoidance requires auxin and gibberellins (GAs). The T-DNA insertional ER mutant er-3 shows a less hypocotyl length than that in Col-0 wild type...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Catherine E Gilbert, Elizabeth Sztul, Carolyn E Machamer
ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) proteins are key regulators of the secretory pathway. ARF1, through interacting with its effectors, regulates protein trafficking by facilitating numerous events at the Golgi. One unique ARF1 effector is golgin-160, which promotes the trafficking of only a specific subset of cargo proteins through the Golgi. While studying this role of golgin-160, we discovered that commonly used cold temperature blocks utilized to synchronize cargo trafficking (20°C and 16°C) caused golgin-160 dispersal from Golgi membranes...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Adarsh Kumar Chiranjivi, Vikash Kumar Dubey
Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) regulates many crucial metabolic pathways as a multi-enzyme complex. Leishmania donovani dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LdDLDH) has two variants present on two different chromosomes with very less sequence similarities. In the current study, we cloned both the variants in pET28a (+) vector and expressed in Rosetta-gami (DE3) E. coli strain. Expressed proteins were finally purified from pellets using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Purified enzymes were biochemically characterized and different kinetic parameters were studied...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hiraku Takada, Yuh Shiwa, Yuta Takino, Natsuki Osaka, Shuhei Ueda, Satoru Watanabe, Taku Chibazakura, Masayuki Su'etsugu, Ryutaro Utsumi, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
WalRK is an essential two-component signal transduction system that plays a central role in coordinating cell wall synthesis and cell growth in Bacillus subtilis. However, the physiological role of WalRK and its essentiality for growth have not been elucidated. We investigated the behaviour of WalRK during heat stress and its essentiality for cell proliferation. We determined that the inactivation of the walHI genes which encode the negative modulator of WalK, resulted in growth defects and eventual cell lysis at high temperatures...
February 20, 2018: Microbiology
Sheng Cao, Andriy Anishkin, Natalya S Zinkevich, Yoshinori Nishijima, Ankush Korishettar, Zhihao Wang, Juan Fang, David A Wilcox, David X Zhang
TRPV4 is a Ca2+-permeable channel of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily activated by diverse stimuli including warm temperature, mechanical forces, and lipid mediators such as arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites. This activation is tightly regulated by protein phosphorylation carried out by various serine/threonine or tyrosine kinases. It remains poorly understood how phosphorylation differentially regulates TRPV4 activation in response to different stimuli. We investigated how TRPV4 activation by AA, an important signaling process in the dilation of coronary arterioles, is affected by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation at S824...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Anthony Digrado, Louis G de la Motte, Aurélie Bachy, Ahsan Mozaffar, Niels Schoon, Filippo Bussotti, Crist Amelynck, Anne-Catherine Dalcq, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Marc Aubinet, Bernard Heinesch, Patrick du Jardin, Pierre Delaplace
Plants, under stressful conditions, can proceed to photosynthetic adjustments in order to acclimatize and alleviate the detrimental impacts on the photosynthetic apparatus. However, it is currently unclear how adjustment of photosynthetic processes under environmental constraints by plants influences CO2 gas exchange at the ecosystem-scale. Over a 2-year period, photosynthetic performance of a temperate grassland ecosystem was characterized by conducting frequent chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements on three primary grassland species ( Lolium perenne L...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Albert Collins Nganou Assonkeng, Noam Adir, Martin Mkandawire
Understanding of electronic energy transition (EET) mechanisms from the light-harvesting unit to the reaction centre in a natural system has been limited by; (a) the use of conventional transient time-resolved spectroscopy at room temperature, which result in high signal-to-noise ratio; and (b) examining extracts instead of intact light-harvesting units. Here, we report previously unknown differences and new insight in EET of two cyanobacteria species, Acaryochloris marina and Thermosynechoccocus vulvanus, which have been found only after using Uv-vis, hole-burning and fluorescence spectroscopy at ultra-low temperature and examining their intact light-harvesting unit, phycobilisomes (PBS)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Iain J Clarke, Alexandra Rao, Belinda A Henry
Caloric restriction causes a homeostatic reduction in thermogenesis. We aimed to determine whether exercise could counteract this. We studied four groups of normal-weight ewes ( n = 5), including control sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise fed ad libitum (30 min/d, 5 d/wk), diet-restricted (70% of ad libitum food intake), and combined diet and exercise. Temperature probes implanted in sternal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle measured thermogenesis. After the 4-wk intervention, hypothalami were collected for in situ hybridization, and fat and muscle biopsies were collected for real-time PCR and Western blotting...
February 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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