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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723567/cold-inducible-sirt6-regulates-thermogenesis-of-brown-and-beige-fat
#1
Lu Yao, Xiaona Cui, Qi Chen, Xiaoying Yang, Fude Fang, Jun Zhang, Guoqing Liu, Wanzhu Jin, Yongsheng Chang
Promoting development and function of brown and beige fat may reduce obesity. Here, we show that fat SIRT6 expression is markedly induced by cold exposure and a β-adrenergic agonist. Deletion of SIRT6 in adipose tissue impairs the thermogenic function of brown adipocytes, causing a morphological "whitening" of brown fat, reduced oxygen (O2) consumption, obesity, decreased core body temperature, and cold sensitivity. Fat SIRT6-deleted mice exhibit increased blood glucose levels, severe insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723348/central-serotonin-attenuates-lps-induced-systemic-inflammation
#2
Clarissa M D Mota, Caroline Rodrigues-Santos, Rodrigo A R Fernández, Ruither O G Carolino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Luiz G S Branco
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in several central-mediated mechanisms, such as endocrine processes, behavior, and sleep. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system is mainly linked to psychiatric disorders, but emerging evidence suggests that immune system activation may also alter brain 5-HT signaling. However, whether central 5-HT modulates systemic inflammation (SI) remains unknown. For this purpose, male Wistar rats (280-350 g, 8-9 weeks) were submitted to the experimental protocols beginning between 9 and 10 AM with the performance of injections...
July 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721857/stress-adaptation
#3
Alistair J P Brown, Leah E Cowen, Antonio di Pietro, Janet Quinn
Fungal species display an extraordinarily diverse range of lifestyles. Nevertheless, the survival of each species depends on its ability to sense and respond to changes in its natural environment. Environmental changes such as fluctuations in temperature, water balance or pH, or exposure to chemical insults such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species exert stresses that perturb cellular homeostasis and cause molecular damage to the fungal cell. Consequently, fungi have evolved mechanisms to repair this damage, detoxify chemical insults, and restore cellular homeostasis...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720834/chemical-inhibitors-of-candida-albicans-hyphal-morphogenesis-target-endocytosis
#4
Hagit Bar-Yosef, Nora Vivanco Gonzalez, Shay Ben-Aroya, Stephen J Kron, Daniel Kornitzer
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, typically found as a benign commensal yeast living on skin and mucosa, but poised to invade injured tissue to cause local infections. In debilitated and immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans may spread to cause life-threatening systemic infections. Upon contact with serum and at body temperature, C. albicans performs a regulated switch to filamentous morphology, characterized by emergence of a germ tube from the yeast cell followed by mold-like growth of branching hyphae...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719478/a-review-of-nonfatal-drowning-in-the-pediatric-age-group-a-10-year-experience-at-a-university-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#5
Faisal O Al-Qurashi, Abdullah A Yousef, Abdullah Aljoudi, Saleh M Alzahrani, Nasser Y Al-Jawder, Abdulrahman K Al-Ahmar, Mosab S Al-Majed, Hussam M Abouollo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nonfatal drowning experience, risk factors, intrahospital assessment and postincidental outcomes for children admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, over a 10-year period. METHODS: Children up to the age of 14 years who were admitted with the diagnosis of nonfatal drowning from July 2005 to June 2015 were included. Data regarding demographics, timing, season and location of drowning, presence of an assigned lifeguard, duration of submersion and transport to hospital, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, temperature, pH, blood sugar level, total hospital stay, and discharge status were extrapolated, and their effects on the patient's outcome analyzed...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717231/a-connection-from-stratospheric-ozone-to-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation
#6
Desmond Manatsa, Geoffrey Mukwada
We use reanalysis and observational data to link the lower stratospheric ozone regulation of the ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) component of solar energy to ENSO modulation. Results indicate that during ENSO extremes, the Walker Circulation (WC) and Brewer Dobson Circulation are related to lower stratospheric ozone alterations east of the date line over the Pacific. These in turn are linked to upper tropospheric anomalous dipole temperature patterns on either side of the equator. The ensuing changes in geopotential height values do not only drive equatorial zonal wind anomalies in the upper troposphere that are reversed at the equatorial surface, but also impact on the intensity of the South Pacific High circulation...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716951/a-calcium-diacylglycerol-stimulated-protein-kinase-c-c-elegans-pkc-2-links-thermal-signals-to-learned-behavior-by-acting-in-a-sensory-neuron-and-intestinal-cells
#7
Marianne Land, Charles S Rubin
Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol (DAG) activated protein kinase C (cPKC) promotes learning and behavioral plasticity. However, knowledge of in vivo regulation and exact functions of cPKCs that affect behavior is limited. We show that PKC-2, a C. elegans cPKC, is essential for a complex behavior, thermotaxis. C. elegans memorizes a nutrient-associated cultivation temperature (Tc) and migrates along Tc within a 17-25°C gradient. pkc-2 gene disruption abrogated thermotaxis; a PKC-2 transgene, driven by endogenous pkc-2 promoters, restored thermotaxis behavior in pkc-2(-/-) animals...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716184/oxygen-isotopes-suggest-elevated-thermometabolism-within-multiple-permo-triassic-therapsid-clades
#8
Kévin Rey, Romain Amiot, François Fourel, Fernando Abdala, Frédéric Fluteau, Nour-Eddine Jalil, Jun Liu, Bruce S Rubidge, Roger Mh Smith, J Sébastien Steyer, Pia A Viglietti, Xu Wang, Christophe Lécuyer
The only true living endothermic vertebrates are birds and mammals, which produce and regulate their internal temperature quite independently from their surroundings. For mammal ancestors, anatomical clues suggest that endothermy originated during the Permian or Triassic. Here we investigate the origin of mammalian thermoregulation by analysing apatite stable oxygen isotope compositions (δ(18)Op) of some of their Permo-Triassic therapsid relatives. Comparing of the δ(18)Op values of therapsid bone and tooth apatites to those of co-existing non-therapsid tetrapods, demonstrates different body temperatures and thermoregulatory strategies...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716048/transcriptome-analysis-uncovers-arabidopsis-f-box-stress-induced-1-as-a-regulator-of-jasmonic-acid-and-abscisic-acid-stress-gene-expression
#9
Lauren E Gonzalez, Kristen Keller, Karen X Chan, Megan M Gessel, Bryan C Thines
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin 26S proteasome system (UPS) selectively degrades cellular proteins, which results in physiological changes to eukaryotic cells. F-box proteins are substrate adaptors within the UPS and are responsible for the diversity of potential protein targets. Plant genomes are enriched in F-box genes, but the vast majority of these have unknown roles. This work investigated the Arabidopsis F-box gene F-BOX STRESS INDUCED 1 (FBS1) for its effects on gene expression in order elucidate its previously unknown biological function...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716046/blood-volume-monitored-regulation-of-ultrafiltration-to-decrease-the-dry-weight-in-fluid-overloaded-hemodialysis-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Marlies Antlanger, Peter Josten, Michael Kammer, Isabella Exner, Katharina Lorenz-Turnheim, Manfred Eigner, Gernot Paul, Renate Klauser-Braun, Gere Sunder-Plassmann, Marcus D Säemann, Manfred Hecking
BACKGROUND: Because chronic fluid volume overload is associated with higher mortality, we tested whether blood-volume monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR) and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR) would facilitate dry weight reduction, in comparison to conventional dialysis (CONV). METHODS: We carried out a multicenter, 4-week, randomized controlled trial in hemodialysis patients ≥15% above normal extracellular fluid volume (ECV), per bioimpedance spectroscopy, who were randomized 1:1:1...
July 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716037/phylogeny-expression-patterns-and-regulation-of-dna-methyltransferases-in-early-development-of-the-flatfish-solea-senegalensis
#11
Joana Firmino, Carlos Carballo, Paula Armesto, Marco A Campinho, Deborah M Power, Manuel Manchado
BACKGROUND: The identification of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) expression patterns during development and their regulation is important to understand the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate larval plasticity in marine fish. In this study, dnmt1 and dnmt3 paralogs were identified in the flatfish Solea senegalensis and expression patterns in early developmental stages and juveniles were determined. Additionally, the regulation of Dnmt transcription by a specific inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and temperature was evaluated...
July 17, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716034/growth-arrest-specific-gene-2-in-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-under-low-temperature-stress
#12
ChangGeng Yang, Fan Wu, Xing Lu, Ming Jiang, Wei Liu, Lijuan Yu, Juan Tian, Hua Wen
BACKGROUND: Growth arrest specific 2 (gas2) gene is a component of the microfilament system that plays a major role in the cell cycle, regulation of microfilaments, and cell morphology during apoptotic processes. However, little information is available on fish gas2. In this study, the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) gas2 gene was cloned and characterized for the first time. RESULTS: The open reading frame was 1020 bp, encoding 340 amino acids; the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was 140 bp and the 3'-UTR was 70 bp, with a poly (A) tail...
July 17, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715885/the-effects-of-exercise-and-cold-exposure-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-and-white-adipose-tissue
#13
Nana Chung, Jonghoon Park, Kiwon Lim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise or/and cold exposure regulate mitochondria biogenesis-related gene expression in soleus and inguinal adipose tissue of mice. METHODS: Forty ICR 5-week old male mice were divided into four groups: thermoneutrality-untrained (23 ± 1 °C in room temperature, n=10), cold-water immersion (24 ± 1 °C, n=10), exercise in neutral temperature (34 ± 1 °C, n=10), and exercise in cold temperature (24 ± 1 °C, n=10)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714232/intermediate-product-regulation-in-tandem-solid-catalysts-with-multimodal-porosity-for-high-yield-synthetic-fuel-production
#14
Nicolas Duyckaerts, Mathias Bartsch, Ioan-Teodor Trotus, Norbert Pfänder, Axel Lorke, Ferdi Schüth, Gonzalo Prieto
Tandem catalysis is an attractive strategy to intensify chemical processes but simultaneous control over the individual and concerted catalyst performances poses a challenge. We show that enhanced pore transport within a Co/Al2O3 Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst with a hierarchical porosity enables its tandem integration with a Pt/ZSM-5 zeolitic hydrotreating catalyst in a spatially distant fashion - permitting a catalyst-specific temperature adjustment - albeit resembling a close active site proximity - by mitigating secondary reactions of primary FT α-olefin products...
July 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714216/contributions-of-the-oligopeptide-permeases-in-multistep-of-vibrio-alginolyticus-pathogenesis
#15
Wenjia Liu, Lixing Huang, Yongquan Su, Yingxue Qin, Lingmin Zhao, Qingpi Yan
Vibrio alginolyticus has been associated with several diseases of cultivated marine animals, and has led to considerable economic losses. The oligopeptide permease (Opp) has been proven to play a variety of important roles in nutrition and virulence in several bacteria. In our previous research, the opp gene cluster was identified in Vibrio alginolyticus with transcriptome sequence, which also indicated that the Opp system might play roles in the regulation of adhesion. In this study, the relationship between V...
July 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714085/neural-control-of-sweat-secretion-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Y Hu, C Converse, M C Lyons, W H Hsu
Humans have 4 million exocrine sweat glands, which can be classified into two types: eccrine and apocrine glands. Sweat secretion is a constitutive feature, which is directly involved in thermoregulation and metabolism. Sweat secretion is regulated by both the central nervous system(1) and autonomic nervous system.(2) In peripheral areas, the ANS, especially the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), mediates the transmission of neurotransmitters to sweat glands. Two principal chemical mediators, acetylcholine and noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), are released by the SNS, which stimulate sweat secretion...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713404/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-genes-conserved-between-japonica-and-indica-rice-cultivars-that-respond-to-low-temperature-stress-at-the-vegetative-growth-stage
#17
Manu Kumar, Yun-Shil Gho, Ki-Hong Jung, Seong-Ryong Kim
Cold stress is very detrimental to crop production. However, only a few genes in rice have been identified with known functions related to cold tolerance. To meet this agronomic challenge more effectively, researchers must take global approaches to select useful candidate genes and find the major regulatory factors. We used five Gene expression omnibus series data series of Affymetrix array data, produced with cold stress-treated samples from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/), and identified 502 cold-inducible genes common to both japonica and indica rice cultivars...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713335/a-novel-regulatory-cascade-involving-blur-ycgz-and-lon-controls-the-expression-of-escherichia-coli-ompf-porin
#18
Valérie Duval, Kimberly Foster, Jennifer Brewster, Stuart B Levy
In Escherichia coli, OmpF is an important outer membrane protein, which serves as a passive diffusion pore for small compounds including nutrients, antibiotics, and toxic compounds. OmpF expression responds to environmental changes such as temperature, osmolarity, nutrients availability, and toxic compounds via complex regulatory pathways involving transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Our study identified a new regulatory cascade that controls the expression of OmpF porin. This pathway involves BluR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the ycgZ-ymgABC operon...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712864/thermal-comfort-zone-of-the-hands-feet-and-head-in-males-and-females
#19
Urša Ciuha, Igor B Mekjavic
INTRODUCTION: The present study compared the thermal comfort zones (TCZ) of the hands, feet and head in eight male and eight female participants, assessed with water-perfused segments (WPS). METHODS: On separate occasions, and separated by a minimum of one day, participants were requested to regulate the temperature of three distal skin regions (hands, feet and head) within their TCZ. On each occasion they donned a specific water-perfused segment (WPS), either gloves, socks or hood for assessing the TCZ of the hands, feet and head, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711729/expanding-roles-of-pifs-in-signal-integration-from-multiple-processes
#20
REVIEW
Inyup Paik, Praveen Kumar Kathare, Jeong-Il Kim, Enamul Huq
PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors in Arabidopsis. Since their discovery in phytochrome-mediated light signaling pathways, recent studies have unraveled new functions of PIFs in integrating multiple signaling pathways not only by their role as transcription factors directly targeting gene expression, but also by interacting with diverse groups of factors to optimize plant growth and development. These include endogenous (e...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Plant
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