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Temperature regulation

Andrea Soto-Padilla, Rick Ruijsink, Ody C M Sibon, Hedderik van Rijn, Jean-Christophe Billeter
Temperature influences physiology and behavior of all organisms. For ectotherms, which lack central temperature regulation, temperature adaptation requires sheltering from or moving to a heat source. As temperature constrains the rate of metabolic reactions, it can directly affect ectotherm physiology and thus behavioral performance. This direct effect is particularly relevant for insects whose small body readily equilibrates with ambient temperature. In fact, models of enzyme kinetics applied to insect behavior predict performance at different temperatures, suggesting that thermal physiology governs behavior...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Shin J Lee, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Angelica Pignalosa, Puck N Norell, Alyssa Cortella, Klaus G Pettersen, Dubravka Vrdoljak, Matthew R Hayes, Scott Kanoski, Wolfgang Langhans, Alan G Watts
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the hindbrain densely innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a nucleus strongly implicated in body weight regulation and the sympathetic control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Therefore, DMH GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are well placed to regulate energy balance by controlling sympathetic outflow and BAT function. METHODS: We investigate this possibility in adult male rats by using direct administration of GLP-1 (0...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Qiannan Hu, Shuoxin Zhang, Bingru Huang
Strigolactones (SL) have recently been found to play roles in regulating root development. However, it remains unclear how SL may mediate root elongation of perennial grass species under different temperatures that differentially affect root growth. The objectives of this study were to examine effects of SL on root elongation of tall fescue and to examine the interactive effects of SL and auxin in regulating root growth under both non-stress and heat stress conditions. Tall fescue (cv. 'Kentuck-31') plants were treated with GR24 (a synthetic strigolactones), NAA (α-naphthylacetic acid), or NPA (auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphalamic acid) or their combination under non-stress control and heat stress (35/30 °C) in growth chamber...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Chaohui Yin, Man Yuan, Youpeng Lu, Yaping Huang, Yanfang Liu
The urban heat island (UHI) effect is becoming more of a concern with the accelerated process of urbanization. However, few studies have examined the effect of urban form on land surface temperature (LST) especially from an urban planning perspective. This paper used spatial regression model to investigate the effects of both land use composition and urban form on LST in Wuhan City, China, based on the regulatory planning management unit. Landsat ETM+ image data was used to estimate LST. Land use composition was calculated by impervious surface area proportion, vegetated area proportion, and water proportion, while urban form indicators included sky view factor (SVF), building density, and floor area ratio (FAR)...
April 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Penny C Gardner, Benoît Goossens, Jocelyn Goon Ee Wern, Petra Kretzschmar, Torsten Bohm, Ian P Vaughan
Identifying the consequences of tropical forest degradation is essential to mitigate its effects upon forest fauna. Large forest-dwelling mammals are often highly sensitive to environmental perturbation through processes such as fragmentation, simplification of habitat structure, and abiotic changes including increased temperatures where the canopy is cleared. Whilst previous work has focused upon species richness and rarity in logged forest, few look at spatial and temporal behavioural responses to forest degradation...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Roth, David Mayleben, Neil Feldman, Alan Lankford, Timothy Grant, Eric Nofzinger
Study Objectives: Insomnia is one of the most common disorders in the general population. Hypnotic medications are efficacious, but their use is limited by adverse events (AEs). This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel forehead temperature-regulating device that delivers frontal cerebral thermal therapy (maintained at 14-16°C, equivalent to 57-61°F) for the treatment of insomnia. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial involving two nights of therapy in 106 adults diagnosed with insomnia...
April 10, 2018: Sleep
Angelika Balliou, Mirtat Bouroushian, Antonios M Douvas, George Skoulatakis, Stella Kennou, Nikos Glezos
All-inorganic self-arranged molecular transition metal oxide hyperstructures based on polyoxometalate molecules (POMs) are fabricated and tested as electronically tunable components in emerging electronic devices. POM hyperstructures reveal great potential as charging nodes of tunable charging level for molecular memories and as enhancers of interfacial electron/hole injection for photovoltaic stacks. STM, UPS, UV-Vis spectroscopy and AFM measurements show that this functionality stems from the films' ability to structurally tune their HOMO-LUMO levels and electron localization length at room temperature...
April 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Moustafa Sakr, Xiao-Yan Li, Farideh Sabeh, Tamar Y Feinberg, John J G Tesmer, Yi Tang, Stephen J Weiss
Following ENU mutagenesis, a phenodeviant line was generated, termed the 'Cartoon mouse', that exhibits profound defects in growth and development. Cartoon mice harbor a single S466P point mutation in the MT1-MMP hemopexin domain, a 200 amino acid segment that is thought to play a critical role in regulating MT1-MMP collagenolytic activity. Herein, we demonstrate that the MT1-MMPS466P mutation replicates the phenotypic status of Mt1-mmp-null animals as well as the functional characteristics of MT1-MMP-/- cells...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Haipei Liu, Li Hua, Quanhua Liu, Jun Pan, Yixiao Bao
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that can be aggravated by cold air. However, its mechanism remains largely unknown. As a thermo-sensing cation channel, transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) can be activated by cold stimuli (8-22 °C) and cooling agents. Whereas TRPM8 activation leads to enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and mucus hypersecretion in human bronchial epithelial cell lines, no previous study has examined its role in regulating the cold-induced inflammatory responses and its mechanism in asthmatic airway epithelium...
April 9, 2018: Inflammation
Darren J Thornbrugh, Scott G Leibowitz, Ryan A Hill, Marc H Weber, Zachary C Johnson, Anthony R Olsen, Joseph E Flotemersch, John L Stoddard, David V Peck
Watershed integrity is the capacity of a watershed to support and maintain the full range of ecological processes and functions essential to sustainability. Using information from EPA's StreamCat dataset, we calculated and mapped an Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) for 2.6 million watersheds in the conterminous US with first-order approximations of relationships between stressors and six watershed functions: hydrologic regulation, regulation of water chemistry, sediment regulation, hydrologic connectivity, temperature regulation, and habitat provision...
February 1, 2018: Ecological Indicators
On Sun Lau, Zhuojun Song, Zimin Zhou, Kelli A Davies, Jessica Chang, Xin Yang, Shenqi Wang, Doris Lucyshyn, Irene Hui Zhuang Tay, Philip A Wigge, Dominique C Bergmann
Environmental factors shape the phenotypes of multicellular organisms. The production of stomata-the epidermal pores required for gas exchange in plants-is highly plastic and provides a powerful platform to address environmental influence on cell differentiation [1-3]. Rising temperatures are already impacting plant growth, a trend expected to worsen in the near future [4]. High temperature inhibits stomatal production, but the underlying mechanism is not known [5]. Here, we show that elevated temperature suppresses the expression of SPEECHLESS (SPCH), the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that serves as the master regulator of stomatal lineage initiation [6, 7]...
April 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Yan Zhang, David H Burkhardt, Silvi Rouskin, Gene-Wei Li, Jonathan S Weissman, Carol A Gross
Temperature influences the structural and functional properties of cellular components, necessitating stress responses to restore homeostasis following temperature shift. Whereas the circuitry controlling the heat shock response is well understood, that controlling the E. coli cold shock adaptation program is not. We found that during the growth arrest phase (acclimation) that follows shift to low temperature, protein synthesis increases, and open reading frame (ORF)-wide mRNA secondary structure decreases...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Cell
Harikishan Perugu, Leonardo Ramirez, John DaMassa
On-road mobile sources play a significant role in air quality modeling and these models require gridded, hourly emission inputs. Due to its geographical and meteorological diversity and stringent air quality regulations, California state always poses big challenge for air quality modelers and policy makers. At the same time, the impact of ambient temperature on vehicle emissions has been well researched in the past few decades and it is vital to prepare a reliable on-road gridded emission inventory for air quality modeling...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yaodan Zhang, Virpi Virjamo, Norul Sobuj, Wenchao Du, Ying Yin, Line Nybakken, Hongyan Guo, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
High northern latitudes are climatic sensitive areas, and are also regions to which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) easily transport and accumulate with potential risk to natural ecosystems. However, the effect of PAHs on northern woody plant growth and defense under climate change is very little studied. Here, we conducted a unique experiment in greenhouses to investigate sex-related responses of the dioecious Populus tremula to pyrene (50mgkg-1 ) and residue of pyrene in soils under ambient and elevated temperature (+1...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Antonia María Romero, Tania Jordá, Nicolas Rozès, María Teresa Martínez-Pastor, Sergi Puig
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are essential components of phospholipids that greatly contribute to the biophysical properties of cellular membranes. Biosynthesis of UFAs relies on a conserved family of iron-dependent fatty acid desaturases, whose representative in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Ole1. OLE1 expression is tightly regulated to adapt UFA biosynthesis and lipid bilayer properties to changes in temperature, and in UFA or oxygen availability. Despite iron deficiency being the most extended nutritional disorder worldwide, very little is known about the mechanisms and the biological relevance of fatty acid desaturases regulation in response to iron starvation...
April 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Claudia L Loviso, Diego Libkind
During brewing process yeast produce more than 500 chemical compounds that can negatively and positively impact beer at the organoleptic level. In recent years, and particularly thanks to the advancement of molecular biology and genomics, there has been considerable progress in our understanding about the molecular and cellular basis of the synthesis and regulation of many of these flavor compounds. This article focuses on esters, responsible for the floral and fruity beer flavor. Its formation depends on various enzymes and factors such as the concentration of wort nutrients, the amount of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, fermentation temperature and mainly the genetics of the yeast used...
April 4, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Xinda Lin, Yiwen Mao, Ling Zhang
Insects receive a variety of chemical signals from the environment. Chemosensory protein (CSP) is one of the olfactory proteins that can accommodate a variety of small molecules and have the ability to bind to lipophilic compounds, transmitting nonvolatile odor molecules and chemical stimuli to target cells. To understand the correlation between the insect olfactory system and environment, we identified four antennae-expressed SlituCSP genes and investigated their expression profiles after treatment with different temperatures, starvation and three commonly used pesticides: chlorpyrifos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hironori Ando, Shahjahan, Takashi Kitahashi
The seasonal, daily and lunar control of reproduction involves photoperiodic, circadian and lunar changes in the activity of kisspeptin, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. These changes are brought through complex networks of light-, time- and non-photic signal-dependent control mechanisms, which are mostly unknown at present. The grass puffer, Takifugu alboplumbeus, a semilunar spawner, provides a unique and excellent animal model to assess this question because its spawning is synchronized with seasonal, daily and lunar cycles...
April 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Antonietta Messina, Marcellino Monda, Anna Valenzano, Giovanni Messina, Ines Villano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Giuseppe Cibelli, Gabriella Marsala, Rita Polito, Maria Ruberto, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Andrea Viggiano, Aurora Daniele, Ersilia Nigro
Obesity and lifestyle-related diseases are major problems faced by people in developed nations. Although exercise training prevents the progression of diabetes and obesity, the motivation for exercise is generally low in obese animals and humans. The autonomic nervous system (SNA) plays a crucial role in the regulation of eating behavior. Moreover, the SNA is involved in the body temperature regulation that is strictly related to body weight control, in accordance with the "thermoregulatory hypothesis" of food intake...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Chan Lek Tan, Zachary A Knight
The regulation of body temperature is one of the most critical functions of the nervous system. Here we review our current understanding of thermoregulation in mammals. We outline the molecules and cells that measure body temperature in the periphery, the neural pathways that communicate this information to the brain, and the central circuits that coordinate the homeostatic response. We also discuss some of the key unresolved issues in this field, including the following: the role of temperature sensing in the brain, the molecular identity of the warm sensor, the central representation of the labeled line for cold, and the neural substrates of thermoregulatory behavior...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
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