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Temperature regulation

Yingtian Guo, Zhi Wang, Xuelian Guan, Zenghui Hu, Ze Zhang, Jian Zheng, Yizeng Lu
High temperature is an important environmental factor that affects plant growth and crop yield. Potentilla fruticosa L. has a developed root system and characteristics of resistance to several stresses (e.g., high temperature, cold, drought) that are shared by native shrubs in the north and west of China. To investigate thermotolerance mechanisms in P. fruticosa, 3-year-old plants were subjected to a high temperature of 42°C for 1, 2, and 3 days respectively before analysis. Then, we studied changes in cell ultrastructure using electron microscopy and investigated physiological changes in the leaves of P...
2017: PloS One
Tong Tong Jiang, Mohan Shen, Peng Dai, Mingzai Wu, Xinxin Yu, Guang Li, Xiaoliang Xu, Haibo Zeng
The work reports the fabrication of Cu doped Zn-In-S (CZIS) alloy quantum dots (QDs) using dodecanethiol (DDT) and oleic acid (OA) as stabilizing ligands. With the increase of doped Cu element, the photoluminescence (PL) peak is monotonically red shifted. After coating ZnS shell, the PL quantum yield (QY) of CZIS QDs can reach 78%. Using reverse micelle microemulsion method, CZIS/ZnS QDs@SiO2 multi-core nanospheres were synthesized to improve the colloidal stability and avoid the aggregation of QDs. The obtained multi-core nanospheres were dispersed in curing adhesive, and applied as color conversion layer in down converted light-emitting diodes (DC-LEDs)...
August 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
M Jończyk, A Sobkowiak, J Trzcinska-Danielewicz, M Skoneczny, D Solecka, J Fronk, P Sowiński
In maize seedlings, severe cold results in dysregulation of circadian pattern of gene expression causing profound modulation of transcription of genes related to photosynthesis and other key biological processes. Plants live highly cyclic life and their response to environmental stresses must allow for underlying biological rhythms. To study the interplay of a stress and a rhythmic cue we investigated transcriptomic response of maize seedlings to low temperature in the context of diurnal gene expression. Severe cold stress had pronounced effect on the circadian rhythm of a substantial proportion of genes...
August 21, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Hong-Ling Wang, Chang-Yan Tian, Lei Wang
Cold stratification is a requirement for seed dormancy breaking in many species, and thus it is one of the important factors for the regulation of timing of germination. However, few studies have examined the influence of various environmental conditions during cold stratification on subsequent germination, and no study has compared such effects on the performance of dormant versus non-dormant seeds. Seeds of halophytes in the cold desert might experience different light and salinity conditions during and after cold stratification...
2017: PeerJ
Greicy H Goto, Hiroo Ogi, Himadri Biswas, Avik Ghosh, Seiji Tanaka, Katsunori Sugimoto
Checkpoint signaling requires two conserved phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs): ATM and ATR. In budding yeast, Tel1 and Mec1 correspond to ATM and ATR, respectively. The Tel2-Tti1-Tti2 (TTT) complex connects to the Rvb1-Rvb2-Tah1-Pih1 (R2TP) complex for the protein stability of PIKKs; however, TTT-R2TP interaction only partially mediates ATM and ATR protein stabilization. How TTT controls protein stability of ATM and ATR remains to be precisely determined. Here we show that Asa1, like Tel2, plays a major role in stabilization of newly synthesized Mec1 and Tel1 proteins whereas Pih1 contributes to Mec1 and Tel1 stability at high temperatures...
August 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Saeid Mirzaei, Jacqueline Batley, Tarik El-Mellouki, Shiming Liu, Khalid Meksem, Brett J Ferguson, Peter M Gresshoff
The CLAVATA pathway that regulates stem cell numbers of the shoot apical meristem has exclusively been studied in Arabidopsis; as such insight into other species is warranted. In this study, a GmCLV1A mutant (F-S562L) with altered lateral organ development, and two mutants of GmNARK, isolated from a Forrest M2 population (EMS-mutated soybean) were studied. GmCLV1A and GmNARK encode for LRR receptor kinases, and share 92% of protein sequence. While GmNARK is critical for systemic regulation of nodulation (new organ made on the root through symbiosis), we show that GmCLV1A functions locally and has no apparent function in nodulation or root development...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sara Martins, Alvaro Montiel-Jorda, Anne Cayrel, Stéphanie Huguet, Christine Paysant-Le Roux, Karin Ljung, Grégory Vert
Due to their sessile nature, plants have to cope with and adjust to their fluctuating environment. Temperature elevation stimulates the growth of Arabidopsis aerial parts. This process is mediated by increased biosynthesis of the growth-promoting hormone auxin. How plant roots respond to elevated ambient temperature is however still elusive. Here we present strong evidence that temperature elevation impinges on brassinosteroid hormone signaling to alter root growth. We show that elevated temperature leads to increased root elongation, independently of auxin or factors known to drive temperature-mediated shoot growth...
August 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Rigo Cintron-Colon, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, William Nguyen, Simone Mori, Ruben Gonzalez-Rivera, Tiffany Lien, Tamas Bartfai, Saba Aïd, Jean-Christophe François, Martin Holzenberger, Bruno Conti
When food resources are scarce, endothermic animals can lower core body temperature (Tb). This phenomenon is believed to be part of an adaptive mechanism that may have evolved to conserve energy until more food becomes available. Here, we found in the mouse that the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) controls this response in the central nervous system. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of IGF-1R enhanced the reduction of temperature and of energy expenditure during calorie restriction. Full blockade of IGF-1R affected female and male mice similarly...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gil B Carvalho, Ilaria Drago, Sany Hoxha, Ryuichi Yamada, Olena Mahneva, Kimberley D Bruce, Alina Soto Obando, Bruno Conti, William W Ja
Changes in body temperature can profoundly affect survival. The dramatic longevity-enhancing effect of cold has long been known in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, yet the underlying mechanisms have only recently begun to be uncovered. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, this process is regulated by a thermosensitive membrane TRP channel and the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor, but in more complex organisms the underpinnings of cold-induced longevity remain largely mysterious. We report that, in Drosophila melanogaster, variation in ambient temperature triggers metabolic changes in protein translation, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and posttranslational regulation of the translation repressor, 4E-BP (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein)...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rubén Vicente, Rafael Martínez-Carrasco, Pilar Pérez, Rosa Morcuende
The use of correlation networks and hierarchical cluster analysis provides a framework to organize and study the coordination of parameters such as genes, metabolites, proteins and physiological parameters. We have analyzed 142 traits from primary C and N metabolism, including biochemical and gene expression analyses, in a range of 32 different growth conditions (various [CO2] levels, temperatures, N supplies, growth stages and experimental methods). To test the integration of primary metabolism, particularly under climate change, we investigated which C and N metabolic traits and transcript levels are correlated in durum wheat flag leaves using a correlation network and a hierarchical cluster analysis...
August 18, 2017: New Biotechnology
Jean François Argacha, T Bourdrel, P van de Borne
Cardiology is a newcomer to environmental sciences. We aim to propose an original review of the scientific evidence regarding the effects of the environment on cardiovascular health. We report first influences of air-related environmental factors. Air temperature has a strong influence on cardiovascular mortality characterized by a V-like relationship confirming that both cold and hot periods have negative cardiovascular impacts. Furthermore, dynamic changes in temperature are likely more important than the absolute air temperature level...
August 4, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Bo Zhang, Mattias Holmlund, Severine Lorrain, Mikael Norberg, László Bakó, Christian Fankhauser, Ove Nilsson
Both light and temperature have dramatic effects on plant development. Phytochrome photoreceptors regulate plant responses to the environment in large part by controlling the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) transcription factors. However, the molecular determinants of this essential signaling mechanism still remain largely unknown. Here, we present evidence that the BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) genes, which have previously been shown to control leaf and flower development in Arabidopsis, are involved in controlling the abundance of PIF4...
August 22, 2017: ELife
Brenda B Lin, Monika H Egerer, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha, Peter Bichier, Stacy M Philpott
Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations...
August 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Chao Liu, Christopher I Olivares, Ameet J Pinto, Chance V Lauderdale, Jess Brown, Meric Selbes, Tanju Karanfil
While disinfection provides hygienically safe drinking water, the disinfectants react with inorganic or organic precursors, leading to the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Biological filtration is a process in which an otherwise conventional granular filter is designed to remove not only fine particulates but also dissolved organic matters (e.g., DBP precursors) through microbially mediated degradation. Recently, applications of biofiltration in drinking water treatment have increased significantly...
August 4, 2017: Water Research
Phuong T Le, Kathleen A Bishop, David E Maridas, Katherine J Motyl, Daniel J Brooks, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Clifford J Rosen
Misty mice (m/m) have a loss of function mutation in Dock7 gene, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, resulting in low bone mineral density, uncoupled bone remodeling and reduced bone formation. Dock7 has been identified as a modulator of osteoblast number and in vitro osteogenic differentiation in calvarial osteoblast culture. In addition, m/m exhibit reduced preformed brown adipose tissue innervation and temperature as well as compensatory increase in beige adipocyte markers. While the low bone mineral density phenotype is in part due to higher sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive in young mice, it is unclear what effect aging would have in mice homozygous for the mutation in the Dock7 gene...
August 15, 2017: Bone
Xiaoyu Xu, Tong Tong, Xue Yang, Yaping Pan, Li Lin, Chen Li
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major causative pathogen of chronic periodontitis. Within the inflammatory microenvironment, there exists extreme pH values, elevated temperatures and oxidative stress. Pathogens adapt to these stressful environmental conditions by regulating the transcription of virulence genes, modifying themselves with macromolecules and by aggregating and entering into a biofilm growth phase. Our previous study showed that the P. gingivalis sialidase can help cells obtain sialic acid from the environment, which is used to modify macromolecules on the surface of P...
August 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Yu Zhao, Guizhi Gao, Dagang Liu, Donglin Tian, Yinyan Zhu, Yu Chang
Colloidal cellulose nanocrystals were LBL deposited to form firmly-stacked optical coatings in which the nanorods regulated their head-to-tail association and aligned in the axial-centrifuged direction. The periodically transition from blue to orange of reflected colors was tunable via deposition layer adjustment. While the sensing coating was exposed to vapors of NH3(.)H2O, H2O, HCl and HAc, respectively, the color variation in the response process was irreversible at room temperature and highly dependent on vapor diffusion and chemical interface interaction...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ashley Davis
In the Solar System, the surface of an icy moon is composed of irregular ice formations at cryogenic temperatures (<200 K), with an oxidized surface layer and a tenuous atmosphere at very low pressure (<10(-6) atm). A lander mission, whose aim is to collect and analyze biological samples from the surface ice, must contain a device that collects samples without refreezing liquid and without sublimation of ice. In addition, if the samples are biological in nature, then precautions must be taken to ensure the samples do not overheat or mix with the oxidized layer...
August 2017: Astrobiology
Leonardo S Longhini, Lucas A Zena, Glauber S F da Silva, Kênia C Bícego, Luciane H Gargaglioni
Temperature effects on cardiac autonomic tonus in amphibian larval stages have never been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (15°C, 25°C, and 30°C) on the cardiorespiratory rates and cardiac autonomic tonus of premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus To this end, a non-invasive method was developed to permit measurements of electrocardiogram (ECG) and buccal movements (fB ; surface electromyography of the buccal floor). For evaluation of autonomic regulation, intraperitoneal injections of Ringer's solution (control), atropine (cholinergic muscarinic antagonist), and sotalol (β-adrenergic antagonist) were performed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mark J Bucsek, Guanxi Qiao, Cameron R MacDonald, Thejaswini Giridharan, Lauren Evans, Brian Niedzwecki, Haichao Liu, Kathleen M Kokolus, Jason W-L Eng, Michelle N Messmer, Kristopher Attwood, Scott I Abrams, Bonnie L Hylander, Elizabeth A Repasky
The immune context of tumors has significant prognostic value and is predictive of responsiveness to several forms of therapy, including immunotherapy. We report here that CD8(+) T cell frequency and functional orientation within the tumor microenvironment is regulated by β2-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling in host immune cells. We used three strategies - physiologic (manipulation of ambient thermal environment), pharmacologic (β-blockers), and genetic (β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice) to reduce adrenergic stress signaling in two widely studied preclinical mouse tumor models...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
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