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Temperature regulation

Daniel Z Skinner, Brian Bellinger, William Hiscox, Gregory L Helms
The ability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to develop freezing tolerance through cold acclimation is a complex rait that responds to many environmental cues including day length and temperature. A large part of the freezing tolerance is conditioned by the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene regulon. We investigated whether the level of freezing tolerance of 12 winter wheat lines varied throughout the day and night in plants grown under a constant low temperature and a 12-hour photoperiod. Freezing tolerance was significantly greater (P<0...
2018: PloS One
Rafailia A A Beta, Nikolaos A A Balatsos
Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous time-keeping processes in eukaryotes with a period of ~24 hr. Light is perhaps the main environmental cue (zeitgeber) that affects several aspects of physiology and behaviour, such as sleep/wake cycles, orientation of birds and bees, and leaf movements in plants. Temperature can serve as the main zeitgeber in the absence of light cycles, even though it does not lead to rhythmicity through the same mechanism as light. Additional cues include feeding patterns, humidity, and social rhythms...
June 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Eirini Kaiserli, Giorgio Perrella, Mhairi Lh Davidson
Environmental stimuli play a major role in modulating growth and development throughout the life-cycle of a plant. Quantitative and qualitative variations in light and temperature trigger changes in gene expression that ultimately shape plant morphology for adaptation and survival. Although the phenotypic and transcriptomic basis of plant responses to the constantly changing environment have been examined for decades, the relationship between global changes in nuclear architecture and adaption to environmental stimuli is just being uncovered...
June 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Suporn Paksanont, Kitisak Sintiprungrat, Thatcha Yimthin, Pornpan Pumirat, Sharon J Peacock, Narisara Chantratita
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a flagellated, gram-negative environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis, a severe infectious disease of humans and animals in tropical areas. We hypothesised that B. pseudomallei may undergo phenotypic adaptation in response to an increase in growth temperature. We analysed the growth curves of B. pseudomallei strain 153 cultured in Luria-Bertani broth at five different temperatures (25 °C-42 °C) and compared the proteomes of bacteria cultured at 37 °C and 42 °C...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhongliang Zhao, Nevcin Sentürk, Chenlin Song, Ingrid Grummt
Attenuation of pre-rRNA synthesis in response to elevated temperature is accompanied by increased levels of PAPAS ("promoter and pre-rRNA antisense") , a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is transcribed in an orientation antisense to pre-rRNA. Here we show that PAPAS interacts directly with DNA, forming a DNA-RNA triplex structure that tethers PAPAS to a stretch of purines within the enhancer region, thereby guiding associated CHD4/NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation) to the rDNA promoter...
June 15, 2018: Genes & Development
Samuel Eze, Sheila M Palmer, Pippa J Chapman
Grasslands store about 34% of the global terrestrial carbon (C) and are vital for the provision of various ecosystem services such as forage and climate regulation. About 89% of this grassland C is stored in the soil and is affected by management activities but the effects of these management activities on C storage under different climate settings are not known. In this study, we synthesized the effects of fertilizer (nitrogen and phosphorus) application, liming and grazing regime on the stock of SOC in global grasslands, under different site specific climatic settings using a meta-analysis of 341 datasets...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Oleksandr H Minchenko, Dariia O Tsymbal, Dmytro O Minchenko, Svitlana V Prylutska, Oksana S Hnatiuk, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Nikos G Tsierkezos, Uwe Ritter
The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the expression of a subset of immune response, apoptosis and cell proliferation -associated genes was studied in normal human astrocytes (line NHA/TS). In the cells treated with SWCNTs (2, 10 and 50 ng/ml of medium for 24 h) we observed a strong dose-dependent down-regulation of the expression of a cell surface glycoproteins HLA-DRA (major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha) and HLA-DRB1. At the same time, the expression of HLA-F (major histocompatibility complex, class I, F), LMNB1 (lamin B1), and HTRA1 (high temperature requirement A1) genes as well as the level of miR-190b and miR-7 was up-regulated in NHA/TS subjected to different concentrations of SWCNTs...
June 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
P W Stroman, G Ioachim, J M Powers, R Staud, C Pukall
Descending regulation of spinal cord responses to nociceptive signaling has a strong influence on pain perception. Prior studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that in addition to reactive responses to nociceptive signals there is a continuous component to regulation, and that it may vary with differences in pain sensitivity. We hypothesize that this continuous regulation component occurs routinely in fMRI studies prior to noxious stimulation, as well as during, and following stimulation...
June 12, 2018: Pain
Anton Delwig, Shawnta Y Chaney, Andrea S Bertke, Jan Verweij, Susana Quirce, Delaine D Larsen, Cindy Yang, Ethan Buhr, Russell VAN Gelder, Juana Gallar, Todd Margolis, David R Copenhagen
A unique class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in mammalian retinae has been recently discovered and characterized. These neurons can generate visual signals in the absence of inputs from rods and cones, the conventional photoreceptors in the visual system. These light sensitive ganglion cells (mRGCs) express the non-rod, non-cone photopigment melanopsin and play well documented roles in modulating pupil responses to light, photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, mood, sleep and other adaptive light functions...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Chunlei Xia, Songyuan Tao, Shoujun Zhu, Yubin Song, Tanglue Feng, Qingsen Zeng, Junjun Liu, Bai Yang
Hydrothermal/solvothermal treatment have been widely used to prepare carbonized polymer dots (CPDs) by the condensation and carbonization of small molecules and/or polymers. However, the basic scientific issues of nucleation and growth process, morphology and size control, yield increase, and PL mechanism have not been well-investigated. In this work, enlightened by the principle of soap-free emulsion polymerization, CPDs with ultrahigh yield rate (ca. 85%) were obtained by hydrothermal addition polymerization and carbonization (HAPC) of monomer...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chi Wang, Andrei A Aleksandrov, Zhengrong Yang, Farhad Forouhar, Elizabeth A Proctor, Pradeep Kota, Jianli An, Anna Kaplan, Netaly Khazanov, Grégory Boël, Brent R Stockwell, Hanoch Senderowitz, Nikolay V Dokholyan, John R Riordan, Christie G Brouillette, John F Hunt
Many disease-causing mutations impair protein stability. Here, we explore a thermodynamic strategy to correct the disease-causing F508del mutation in the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR). F508del destabilizes nucleotide-binding domain 1 (hNBD1) in hCFTR relative to an aggregation-prone intermediate. We developed a fluorescence self-quenching assay for compounds that prevent aggregation of hNBD1 by stabilizing its native conformation. Unexpectedly, we found that dTTP and nucleotide analogs with exocyclic methyl groups bind to hNBD1 more strongly than ATP and preserve electrophysiological function of full-length F508del-hCFTR channels at temperatures up to 37 °C...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kimberly K Fong, Alex Zelter, Beth Graczyk, Jill M Hoyt, Michael Riffle, Richard Johnson, Michael J MacCoss, Trisha N Davis
Phosphorylation regulates yeast spindle pole body (SPB) duplication and separation and likely regulates microtubule nucleation. We report a phosphoproteomic analysis using tandem mass spectrometry of enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPBs for two cell cycle arrests, G1/S and the mitotic checkpoint, expanding on previously reported phosphoproteomic data sets. We present a novel phosphoproteomic state of SPBs arrested in G1/S by a cdc4-1 temperature sensitive mutation, with particular focus on phosphorylation events on the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC)...
June 14, 2018: Biology Open
Kaitlin A Pruskowski, Julie A Rizzo, Beth A Shields, Rodney K Chan, Ian R Driscoll, Matthew P Rowan, Kevin K Chung
Maintaining body temperature is a unique challenge with burn care. We sought to describe core temperature goals in the operating room (OR) and the methods used to achieve and maintain these goals, along with current methods of warming in the intensive care unit (ICU), the perception of effect of increased ambient temperature on work performance, and concerns with contamination of sterile fields due to increased ambient temperature. A 24 question survey was disseminated to burn centers in the United States and Canada...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Hiroyuki Iguchi, Yusuke Yoshida, Kento Fujisawa, Hiroki Taga, Hiroya Yurimoto, Tokitaka Oyama, Yasuyoshi Sakai
KaiC protein is the pivotal component of the circadian clock in cyanobacteria. While KaiC family proteins are well conserved throughout divergent phylogenetic lineages, studies of the physiological roles of KaiC proteins from other microorganisms have been limited. We examined the role of the KaiC proteins, KaiC1 and KaiC2, in the methanol-utilizing bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Wild-type M. extorquens AM1 cells exhibited temperature-dependent UV resistance (TDR) under permissive growth temperatures (24-32°C)...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Yoshinobu Nakamura, Takeo Nakanishi, Hiroaki Shimada, Junya Shimizu, Rika Aotani, Shio Maruyama, Kei Higuchi, Takashi Okura, Yoshiharu Deguchi, Ikumi Tamai
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) in the hypothalamus is a principal mediator of the febrile response. However, the role of organic anion transporting polypeptide 2A1 (OATP2A1/ SLCO2A1 ), a prostaglandin transporter, in facilitating this response is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of Slco2a1 deficiency on the body core temperature (Tc) and on the PGE2 concentration in hypothalamus interstitial fluid ( C isf ) and CSF ( C csf ) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, i.p.)-treated mice of both sexes. Slco2a1 -/- mice did not develop a febrile response...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tjaša Kogovšek, Martin Vodopivec, Fabio Raicich, Shin-Ichi Uye, Alenka Malej
A prominent increase in the moon jellyfish (genus Aurelia) populations has been observed since 1980 in two semi-enclosed temperate seas: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Inland Sea of Japan. Therefore, we reviewed long-term environmental and biotic data from the two Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites, along with the increase in the moon jellyfish occurrence to elucidate how these coastal seas shifted to the jellyfish-dominated ecosystems. The principal component analysis of atmospheric data revealed a simultaneous occurrence of similar climatic changes in the early 1980s; thereafter, air temperature increased steadily and precipitation decreased but became more extreme...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hong Ren, Mee Yeon Park, Angela K Spartz, Jeh Haur Wong, William M Gray
The plant hormone auxin regulates numerous growth and developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle. One major function of auxin in plant growth and development is the regulation of cell expansion. Our previous studies have shown that SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) proteins promote auxin-induced cell expansion via an acid growth mechanism. These proteins inhibit the PP2C.D family phosphatases to activate plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases and thereby promote cell expansion. However, the functions of individual PP2C...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Marc Riera, Sandra E Brown, Francesco Paesani
A quantitative characterization of the molecular mechanisms that regulate ion solvation is key to the microscopic understanding of fundamental processes taking place in aqueous environments, with major implications for different fields, from atmospheric chemistry to materials research and biochemistry. This study presents a systematic analysis of isomeric equilibria for small M+ (H2 O)n clusters, with M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs, from 0 K to 200 K. To determine the relative stability of different isomers of each M+ (H2 O)n cluster as a function of temperature, replica exchange simulations are carried out at both classical and quantum levels with the recently developed many-body MB-nrg potential energy functions, which have been shown to exhibit chemical accuracy...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Ji Hye Hwang, Hyo Won Jung, Seok Yong Kang, An Na Kang, Jun Nan Ma, Xiang Long Meng, Min Sub Hwang, Yong-Ki Park
Acupuncture with MOK, a polyherbal medicine (MOK pharmacopuncture), has been used for the treatment of thyroid syndromes including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in traditional Korean medicine. The present study investigated the effect of MOK pharmacopuncture on hypothyroidism and the mechanism underlying its antioxidation and immune regulation effects. Hypothyroidism was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of Propylthiouracil (PTU; 10 mg/kg) once daily for 4 weeks. MOK was administered by acupuncture on the acupoints around the thyroid gland of PTU-induced hypothyroidism rats once daily for 2 weeks following hypothyroidism induction...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Thais F Bartelli, Danielle C F Bruno, Marcelo R S Briones
The commensal yeast Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen. In order to successfully colonize or infect the human body, the fungus must adapt to the host's environmental conditions, such as low oxygen tension (hypoxia), temperature (37°C), and the different carbon sources available. Previous studies demonstrated the adaptive importance of C. albicans genetic variability for its pathogenicity, although the contributions of epigenetic and the influence of environmental factors are not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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