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"Therapeutic review"

Yina Xu, Mohamed Amine Amiche, Mina Tadrous
Network meta-analysis is a new tool used to summarize and compare studies for multiple interventions, irrespective of whether these interventions have been directly evaluated against each other. Network meta-analysis is quickly becoming the standard in conducting therapeutic reviews and clinical guideline development. However, little guidance is available to help pharmacists review network meta-analysis studies in their practice. Major institutions such as the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit have endorsed utilizing network meta-analysis to establish therapeutic evidence and inform decision making...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Zhi Ven Fong, Carlos Fernández-Del Castillo, Andrew L Warshaw
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are cystic neoplasms with the potential for progression to pancreatic cancer. Recognized by the global medical community just over two decades ago, IPMN have gained great epidemiological and clinical relevance thanks to the widespread use of cross-sectional abdominal imaging, which has led to a surge in the number of incidental pancreatic cysts being diagnosed. As our understanding of this disease has improved, we now know that some IPMN have a very elevated risk of cancer and require surgical resection, while others are low-risk lesions and can be followed...
December 2017: Visceral Medicine
Hua-Zhong Ying, Qin Chen, Wen-You Zhang, Huan-Huan Zhang, Yue Ma, Song-Zhao Zhang, Jie Fang, Chen-Huan Yu
The platelet‑derived growth factor (PDFG) signaling pathway exerts persistent activation in response to a variety of stimuli and facilitates the progression of hepatic fibrosis. Since this pathway modulates a broad spectrum of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, inflammation and carcinogenesis, it has emerged as a therapeutic target for hepatic fibrosis and liver‑associated disorders. The present review exhibits the current knowledge of the role of the PDGF signaling pathway and its pathological profiles in hepatic fibrosis, and assesses the potential of inhibitors which have been investigated in the experimental hepatic fibrosis model, in addition to the clinical challenges associated with these inhibitors...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mary Alison Maloney, Lisa Schwartz, Daria O'Reilly, Mitchel Levine
OBJECTIVES: Value assessments of marketed drug technologies have been developed through disinvestment frameworks. Components of these frameworks are varied and implementation challenges are prevalent. The objective of this systematic literature review was to describe disinvestment framework process components for drugs and to report on framework components, challenges, and solutions. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the terms: reassessment, reallocation, reinvestment, disinvestment, delist, decommission or obsolescence in MEDLINE, EMBASE, NLM PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL from January 1, 2000, until November 14, 2015...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Kelli Pa MacDonald, Bruce R Blazar, Geoffrey R Hill
Substantial preclinical and clinical research into chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) has come to fruition in the last five years, generating a clear understanding of a complex cytokine-driven cellular network. cGVHD is mediated by naive T cells differentiating within IL-17-secreting T cell and follicular Th cell paradigms to generate IL-21 and IL-17A, which drive pathogenic germinal center (GC) B cell reactions and monocyte-macrophage differentiation, respectively. cGVHD pathogenesis includes thymic damage, impaired antigen presentation, and a failure in IL-2-dependent Treg homeostasis...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
William W L Wong, Karen M Lee, Sumeet Singh, George Wells, Jordan J Feld, Murray Krahn
BACKGROUND: Before 2011, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin was the standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents were then approved. Although these treatments appear to be more effective, they are substantially more expensive. In anticipation of the need for information regarding the comparative cost-effectiveness of new regimens in a recent therapeutic review, we conducted the analysis to inform listing decision in Canada. METHODS: A state-transition model was developed in the form of a cost-utility analysis...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
Liliana Oliveira, Marta Oliveira Ferreira, Alexandre Rola, Miguel Magalhães, José Ferraz Gonçalves
In palliative care, drugs are considered futile if they do not have a short-term benefit in symptom control or quality of life. The authors examined pharmacotherapy prescribed for patients referred to palliative care to identify futile drugs. This was a retrospective analysis of patients referred over 6 months, focusing on the prescription of gastric protectants, antidiabetic agents, bisphosphonates, anticoagulants, antidementia drugs, statins, and antihypertensive agents. The sample consisted of 448 patients...
September 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Nathan Gossai, Rachel Cafferty, Brenda Weigel
Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare manifestation of myeloid proliferation, characterized by formation of a mass comprised of immature cells of myeloid origin. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is rarer still, with only a small fraction of GS patients having orbital involvement. Given the rarity of orbital GS, no unified therapy plan has been identified, as large prospective trials are not feasible, but it is widely accepted that patients with GS ought to be treated with systemic intensive chemotherapy consistent with standard of care regimens for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)...
July 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Carol McCrum
The use of an intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injection has been shown to have benefits for symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, considerations beyond drug efficacy can influence the appropriateness, clinical effectiveness and potential harm of an injection. A review of research evidence and published literature on clinical and procedural factors influencing the effectiveness and safety of a knee injection has been undertaken. Factors include dose, frequency, contraindications, precautions, drug interactions, side-effects, and procedural and patient-related considerations...
December 2016: Musculoskeletal Care
Carol McCrum
Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroid injections are a common approach in the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The effectiveness of injections and particular injection products is often discussed and debated in clinical arenas. The following therapeutic review examines the evidence for intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injections in the management of OA knee. A review of research evidence, published guidelines and clinical literature was undertaken following an electronic database and relevant literature search...
March 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
Laura Carone, Stephen G Oxberry, Robert Twycross, Sarah Charlesworth, Mary Mihalyo, Andrew Wilcock
Therapeutic Reviews aim to provide essential independent information for health professionals about drugs used in palliative and hospice care. Additional content is available on Country-specific books (Hospice and Palliative Care Formulary USA, and Palliative Care Formulary, British and Canadian editions) are also available and can be ordered from The series editors welcome feedback on the articles (
July 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Wen Xu, Jack Rush, Kirsty Rickett, Jermaine I G Coward
Mucinous ovarian cancer represents approximately 3% of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC). Despite this seemingly low prevalence, it remains a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum that has resulted in numerous attempts to adopt novel strategies in managing this disease. Anecdotally, there has been a prevailing notion that established gold standard systemic regimens should be substituted for those utilised in cancers such as gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies; tumours that share more biological similarities than other EOC subtypes...
June 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Xu Zhang, Shuai Huang, Junchao Guo, Li Zhou, Lei You, Taiping Zhang, Yupei Zhao
The biological processes of cancer cells such as tumorigenesis, proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and invasion are greatly influenced by the surrounding microenvironment. The ability of solid malignant tumors to alter the microenvironment represents an important characteristic through which tumor cells are able to acquire specific functions necessary for their malignant biological behaviors. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases with the capacity of remodeling extracellular matrix (ECM) by degrading almost all ECM proteins, which plays essential roles during the invasion and metastasis process of solid malignant tumors, including allowing tumor cells to modify the ECM components and release cytokines, ultimately facilitating protease-dependent tumor progression...
May 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Sizzle F Vanterpool, Kathleen Tomsin, Leticia Reyes, Luc J Zimmermann, Boris W Kramer, Jasper V Been
BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the tissues supporting the teeth. Women who have periodontal disease while pregnant may be at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been addressed in a considerable number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there are important differences in the conclusions of these reviews. Systematic reviews assessing the effectivity of various therapeutic interventions to treat periodontal disease during pregnancy to try and reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes have also arrived at different conclusions...
February 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Paul C Langley
Modeled or simulated claims for costs and outcomes are a key element in formulary submissions and comparative assessments of drug products and devices; however, all too often these claims are presented in a form that is either unverifiable or potentially verifiable but in a time frame that is of no practical use to formulary committees and others who may be committed to ongoing disease-area and therapeutic-class reviews. On the assumption that formulary committees are interested in testable predictions for product performance in target populations and ongoing disease area and therapeutic reviews, the methodological standards that should be applied are those that are accepted in the natural sciences...
2015: Journal of Medical Economics
Jon C Schommer, Angeline M Carlson, Taeho Greg Rhee
Claims, justifying the acceptance and placement of new products on health system formularies, are all too often presented in terms that are either unverifiable or only verifiable in a timeframe that is of no practical benefit to formulary committees. One solution is for formulary committees to request that (i) all predictive claims made should be capable of empirical testing and (ii) manufacturers in making submissions should be asked to submit a protocol that details how their claims are to be assessed. Evaluation of claims can provide not only a significant input to ongoing disease area and therapeutic reviews, but can also provide a needed link to comparative effectiveness research and value-based healthcare...
2015: Journal of Medical Economics
D Sène
Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by symmetrical and painful swelling with a progressive induration and thickening of the skin and soft tissues. The diagnosis of EF is often based on the association of characteristic skin or subcutaneous abnormalities and a thickened fascia with an inflammatory infiltration, mostly composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils. A peripheral eosinophilia is frequently present (60-90%) but is not mandatory for the EF diagnosis. At the onset, the morphological diagnosis might be helped by a muscle magnetic resonance imaging, which typically may evidence an increased signal intensity within the fascia and marked fascia enhancement after gadolinium administration at the acute phase of the disease...
November 2015: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Rachel Quibell, Marie Fallon, Mary Mihalyo, Robert Twycross, Andrew Wilcock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
X J Xu, G S Jiang
It is well known that niacin deficiency manifests with several psychiatric manifestations. Also historically evidence has accumulated that niacin augmentation can be used for treatment of schizophrenia. However, the etiopathological associations between niacin deficiency and schizophrenia as well as the mechanism of action of niacin in its treatment. More importantly, the subgroups of schizophrenia which will respond to niacin augmentation has never been highlighted in the literature. In this article, we review three of the mechanisms in which niacin deficiency could lead to schizophrenic symptoms: (1) Niacin deficiency neurodegeneration (2) Membrane phospholipid deficiency hypothesis and (3) Adrenochrome hypothesis...
2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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