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Xiao Fang Zhu, Xu Sheng Zhao, Qi Wu, Ren Fang Shen
Background: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-studied phytohormone demonstrated to be involved in sub-sets of stress responses in plants, such as iron (Fe) deficiency and phosphorus (P) deficiency in Arabidopsis. However, whether ABA is involved in P deficiency in rice has not been frequently studied. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism underlying ABA-aggravated P deficiency in rice (Oryza sativa). Results: P deficiency decreased ABA accumulation rapidly (within 1 h) in the roots...
March 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
J L de Deus, A L A Dagostin, W A Varanda
Testosterone synthesis within Leydig cells is a calcium-dependent process. Intracellular calcium levels are regulated by different processes including ATP-activated P2X purinergic receptors, T-type Ca2+ channels modulated by the luteinizing hormone, and intracellular calcium storages recruited by a calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) is reported to have an inhibitory role in testosterone production. Based on these observations, we investigated the interaction between the purinergic and nitrergic systems in Leydig cells of adult mice...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Germano Guerra, Angela Lucariello, Angelica Perna, Laura Botta, Antonio De Luca, Francesco Moccia
BACKGROUND: Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the mechanism whereby an increase in neuronal activity (NA) leads to local elevation in cerebral blood flow (CBF) to match the metabolic requirements of firing neurons. Following synaptic activity, an increase in neuronal and/or astrocyte Ca2+ concentration leads to the synthesis of multiple vasoactive messengers. Curiously, the role of endothelial Ca2+ signaling in NVC has been rather neglected, although endothelial cells are known to control the vascular tone in a Ca2+ -dependent manner throughout peripheral vasculature...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Adel Schwertani, Hong Y Choi, Jacques Genest
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol are a biomarker of cardiovascular health but not a therapeutic target, as demonstrated by the failure of pharmacological modulation of HDL cholesterol to prevent or treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In health, HDL particles exert pleiotropic effects against atherosclerosis, including cholesterol removal from foam cells, vasodilatory effects through vascular endothelial cell nitric oxide production, decreased vascular inflammation and oxidative damage, endothelial cell proliferation and antiapoptotic effects...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Saori Furuta, Gang Ren, Jian-Hua Mao, Mina J Bissell
How mammalian tissues maintain their architecture and tissue-specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we documented both the indispensable role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, laminin-111 (LN1), in the formation of normal breast acini, and the phenotypic reversion of cancer cells to acini-like structures in 3-dimensional (3D) gels with inhibitors of oncogenic pathways. Here, we asked how laminin (LN) proteins integrate the signaling pathways necessary for morphogenesis. We report a surprising reciprocal circuitry comprising positive players: laminin-5 (LN5), nitric oxide (NO), p53, HOXD10 and three microRNAs (miRNAs) - that are involved in the formation of mammary acini in 3D...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Benjamin L Ricca, Gautham Venugopalan, Saori Furuta, Kandice Tanner, Walter A Orellana, Clay D Reber, Douglas G Brownfield, Mina J Bissell, Daniel A Fletcher
Non-malignant breast epithelial cells cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) form well organized, growth-arrested acini, whereas malignant cells form continuously growing disorganized structures. While the mechanical properties of the microenvironment have been shown to contribute to formation of tissue-specific architecture, how transient external force influences this behavior remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that brief transient compression applied to single malignant breast cells in lrECM stimulated them to form acinar-like structures, a phenomenon we term 'mechanical reversion...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Daniel Appel, Miriam Seeberger, Edzard Schwedhelm, Patrick Czorlich, Alwin E Goetz, Rainer H Böger, Juliane Hannemann
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is the major cause of lethality and neuronal damage in patients who survived the primary subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA) inhibit nitric oxide production from L-arginine via distinct mechanisms. Elevated ADMA levels are associated with vasospasm after SAH. We aimed to study the time course of ADMA and SDMA in plasma and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their associations with DCI and outcome...
March 20, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Jiantong Hou, Gaoliang Yan, Bo Liu, Boqian Zhu, Yong Qiao, Dong Wang, Ruifeng Li, Erfei Luo, Chengchun Tang
Background: Renal vasoconstriction, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and apoptosis are the major causes of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets on CIN in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: CIN (C), CIN + enalapril maleate (CE), CIN + folic acid (CF), and CIN + enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets (CEF)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Chun Q Zhu, Jun H Zhang, Li M Sun, Lian F Zhu, Buhailiqem Abliz, Wen J Hu, Chu Zhong, Zhi G Bai, Hussain Sajid, Xiao C Cao, Qian Y Jin
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) plays a vital role in Al3+ stress resistance in plants, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with 2 μM of the H2 S donor NaHS significantly alleviated the inhibition of root elongation caused by Al toxicity in rice roots, which was accompanied by a decrease in Al contents in root tips under 50 μM Al3+ treatment. NaHS pretreatment decreased the negative charge in cell walls by reducing the activity of pectin methylesterase and decreasing the pectin and hemicellulose contents in rice roots...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chun-Kuei Su, Yi-Yin Chen, Chiu-Ming Ho
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Feifei Z Williams, Atul Vats, Thomas Cash, James D Fortenberry
Respiratory failure associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been considered a contraindication for use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at many centers. We describe a child with neuroblastoma and hypoxemic respiratory failure following HSCT who was successfully managed with veno-venous (VV) ECMO. The patient was an 18-month-old female with high-risk neuroblastoma status post tumor resection, chemotherapy, autologous HSCT, and primary site radiation. On day 113 posttransplant while receiving maintenance immunotherapy, she had an acute respiratory decompensation because of rhinovirus, aspiration pneumonia, and capillary leak syndrome...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Tanusree Sen, Pampa Saha, Nilkantha Sen
Acetylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau promotes its polymerization into neurofibrillary tangles that are implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) regulates cell signaling through the nitrosylation of proteins. We found that NO production and tau acetylation at Lys280 occurred in the brain tissue in mice and in cultured mouse cortical neurons in response to exposure to amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42 ), a peptide that is also implicated in AD...
March 20, 2018: Science Signaling
Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Raman Kumari, Sandeep Grover
BACKGROUND: We sought to compare treatment satisfaction with inhaled medications among asthmatics using a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or a dry-powder inhaler (DPI), and to correlate satisfaction with treatment adherence, pulmonary function, and airway inflammation. METHODS: Spirometry, fraction of expired nitric oxide (FENO ), and asthma control were assessed in 200 adult subjects with asthma (69 men, 131 women) using MDI or DPI. Treatment satisfaction with inhaled therapy was assessed with the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) in 4 domains: Effectiveness, Side Effects, Convenience, and Global Satisfaction...
March 20, 2018: Respiratory Care
Daniel A Bizjak, Daniel Jacko, Philipp Zimmer, Sebastian Gehlert, Wilhelm Bloch, Marijke Grau
Depending on the exercise variables and training design, resistance exercise can be applied to gain muscle mass, prevent diseases like osteoporosis and sarcopenia or generally increase strength capacity. But the influence on blood flow parameters and possible consequences in health and disease are less understood. To examine the possible impact of resistance exercise of different duration on hemorheology, oxidative stress and microvascular function, participants (n = 6) performed lower-limb resistance exercise of the quadriceps femoris...
March 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
Hossein Amini-Khoei, Nastaran Kordjazy, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Shayan Amiri, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Armin Shirzadian, Amin Hasanvand, Shima Balali-Dehkordi, Mahsa Hassanipoor, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Anticonvulsant effects of minocycline have been explored recently. This study was designed to examine the anticonvulsant effect of acute administration of minocycline on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mouse considering the possible role of nitric oxide (NO)/NMDA pathway. We induced seizure using intravenous administration of PTZ. Our results showed that acute administration of minocycline increased the seizure threshold. Furthermore, co-administration of sub-effective doses of the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME (10 mg/kg) and the neuronal NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (40 mg/kg) enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of sub-effective dose of minocycline (40 mg/kg)...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Makoto Ando, Takayuki Matsumoto, Shota Kobayashi, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of KCa channels to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated relaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in the superior mesenteric arteries of 7-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Upon inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, ACh-induced EDHF-mediated relaxation was found to be weaker in SHR than in age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). These relaxations in both group were attenuated by combined treatment with small-conductance and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SKCa and IKCa) inhibitors, with the exception of relaxation resistant to inhibition of these channels in SHR (vs...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Naif E Al Omairi, Omyma K Radwan, Yahea A Alzahrani, Rami B Kassab
Due to the high ability of cadmium to cross the blood-brain barrier, cadmium (Cd) causes severe neurological damages. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract (MLE) against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were divided into eight groups. Group 1 served as vehicle control group, groups 2, 3 and 4 received MLE (100, 200, 300 mg /kg b.wt, respectively). Group 5 was treated with CdCl2 (5 mg/kg b.wt). Groups 6, 7 and 8 were co-treated with MLE and CdCl2 using the same doses...
March 20, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yi Ren, Ling-Hui Chao, Jing Sun, Xiao-Nan Chen, Hui-Na Yao, Zhi-Xiang Zhu, Dan Dong, Ting Liu, Peng-Fei Tu, Jun Li
Two new polyketides, penicilloxalones A (1) and B (2), together with 13 known compounds (3-15), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the solid substrate fermentation cultures of the fungus Penicillium oxalicum MHZ153. The structures of the isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis and comparison of their spectroscopic and physicochemical data with the literature values. Compounds 7 and 11 showed inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells with IC50 values of 0...
March 20, 2018: Natural Product Research
Bo Wang, Shuangshuang Han
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting from external force on the head, usually leads to long-term deficits in motor and cognitive functions. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated excessive inflammation could exacerbate brain damage after TBI. The present study therefore investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of iNOS inhibition after TBI. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury and then treated with high selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W. Expression of iNOS mRNA was determined by quantitative RT-PCR...
March 20, 2018: Cerebellum
Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Nishat Ahmed, Misbah, Mohammed Arifuddin, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad M Al-Sanea, Syeda Umme Kulsoom Khundmiri, Inshah Ahmed, Saleha Ahmed, Pooi Ling Mok
In view of the report on anti-nociceptive activity of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea {Roxb.} Wight & Arn. (Combretaceae) leaves, the present study was conducted to isolate the active constituents and identify the underlying mechanisms. The methanolic extract of T. coriacea leaves (TCLME) at doses 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg orally, was subjected to various in-vivo assays in acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced paw-licking tests with aspirin (100 mg/kg) and morphine (5 mg/kg) as reference drugs...
March 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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