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Stability engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932587/a-divalent-cation-dependent-variant-of-the-glms-ribozyme-with-stringent-ca2-selectivity-co-opts-a-pre-existing-non-specific-metal-ion-binding-site
#1
Matthew W L Lau, Robert J Trachman, Adrian R Ferré-D'Amaré
Ribozymes employ divalent cations for structural stabilization, as catalytic cofactors, or both. Because of the prominent role of Ca2+ in intracellular signaling, engineered ribozymes with stringent Ca2+ selectivity would be important in biotechnology. The wild-type glmS ribozyme (glmSWT) requires glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) as a catalytic cofactor. Previously, a glmS ribozyme variant with three adenosine mutations (glmSAAA) was identified, which dispenses with GlcN6P and instead uses, with little selectivity, divalent cations as cofactors for site-specific RNA cleavage...
December 8, 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931263/extracellular-matrix-components-and-culture-regimen-selectively-regulate-cartilage-formation-by-self-assembling-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Johnathan Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
BACKGROUND: Cartilage formation from self-assembling mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro recapitulate important cellular events during mesenchymal condensation that precedes native cartilage development. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) components and culture regimen on cartilage formation by self-assembling human MSCs in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) were seeded and compacted in 6...
December 9, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929752/efficient-production-of-bispecific-igg-of-different-isotypes-and-species-of-origin-in-single-mammalian-cells
#3
Michael Dillon, Yiyuan Yin, Jianhui Zhou, Luke McCarty, Diego Ellerman, Dionysos Slaga, Teemu T Junttila, Guanghui Han, Wendy Sandoval, Meric A Ovacik, Kedan Lin, Zhilan Hu, Amy Shen, Jacob E Corn, Christoph Spiess, Paul J Carter
Bispecific IgG production in single host cells has been a much sought-after goal to support the clinical development of these complex molecules. Current routes to single cell production of bispecific IgG include engineering heavy chains for heterodimerization and redesign of Fab arms for selective pairing of cognate heavy and light chains. Here, we describe novel designs to facilitate selective Fab arm assembly in conjunction with previously described knobs-into-holes mutations for preferential heavy chain heterodimerization...
December 8, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928997/large-electrorheological-phenomena-in-graphene-nano-gels
#4
Purbarun Dhar, Ajay Katiyar, Arvind Pattamatta, Sarit K Das
Large-scale electrorheology (ER) response has been reported for dilute graphene nanoflake-based ER fluids that have been engineered as novel, readily synthesizable polymeric gels. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) based graphene gels have been synthesized and a very high ER response (∼125 000% enhancement in viscosity under influence of an electric field) has been observed for low concentration systems (∼2 wt.%). The gels overcome several drawbacks innate to ER fluids. The gels exhibit long term stability, a high graphene packing ratio which ensures very high ER response, and the microstructure of the gels ensures that fibrillation of the graphene nanoflakes under an electric field is undisturbed by thermal fluctuations, further leading to mega ER...
December 8, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928961/darpins-bioengineering-and-its-theranostic-approaches-emerging-trends-in-protein-engineering
#5
Mahmood Rasool, Arif Malik, Mubashir Hussain, Kalsoom A Haq, Kiran Butt, Abdul Basit, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Muhammad Asif, Rozena Shaikh, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa, Qamre Alam, Ghulam Rasool, Waseem Ahmad, Absarul L Haque, Mohammad Amjad Kamal
The therapeutic significance of bioengineering proteins has increased dramatically as a new generation of pharmacological drug with a great potential in medical treatment. Protein engineering has improved the use of new non immunoglobulin affinity proteins. The designed ankyrin repeat proteins abbreviated as DARPins is an example. The molecules have smaller structural size, unlike immunoglobulins, but similar target affinity is of great significance. Such molecules get more binding specificity and greater thermodynamic stability...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924160/multivalent-targeting-based-delivery-of-therapeutic-peptide-using-ap1-elp-carrier-for-effective-cancer-therapy
#6
Vijaya Sarangthem, Yunjae Kim, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Bo-Yeon Seo, Sun-Ha Cheon, Young-Jin Lee, Byung-Heon Lee, Rang-Woon Park
Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP)-based drug delivery has been utilized for various applications including cancer therapies for many years. Genetic incorporation of internalization ligands and cell-targeting peptides along with ELP polymer enhanced tumor accumulation and retention time as well as stability and activities of the drug conjugates. Herein, we described a unique delivery system comprised of genetically engineered ELP incorporated with multiple copies of IL-4 receptor targeting peptide (AP1) periodically and proapoptotic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 referred to as AP1-ELP-KLAK...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922201/high-performance-air-stable-field-effect-transistors-based-on-heteroatom-substituted-naphthalenediimide-benzothiadiazole-copolymers-exhibiting-ultrahigh-electron-mobility-up-to-8-5-cm-v-1-s-1
#7
Zhiyuan Zhao, Zhihong Yin, Huajie Chen, Liping Zheng, Chunguang Zhu, Long Zhang, Songting Tan, Hanlin Wang, Yunlong Guo, Qingxin Tang, Yunqi Liu
Rational heteroatom engineering is applied to develop high-performance electron-transporting naphthalenediimide copolymers. Top-gate field-effect transistors fabricated from selenophene-containing polymers achieve an ultrahigh electron mobility of 8.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and excellent air-stability. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of selenophene heterocycles into the polymers can improve film-forming ability, intermoleclar interaction, and carrier transport significantly.
December 6, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922071/a-carotenogenic-mini-pathway-introduced-into-white-corn-does-not-affect-development-or-agronomic-performance
#8
Daniela Zanga, Teresa Capell, Gustavo A Slafer, Paul Christou, Roxana Savin
High-carotenoid corn (Carolight®) has been developed as a vehicle to deliver pro-vitamin A in the diet and thus address vitamin A deficiency in at-risk populations in developing countries. Like any other novel crop, the performance of Carolight® must be tested in different environments to ensure that optimal yields and productivity are maintained, particularly in this case to ensure that the engineered metabolic pathway does not attract a yield penalty. Here we compared the performance of Carolight® with its near isogenic white corn inbred parental line under greenhouse and field conditions, and monitored the stability of the introduced trait...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921382/core-shell-silk-hydrogels-with-spatially-tuned-conformations-as-drug-delivery-system
#9
Le-Ping Yan, Joaquim M Oliveira, Ana L Oliveira, Rui L Reis
Hydrogels of spatially controlled physicochemical properties are appealing platforms for tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, core-shell silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels of spatially controlled conformation were developed. The core-shell structure in the hydrogels was formed by means of soaking the preformed (enzymatically crosslinked) random coil SF hydrogels in methanol. When increasing the methanol treatment time from 1 to 10 min, the thickness of the shell layer can be tuned from about 200 to about 850 μm as measured in wet status...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920437/developing-a-scalable-artificial-photosynthesis-technology-through-nanomaterials-by-design
#10
Nathan S Lewis
An artificial photosynthetic system that directly produces fuels from sunlight could provide an approach to scalable energy storage and a technology for the carbon-neutral production of high-energy-density transportation fuels. A variety of designs are currently being explored to create a viable artificial photosynthetic system, and the most technologically advanced systems are based on semiconducting photoelectrodes. Here, I discuss the development of an approach that is based on an architecture, first conceived around a decade ago, that combines arrays of semiconducting microwires with flexible polymeric membranes...
December 6, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916933/femtosecond-laser-ablated-fbg-with-composite-microstructure-for-hydrogen-sensor-application
#11
Meng Zou, Yutang Dai, Xian Zhou, Ke Dong, Minghong Yang
A composite microstructure in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with film deposition for hydrogen detection is presented. Through ablated to FBG cladding by a femtosecond laser, straight-trenches and spiral micro-pits are formed. A Pd-Ag film is sputtered on the surface of the laser processed FBG single mode fiber, and acts as hydrogen sensing transducer. The demonstrated experimental outcomes show that a composite structure produced the highest sensitivity of 26.3 pm/%H, nearly sevenfold more sensitive compared with original standard FBG...
December 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914063/episweep-computationally-driven-reengineering-of-therapeutic-proteins-to-reduce-immunogenicity-while-maintaining-function
#12
Yoonjoo Choi, Deeptak Verma, Karl E Griswold, Chris Bailey-Kellogg
Therapeutic proteins are yielding ever more advanced and efficacious new drugs, but the biological origins of these highly effective therapeutics render them subject to immune surveillance within the patient's body. When recognized by the immune system as a foreign agent, protein drugs elicit a coordinated response that can manifest a range of clinical complications including rapid drug clearance, loss of functionality and efficacy, delayed infusion-like allergic reactions, more serious anaphylactic shock, and even induced auto-immunity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914052/applications-of-normal-mode-analysis-methods-in-computational-protein-design
#13
Vincent Frappier, Matthieu Chartier, Rafael Najmanovich
Recent advances in coarse-grained normal mode analysis methods make possible the large-scale prediction of the effect of mutations on protein stability and dynamics as well as the generation of biologically relevant conformational ensembles. Given the interplay between flexibility and enzymatic activity, the combined analysis of stability and dynamics using the Elastic Network Contact Model (ENCoM) method has ample applications in protein engineering in industrial and medical applications such as in computational antibody design...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914050/multistate-computational-protein-design-with-backbone-ensembles
#14
James A Davey, Roberto A Chica
The ability of computational protein design (CPD) to identify protein sequences possessing desired characteristics in vast sequence spaces makes it a highly valuable tool in the protein engineering toolbox. CPD calculations are typically performed using a single-state design (SSD) approach in which amino-acid sequences are optimized on a single protein structure. Although SSD has been successfully applied to the design of numerous protein functions and folds, the approach can lead to the incorrect rejection of desirable sequences because of the combined use of a fixed protein backbone template and a set of rigid rotamers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910375/high-precision-measurement-of-magnetic-penetration-depth-in-superconducting-films
#15
X He, A Gozar, R Sundling, I Božović
The magnetic penetration depth (λ) in thin superconducting films is usually measured by the mutual inductance technique. The accuracy of this method has been limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the solenoids and in the film position and thickness, by parasitic coupling between the coils, etc. Here, we present several improvements in the apparatus and the method. To ensure the precise thickness of the superconducting layer, we engineer the films at atomic level using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903821/construction-of-a-minimal-genome-as-a-chassis-for-synthetic-biology
#16
REVIEW
Bong Hyun Sung, Donghui Choe, Sun Chang Kim, Byung-Kwan Cho
Microbial diversity and complexity pose challenges in understanding the voluminous genetic information produced from whole-genome sequences, bioinformatics and high-throughput '-omics' research. These challenges can be overcome by a core blueprint of a genome drawn with a minimal gene set, which is essential for life. Systems biology and large-scale gene inactivation studies have estimated the number of essential genes to be ∼300-500 in many microbial genomes. On the basis of the essential gene set information, minimal-genome strains have been generated using sophisticated genome engineering techniques, such as genome reduction and chemical genome synthesis...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900555/x-ray-crystallography-as-a-tool-to-determine-three-dimensional-structures-of-commercial-enzymes-subjected-to-treatment-in-pressurized-fluids
#17
REVIEW
Mirian Cristina Feiten, Marco Di Luccio, Karine F Santos, Débora de Oliveira, J Vladimir Oliveira
The study of enzyme function often involves a multi-disciplinary approach. Several techniques are documented in the literature towards determining secondary and tertiary structures of enzymes, and X-ray crystallography is the most explored technique for obtaining three-dimensional structures of proteins. Knowledge of three-dimensional structures is essential to understand reaction mechanisms at the atomic level. Additionally, structures can be used to modulate or improve functional activity of enzymes by the production of small molecules that act as substrates/cofactors or by engineering selected mutants with enhanced biological activity...
November 29, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900237/design-of-a-tdoa-location-engine-and-development-of-a-location-system-based-on-chirp-spread-spectrum
#18
Rui-Rong Wang, Xiao-Qing Yu, Shu-Wang Zheng, Yang Ye
Location based services (LBS) provided by wireless sensor networks have garnered a great deal of attention from researchers and developers in recent years. Chirp spread spectrum (CSS) signaling formatting with time difference of arrival (TDOA) ranging technology is an effective LBS technique in regards to positioning accuracy, cost, and power consumption. The design and implementation of the location engine and location management based on TDOA location algorithms were the focus of this study; as the core of the system, the location engine was designed as a series of location algorithms and smoothing algorithms...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899918/mechanistic-basis-of-antimicrobial-actions-of-silver-nanoparticles
#19
REVIEW
Tikam Chand Dakal, Anu Kumar, Rita S Majumdar, Vinod Yadav
Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897340/ultrahigh-energy-storage-performance-of-lead-free-oxide-multilayer-film-capacitors-via-interface-engineering
#20
Zixiong Sun, Chunrui Ma, Ming Liu, Jin Cui, Lu Lu, Jiangbo Lu, Xiaojie Lou, Lei Jin, Hong Wang, Chun-Lin Jia
Ultrahigh energy storage density of 52.4 J cm(-3) with optimistic efficiency of 72.3% is achieved by interface engineering of epitaxial lead-free oxide multilayers at room temperature. Moreover, the excellent thermal stability of the performances provides solid basis for widespread applications of the thin film systems in modern electronic and power modules in harsh working environments.
November 29, 2016: Advanced Materials
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