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Josephine V Seale, Richard A Hutchinson, Paul F Fleming, Ajay Sinha, Stephen T Kempley, Shahid M Husain, Michael R Millar
BACKGROUND: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality, disproportionately affecting those of extreme prematurity and/or very low birth weight. A number of risk factors have been identified, including an association between the use of antibiotics, and the subsequent development of NEC. AIM: This review sought to address whether the choice of antibiotic(s) used to treat infants with suspected late-onset sepsis (LOS) influences the risk of developing NEC...
July 2, 2018: Early Human Development
L Gai, Y Tong, B-Q Yan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic effect of procalcitonin level in serum for patients with sepsis due to different pathogenic causes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 132 sepsis patients were analyzed. Those patients were admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Ningbo University from January 2014 to January 2017. According to the blood culture results before antimicrobial therapy, patients were divided into two groups: Gram-negative bacteria group (G- group) and Gram-positive bacteria group (G+ group)...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Rania Salah El-Zayat, Awny Gamal Shalaby
OBJECTIVES: Myocardial dysfunction is well recognized in severe sepsis and septic shock. Echocardiography provides rapid, noninvasive, and bedside evaluation of cardiac function in patients with hemodynamic instability. Mitral annular plane systolic excursion is an M-mode-derived echocardiographic variable used to assess longitudinal left ventricular systolic function. No data are available about the uses of mitral annular plane systolic excursion in children with septic shock. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prognostic significance of mitral annular plane systolic excursion in children with septic shock and to correlate it with the most commonly used measures of left ventricular systolic function and myocardial injury...
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Christoph M Rüegger, Bernhard Frey
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that patients who die in a PICU despite a low predicted mortality at PICU admission are affected by serious errors and adverse events. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional review of medical records for serious errors and adverse events. SETTING: Tertiary interdisciplinary neonatal PICU. PATIENTS: All admissions to our PICU who died despite a low expected mortality (Pediatric Index of Mortality) of less than 10% (trigger-positive admissions)...
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Kelly M Hatfield, Raymund B Dantes, James Baggs, Mathew R P Sapiano, Anthony E Fiore, John A Jernigan, Lauren Epstein
OBJECTIVES: To assess the variability in short-term sepsis mortality by hospital among Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services beneficiaries in the United States during 2013-2014. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort design. SETTING: Hospitalizations from 3,068 acute care hospitals that participated in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services inpatient prospective payment system in 2013 and 2014. PATIENTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries greater than or equal to 65 years old who had an inpatient hospitalization coded with present at admission severe sepsis or septic shock...
July 17, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Aleksandra Leligdowicz, Lauren F Chun, Alejandra Jauregui, Kathryn Vessel, Kathleen D Liu, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Systemic immune activation is the hallmark of sepsis, which can result in endothelial injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The aim of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in sepsis-mediated endothelial permeability using primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) and the Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) platform. After plasma removal, cellular component of whole blood from 35 ICU patients with early sepsis was diluted with media and stimulated with either LPS or control media...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Akira Kuriyama, Morihiro Katsura, Seigo Urushidani, Tadaaki Takada
Background: Polymyxin B hemoperfusion is a strategy to remove circulating endotoxin in patients with sepsis. Previous systematic reviews derived from randomized and non-randomized studies suggested that use of polymyxin B hemoperfusion reduced mortality, based on the pooled data from various time points in the clinical course of sepsis. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of polymyxin B hemoperfusion specifically on 28-day mortality in patients with sepsis and septic shock...
June 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Chung-Yu Chen, Kuang-Ming Liao
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs frequently in patients with COPD. There are limited data about the impact of AF in hospitalized COPD patients on other serious health outcomes, such as acute organ dysfunction, severe sepsis, and respiratory failure. The aim of our study was to delineate the impact of AF in hospitalized COPD patients. Methods: We defined COPD populations with and without AF from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. The control subjects (patients with COPD without AF) were selected from the population of COPD patients who had no history of AF and were matched to the COPD patients with AF by age (±1 year), gender, and the year of COPD diagnosis (±1 year)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Wei-Wei Jiang, Li-Li Gao, Ming Wu, Tong Zhao, Dong-Ling Shen
OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) against sepsis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats with obesity and its effect on the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in the liver. METHODS: A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats aged three weeks were randomly divided into a normal group and an obesity group, with 30 rats in each group. A rat model of obesity was established by high-fat diet...
July 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Lin Zhang, Kuan-Peng Guo, Yi Mo, Su-Wu Yi, Cai-Zhi Huang, Cai-Xia Long, Li-Ya Mo
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in the early prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with sepsis. METHODS: A total of 126 children with sepsis were divided into an AKI group (n=66) and a non-AKI group (n=60) according to the presence or absence of AKI. These patients were also classified into high-RDW and low-RDW groups according to the mean RDW. The groups were compared in terms of age, male-to-female ratio, body mass index (BMI), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and routine blood test results...
July 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Janet M Simsic, Christina Phelps, Kristin Kirchner, Kirby-Rose Carpenito, Robin Allen, Holly Miller-Tate, Karen Texter, Mark Galantowicz
OBJECTIVE: Interstage readmissions are common in infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease undergoing staged surgical palliation. We retrospectively examined readmissions during the interstage period. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: The Heart Center at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. PATIENTS: Newborns undergoing hybrid stage 1 palliation from January 2012 to December 2016 who survived to hospital discharge and were followed at our institution...
July 18, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Prithwiraj Chakrabarti, Chris Warren, Laura Vincent, Yadlapalli Kumar
Enteroviruses (EV) and human parechoviruses (HPeV) are known and emerging cause of sepsis-like illnesses in infants; however, testing is not yet routine. We retrospectively evaluated the number of diagnosed EV/HPeV infections in children under the age of 5 years who presented with sepsis-like illness or meningitis in Cornwall, UK, before and after routine implementation of viral screening of cerebrospinal fluid samples. During the 4-year period prior to routine testing, we identified 20 cases of EV meningitis and no cases of HPeV...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
C L Hodgson, T S Walsh, N Lone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Marco Dettori, Benedetto Arru, Antonio Azara, Andrea Piana, Gavino Mariotti, Maria Veronica Camerada, Paola Stefanelli, Giovanni Rezza, Paolo Castiglia
The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the relationship between official data on invasive meningococcal disease cases in Sardinia and the reporting of the cases by a regional online newspaper and (ii) to identify indicators useful for understanding the community outrage related to health events. Cases of meningococcal disease, selected from articles published between 1999 and 2016 on a regional newspaper database, were compared to those reported to the Infectious Disease Information Service. In order to evaluate the equality of the two distribution records, the Kolgomorov Smirnov test for two samples was applied...
July 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Amel Komic, Patricia Martinez-Quinones, Cameron G McCarthy, R Clinton Webb, Camilla F Wenceslau
Sepsis is a profoundly morbid and life-threatening condition, and an increasingly alarming burden on modern healthcare economies. Patients with septic shock exhibit persistent hypotension despite adequate volume resuscitation requiring pharmacological vasoconstrictors, but the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. The accumulation of misfolded proteins is linked to numerous diseases, and it has been observed that soluble oligomeric protein intermediates are the primary cytotoxic species in these conditions...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Luke D Handke, Alexey V Gribenko, Yekaterina Timofeyeva, Ingrid L Scully, Annaliesa S Anderson
Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that has developed several approaches to evade the immune system, including a strategy to resist oxidative killing by phagocytes. This resistance is mediated by production of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes which use manganese as a cofactor. S. aureus encodes two manganese ion transporters, MntABC and MntH, and a possible Nramp family manganese transporter, exemplified by S. aureus N315 SA1432. Their relative contributions to manganese transport have not been well defined in clinically relevant isolates...
July 18, 2018: MSphere
Elliot B Tapper, Neehar D Parikh
OBJECTIVE: To describe liver disease related mortality in the United States during 1999-2016 by age group, sex, race, cause of liver disease, and geographic region. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Death certificate data from the Vital Statistics Cooperative, and population data from the US Census Bureau compiled by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (1999-2016). PARTICIPANTS: US residents...
July 18, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Wenqiang Jiang, Wenhong Zhong, Yiyu Deng, Chunbo Chen, Qiaosheng Wang, Maohua Zhou, Xusheng Li, Cheng Sun, Hongke Zeng
BACKGROUND: A major challenge in sepsis intervention is unclear risk stratification. We postulated that a panel of biomarkers of lymphocyte apoptosis and immune function, termed the "lymphocyte apoptosis model," would be an effective tool for predicting 28-day survival for sepsis patients. METHODS: A total of 52 consecutive sepsis patients were enrolled. Peripheral blood samples were collected on day 1 of admission for quantification of biomarkers of lymphocyte apoptosis and immune function, including lymphocyte count, lymphocyte apoptotic percentage, expression on monocyte HLA-DR, CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratio, T helper type 1 to type 2 ratio (Th1/Th2), cytochrome c levels, and various proinflammatory cytokine levels...
July 18, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Elias Merdassa Roro, Mitike Molla Sisay, Lynn M Sibley
BACKGROUND: Statistics indicate that Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality. It is however estimated that there is high rate of perinatal mortality although there is scarcity of data due to a lack of vital registration in the country. This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing the determinants and causes of perinatal mortality among babies born from cohorts of pregnant women in three selected districts of North Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia...
July 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Eyal Krispin, Alexandra Berezowsky, Rony Chen, Israel Meizner, Arnon Wiznitzer, Eran Hadar, Ron Bardin
BACKGROUND: The two most commonly used nomograms for amniotic fluid index (AFI) were developed by Moore and Cayle and Magann et al. However, there are several inconsistencies between the two methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether these differences carry clinical significance. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of women with singleton pregnancies evaluated for AFI during pregnancy at a tertiary medical center in 2007-2014 were divided into five groups: group A, definite oligohydramnios-AFI below the fifth percentile according to the nomograms of both Moore and Cayle and Magann et al...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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