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middle east respiratory virus

Huda F Abbag, Awad Ahmed El-Mekki, Ali Aobaid Ali Al Bshabshe, Ahmed A Mahfouz, Ahasen A Al-Dosry, Rasha T Mirdad, Nora F AlKhttabi, Lubna F Abbag
INTRODUCTION: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) belongs to the family Coronaviridae, and is named for the crown-like spikes on its surface. The clinical presentation of MERS-CoV infection ranges from asymptomatic to very severe disease, and the classical presentation includes fever, cough chills, sore throat, myalgia, and arthralgia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 339 healthcare personnel was conducted over an 8-month period in the Aseer region of Saudi Arabia using a structured survey that included demographic information and questions testing participant's knowledge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Lingshu Wang, Wei Shi, James D Chappell, M Gordon Joyce, Yi Zhang, Masaru Kanekiyo, Michelle M Becker, Neeltje van Doremalen, Robert Fischer, Nianshuang Wang, Kizzmekia S Corbett, Misook Choe, Rosemarie D Mason, Joseph G Van Galen, Tongqing Zhou, Kevin O Saunders, Kathleen M Tatti, Lia M Haynes, Peter D Kwong, Kayvon Modjarrad, Wing-Pui Kong, Jason S McLellan, Mark R Denison, Vincent J Munster, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a highly lethal pulmonary infection with ∼35% mortality. The potential for a future pandemic originating from animal reservoirs or healthcare-associated events is a major public health concern. There are no vaccines or therapeutic agents currently available for MERS-CoV. Using a probe-based single B cell-cloning strategy, we have identified and characterized multiple neutralizing mAbs specifically binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD) or S1 (non-RBD) regions from a convalescent MERS-CoV-infected patient and from immunized rhesus macaques...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Maria L Agostini, Erica L Andres, Amy C Sims, Rachel L Graham, Timothy P Sheahan, Xiaotao Lu, Everett Clinton Smith, James Brett Case, Joy Y Feng, Robert Jordan, Adrian S Ray, Tomas Cihlar, Dustin Siegel, Richard L Mackman, Michael O Clarke, Ralph S Baric, Mark R Denison
Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) cause severe disease in humans, but no approved therapeutics are available. The CoV nsp14 exoribonuclease (ExoN) has complicated development of antiviral nucleosides due to its proofreading activity. We recently reported that the nucleoside analogue GS-5734 (remdesivir) potently inhibits human and zoonotic CoVs in vitro and in a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mouse model. However, studies with GS-5734 have not reported resistance associated with GS-5734, nor do we understand the action of GS-5734 in wild-type (WT) proofreading CoVs...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Daniel K W Chu, Kenrie P Y Hui, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Eve Miguel, Daniela Niemeyer, Jincun Zhao, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Gytis Dudas, Jamiu O Oladipo, Amadou Traoré, Ouafaa Fassi-Fihri, Abraham Ali, Getnet F Demissié, Doreen Muth, Michael C W Chan, John M Nicholls, David K Meyerholz, Sulyman A Kuranga, Gezahegne Mamo, Ziqi Zhou, Ray T Y So, Maged G Hemida, Richard J Webby, Francois Roger, Andrew Rambaut, Leo L M Poon, Stanley Perlman, Christian Drosten, Veronique Chevalier, Malik Peiris
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a zoonotic respiratory disease of global public health concern, and dromedary camels are the only proven source of zoonotic infection. Although MERS-CoV infection is ubiquitous in dromedaries across Africa as well as in the Arabian Peninsula, zoonotic disease appears confined to the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoVs from Africa have hitherto been poorly studied. We genetically and phenotypically characterized MERS-CoV from dromedaries sampled in Morocco, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Ethiopia...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wonhwi Na, Dongwoo Nam, Hoyoon Lee, Sehyun Shin
There has been an urgent need to quickly screen and isolate patients with viral infections from patients with similar symptoms at point-of-care. In this study, we introduce a new microfluidic method for detection of various viruses using rolling circle amplification (RCA) of pathogens on the surface of thousands of microbeads packed in microchannels. When a targeted pathogen meets the corresponding particular template, the DNAs are rapidly amplified into a specific dumbbell shape through the RCA process, forming a DNA hydrogel and blocking the flow path formed between the beads...
February 19, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Joseph Prescott, Darryl Falzarano, Emmie de Wit, Kath Hardcastle, Friederike Feldmann, Elaine Haddock, Dana Scott, Heinz Feldmann, Vincent Jacobus Munster
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged in the Middle East. Since 2012, there have been approximately 2,100 confirmed cases, with a 35% case fatality rate. Disease severity has been linked to patient health status, as people with chronic diseases or an immunocompromised status fare worse, although the mechanisms of disease have yet to be elucidated. We used the rhesus macaque model of mild MERS to investigate whether the immune response plays a role in the pathogenicity in relation to MERS-CoV shedding...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Waleed H Mahallawi, Omar F Khabour, Qibo Zhang, Hatim M Makhdoum, Bandar A Suliman
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been recognized as a highly pathogenic virus to humans that infects the respiratory tract and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Studies in animal models suggest that MERS-CoV infection induces a strong inflammatory response, which may be related to the severity of disease. Data showing the cytokine profiles in humans during the acute phase of MERS-CoV infection are limited. In this study, we have analyzed the profile of cytokine responses in plasma samples from patients with confirmed MERS-CoV infections (n = 7) compared to healthy controls (n = 13)...
February 1, 2018: Cytokine
Maite Sabalza, Rubina Yasmin, Cheryl A Barber, Talita Castro, Daniel Malamud, Beum Jun Kim, Hui Zhu, Richard A Montagna, William R Abrams
In recent years, there have been increasing numbers of infectious disease outbreaks that spread rapidly to population centers resulting from global travel, population vulnerabilities, environmental factors, and ecological disasters such as floods and earthquakes. Some examples of the recent outbreaks are the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-Co) in the Middle East, and the Zika outbreak through the Americas. We have created a generic protocol for detection of pathogen RNA and/or DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and reverse dot-blot for detection (RDB) and processed automatically in a microfluidic device...
2018: PloS One
Samy Kasem, Ibrahim Qasim, Ali Al-Doweriej, Osman Hashim, Ali Alkarar, Ali Abu-Obeida, Mohamed Saleh, Ali Al-Hofufi, Hussein Al-Ghadier, Raed Hussien, Ali Al-Sahaf, Faisal Bayoumi, Asmaa Magouz
BACKGROUND: The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has been reported for the first time infecting a human being since 2012. The WHO was notified of 27 countries have reported cases of MERS, the majority of these cases occur in the Arabian Peninsula, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Dromedary camels are likely to be the main source of Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS-CoV) infection in humans. METHODS: MERS-CoV infection rates among camels in livestock markets and slaughterhouses were investigated in Saudi Arabia...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Lei He, Jiangfan Li, Shuo Ren, Shihui Sun, Yan Guo, Hongjie Qiu, Yuanxiang Liao, Kaiyuan Ji, Ruiwen Fan, Guangyu Zhao, Yusen Zhou
Objective To construct a phage display library of specific nano-antibodies against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and apply it to the screening of neutralizing nano-antibodies. Methods MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) recombinant protein was used to immunize alpaca. After the last immunization, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood and total RNA was extracted. The VHH gene was amplified by PCR and used to construct recombinant phages...
December 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Javier Canton, Anthony R Fehr, Raúl Fernandez-Delgado, Francisco J Gutierrez-Alvarez, Maria T Sanchez-Aparicio, Adolfo García-Sastre, Stanley Perlman, Luis Enjuanes, Isabel Sola
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel human coronavirus that emerged in 2012, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with a case fatality rate of ~36%. When expressed in isolation, CoV accessory proteins have been shown to interfere with innate antiviral signaling pathways. However, there is limited information on the specific contribution of MERS-CoV accessory protein 4b to the repression of the innate antiviral response in the context of infection...
January 25, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Vineet D Menachery, Alexandra Schäfer, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Hugh D Mitchell, Amie J Eisfeld, Kevin B Walters, Carrie D Nicora, Samuel O Purvine, Cameron P Casey, Matthew E Monroe, Karl K Weitz, Kelly G Stratton, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Lisa E Gralinski, Thomas O Metz, Richard D Smith, Katrina M Waters, Amy C Sims, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Ralph S Baric
Convergent evolution dictates that diverse groups of viruses will target both similar and distinct host pathways to manipulate the immune response and improve infection. In this study, we sought to leverage this uneven viral antagonism to identify critical host factors that govern disease outcome. Utilizing a systems-based approach, we examined differential regulation of IFN-γ-dependent genes following infection with robust respiratory viruses including influenza viruses [A/influenza/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1-VN1203) and A/influenza/California/04/2009 (H1N1-CA04)] and coronaviruses [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV)]...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A K M Muraduzzaman, Manjur Hossain Khan, Rezina Parveen, Sharmin Sultana, Ahmed Nawsher Alam, Arifa Akram, Mahmudur Rahman, Tahmina Shirin
INTRODUCTION: Every year around 150,000 pilgrims from Bangladesh perform Umrah and Hajj. Emergence and continuous reporting of MERS-CoV infection in Saudi Arabia emphasize the need for surveillance of MERS-CoV in returning pilgrims or travelers from the Middle East and capacity building of health care providers for disease containment. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) under the Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family welfare (MoHFW), is responsible for MERS-CoV screening of pilgrims/ travelers returning from the Middle East with respiratory illness as part of its outbreak investigation and surveillance activities...
2018: PloS One
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Andrew Rambaut, Trevor Bedford
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus from camels causing significant mortality and morbidity in humans in the Arabian Peninsula. The epidemiology of the virus remains poorly understood, and while case-based and seroepidemiological studies have been employed extensively throughout the epidemic, viral sequence data have not been utilised to their full potential. Here we use existing MERS-CoV sequence data to explore its phylodynamics in two of its known major hosts, humans and camels...
January 16, 2018: ELife
Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Luca De Sabato, Guendalina Zaccaria, Arianna Boni, Enrica Sozzi, Alice Prosperi, Antonio Lavazza, Eleonora Cella, Maria Rita Castrucci, Massimo Ciccozzi, Gabriele Vaccari
After Publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that an author's name has been spelt incorrectly. The correct spelling should be "Massimo Ciccozzi", but it was previously included as "Massimo Cicozzi". The original version has now been revised to reflect this.
January 12, 2018: Virology Journal
Ye Chen, Quanming Xu, Xiaomin Yuan, Xinxin Li, Ting Zhu, Yanmei Ma, Ji-Long Chen
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which first broken out in Jeddah in 2012, causes a severe acute respiratory illness with a high mortality rate. To better understand the molecular characteristics of isolated MERS-CoV genomes, we first analysed the codon usage pattern of the zoonotic MERS-CoV strains comprehensively to gain an insight into the mechanism of cross-species transmission. We found that MERS human/camel isolates showed a low codon usage bias. Both mutation and nature selection pressure have contributed to this low codon usage bias, with the former being the main determining factor...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Luca de Sabato, Guendalina Zaccaria, Arianna Boni, Enrica Sozzi, Alice Prosperi, Antonio Lavazza, Eleonora Cella, Maria Rita Castrucci, Massimo Cicozzi, Gabriele Vaccari
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which belongs to beta group of coronavirus, can infect multiple host species and causes severe diseases in humans. Multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. In this study, we describe the detection and full genome characterization of two CoVs closely related to MERS-CoV from two Italian bats, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii. METHODS: Pool of viscera were tested by a pan-coronavirus RT-PCR...
December 19, 2017: Virology Journal
Adriaan H de Wilde, Jessika C Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Corrine Beugeling, Udayan Chatterji, Danielle de Jong, Philippe Gallay, Karoly Szuhai, Clara C Posthuma, Eric J Snijder
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is an important host factor in the replication of a variety of RNA viruses. Also the replication of several nidoviruses was reported to depend on CypA, although possibly not to the same extent. These prior studies are difficult to compare, since different nidoviruses, cell lines and experimental set-ups were used. Here, we investigated the CypA dependence of three distantly related nidoviruses that can all replicate in Huh7 cells: the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV), the alphacoronavirus human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), and the betacoronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)...
December 14, 2017: Virology
Renqiang Liu, Jinliang Wang, Yu Shao, Xijun Wang, Huilei Zhang, Lei Shuai, Jinying Ge, Zhiyuan Wen, Zhigao Bu
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a highly threatening zoonotic pathogen since its outbreak in 2012. Similar to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV belongs to the coronavirus family and can induce severe respiratory symptoms in humans, with an average case fatality rate of 35% according to the World Health Organization. Spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV is immunogenic and can induce neutralizing antibodies, thus is a potential major target for vaccine development. Here we constructed a chimeric virus based on the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the G gene was replaced by MERS-CoV S gene (VSVΔG-MERS)...
December 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
Salwa I Hindawi, Anwar M Hashem, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Sherif A El-Kafrawy, Ahmed M Tolah, Ahmed M Hassan, Esam I Azhar
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. Although the potential for MERS-CoV transmission through blood transfusion is not clear, MERS-CoV was recognized as a pathogen of concern for the safety of the blood supply especially after its detection in whole blood, serum, and plasma of infected individuals. Here we investigated the efficacy of amotosalen and ultraviolet A light (UVA) to inactivate MERS-CoV in fresh-frozen plasma (FFP)...
January 2018: Transfusion
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