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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634355/longitudinal-study-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-in-dromedary-camel-herds-in-saudi-arabia-2014-2015
#1
Maged Gomaa Hemida, Abdulmohsen Alnaeem, Daniel Kw Chu, Ranawaka Apm Perera, Samuel Ms Chan, Faisal Almathen, Emily Yau, Brian Cy Ng, Richard J Webby, Leo Lm Poon, Malik Peiris
Two herds of dromedary camels were longitudinally sampled with nasal and rectal swabs and serum, between September 2014 and May 2015, and the samples were tested for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus RNA and antibodies. Evidence of MERS-CoV infection was confirmed in one herd on the basis of detection of virus RNA in nasal swabs from three camels and significant increases in the antibody titers from three others. The three viruses were genetically identical, thus indicating introduction of a single virus into this herd...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616501/searching-for-animal-models-and-potential-target-species-for-emerging-pathogens-experience-gained-from-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-coronavirus
#2
REVIEW
Júlia Vergara-Alert, Enric Vidal, Albert Bensaid, Joaquim Segalés
Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV), associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616497/mers-coronavirus-from-discovery-to-intervention
#3
REVIEW
W Widagdo, Nisreen M A Okba, V Stalin Raj, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) still causes outbreaks despite public awareness and implementation of health care measures, such as rapid viral diagnosis and patient quarantine. Here we describe the current epidemiological picture of MERS-CoV, focusing on humans and animals affected by this virus and propose specific intervention strategies that would be appropriate to control MERS-CoV. One-third of MERS-CoV patients develop severe lower respiratory tract infection and succumb to a fatal outcome; these patients would require effective therapeutic antiviral therapy...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613145/two-novel-dromedary-camel-bocaparvoviruses-from-dromedaries-in-the-middle-east-with-unique-genomic-features
#4
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Hoi-Wah Tsoi, Nissy Georgy Patteril, Hazel C Yeung, Sunitha Joseph, Emily Y M Wong, Rubeena Muhammed, Franklin W N Chow, Ulrich Wernery, Kwok-Yung Yuen
The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus and its discovery from dromedary camels has boosted interest in the search for novel viruses in dromedaries. While bocaparvoviruses are known to infect various animals, it was not known that they exist in dromedaries. In this study, we describe the discovery of two novel dromedary camel bocaparvoviruses (DBoVs), DBoV1 and DBoV2, from dromedary faecal samples in Dubai. Among 667 adult dromedaries and 72 dromedary calves, 13.9 % of adult dromedaries and 33...
June 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608547/computational-modeling-of-the-bat-hku4-coronavirus-3cl-pro-inhibitors-as-a-tool-for-the-development-of-antivirals-against-the-emerging-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-coronavirus
#5
Areej Abuhammad, Rua'a A Al-Aqtash, Brandon J Anson, Andrew D Mesecar, Mutasem O Taha
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that poses a major challenge to clinical management. The 3C-like protease (3CL(pro) ) is essential for viral replication and thus represents a potential target for antiviral drug development. Presently, very few data are available on MERS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibition by small molecules. We conducted extensive exploration of the pharmacophoric space of a recently identified set of peptidomimetic inhibitors of the bat HKU4-CoV 3CL(pro) ...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579232/chadox1-and-mva-based-vaccine-candidates-against-mers-cov-elicit-neutralising-antibodies-and-cellular-immune-responses-in-mice
#6
Naif Khalaf Alharbi, Eriko Padron-Regalado, Craig P Thompson, Alexandra Kupke, Daniel Wells, Megan A Sloan, Keith Grehan, Nigel Temperton, Teresa Lambe, George Warimwe, Stephan Becker, Adrian V S Hill, Sarah C Gilbert
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has infected more than 1900 humans, since 2012. The syndrome ranges from asymptomatic and mild cases to severe pneumonia and death. The virus is believed to be circulating in dromedary camels without notable symptoms since the 1980s. Therefore, dromedary camels are considered the only animal source of infection. Neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are approved for veterinary or medical use despite active research on this area. Here, we developed four vaccine candidates against MERS-CoV based on ChAdOx1 and MVA viral vectors, two candidates per vector...
June 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576573/rapid-development-of-vaccines-against-emerging-pathogens-the-replication-deficient-simian-adenovirus-platform-technology
#7
Sarah C Gilbert, George M Warimwe
Despite the fact that there had been multiple small outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease, when a large outbreak occurred in 2014 there were no vaccines or drugs available for use. Clinical development of multiple candidate vaccines was then initiated in parallel with attempts to contain the outbreak but only one vaccine was eventually tested in a phase III trial. In order to be better prepared for future outbreaks of known human pathogens, platform technologies to accelerate vaccine development should be employed, allowing vaccine developers to take advantage of detailed knowledge of the vaccine platform and facilitating rapid progress to clinical trials and eventually to vaccine stockpiles...
May 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542609/potent-and-selective-inhibition-of-pathogenic-viruses-by-engineered-ubiquitin-variants
#8
Wei Zhang, Ben A Bailey-Elkin, Robert C M Knaap, Baldeep Khare, Tim J Dalebout, Garrett G Johnson, Puck B van Kasteren, Nigel J McLeish, Jun Gu, Wenguang He, Marjolein Kikkert, Brian L Mark, Sachdev S Sidhu
The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks exemplify the continued threat of (re-)emerging viruses to human health, and our inability to rapidly develop effective therapeutic countermeasures. Many viruses, including MERS-CoV and the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) encode deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes that are critical for viral replication and pathogenicity. They bind and remove ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from cellular proteins to suppress host antiviral innate immune responses...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536429/a-novel-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-the-n-terminal-domain-of-the-mers-cov-spike-protein
#9
Yingzhu Chen, Shuai Lu, Hao Jia, Yao Deng, Jianfang Zhou, Baoying Huang, Yueyang Yu, Jiaming Lan, Wenling Wang, Yongliang Lou, Kun Qin, Wenjie Tan
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused fatal infections, some through hospital-acquired transmission, in affected regions since its emergence in 2012. Although the virus is not pandemic among humans, it poses a great threat to public health due to its zoonotic origin. Thus, both preventative and therapeutic countermeasures are urgently needed. In this study, we discovered a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MERS-CoV, which mapped to a wide range of regions on the spike (S) protein of the virus...
May 24, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500431/molecular-aspects-of-mers-cov
#10
REVIEW
Ali A Rabaan, Ali M Bazzi, Shamsah H Al-Ahmed, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a betacoronavirus which can cause acute respiratory distress in humans and is associated with a relatively high mortality rate. Since it was first identified in a patient who died in a Jeddah hospital in 2012, the World Health Organization has been notified of 1735 laboratory-confirmed cases from 27 countries, including 628 deaths. Most cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoVancestors may be found in OldWorld bats of the Vespertilionidae family...
May 13, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466096/pathogenic-human-coronavirus-infections-causes-and-consequences-of-cytokine-storm-and-immunopathology
#11
REVIEW
Rudragouda Channappanavar, Stanley Perlman
Human coronaviruses (hCoVs) can be divided into low pathogenic and highly pathogenic coronaviruses. The low pathogenic CoVs infect the upper respiratory tract and cause mild, cold-like respiratory illness. In contrast, highly pathogenic hCoVs such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) predominantly infect lower airways and cause fatal pneumonia. Severe pneumonia caused by pathogenic hCoVs is often associated with rapid virus replication, massive inflammatory cell infiltration and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses resulting in acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
May 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453839/virucidal-activity-of-world-health-organization-recommended-formulations-against-enveloped-viruses-including-zika-ebola-and-emerging-coronaviruses
#12
Anindya Siddharta, Stephanie Pfaender, Nathalie Jane Vielle, Ronald Dijkman, Martina Friesland, Britta Becker, Jaewon Yang, Michael Engelmann, Daniel Todt, Marc P Windisch, Florian H Brill, Joerg Steinmann, Jochen Steinmann, Stephan Becker, Marco P Alves, Thomas Pietschmann, Markus Eickmann, Volker Thiel, Eike Steinmann
The World Health Organization (WHO) published 2 alcohol-based formulations to be used in healthcare settings and for outbreak-associated infections, but inactivation efficacies of these products have not been determined against (re-)emerging viruses. In this study, we evaluated the virucidal activity of these WHO products in a comparative analysis. Zika virus (ZIKV), Ebola virus (EBOV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as (re-)emerging viral pathogens and other enveloped viruses could be efficiently inactivated by both WHO formulations, implicating their use in healthcare systems and viral outbreak situations...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446791/tissue-distribution-of-the-mers-coronavirus-receptor-in-bats
#13
W Widagdo, Lineke Begeman, Debby Schipper, Peter R van Run, Andrew A Cunningham, Nils Kley, Chantal B Reusken, Bart L Haagmans, Judith M A van den Brand
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been shown to infect both humans and dromedary camels using dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) as its receptor. The distribution of DPP4 in the respiratory tract tissues of humans and camels reflects MERS-CoV tropism. Apart from dromedary camels, insectivorous bats are suggested as another natural reservoir for MERS-like-CoVs. In order to gain insight on the tropism of these viruses in bats, we studied the DPP4 distribution in the respiratory and extra-respiratory tissues of two frugivorous bat species (Epomophorus gambianus and Rousettus aegyptiacus) and two insectivorous bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Eptesicus serotinus)...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438633/structural-insights-into-the-interaction-of-coronavirus-papain-like-proteases-and-interferon-stimulated-gene-product-15-from-different-species
#14
Courtney M Daczkowski, John V Dzimianski, Jozlyn R Clasman, Octavia Goodwin, Andrew D Mesecar, Scott D Pegan
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) encode multifunctional papain-like proteases (PLPs) that have the ability to process the viral polyprotein to facilitate RNA replication and antagonize the host innate immune response. The latter function involves reversing the post-translational modification of cellular proteins conjugated with either ubiquitin (Ub) or Ub-like interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15). Ub is known to be highly conserved among eukaryotes, but surprisingly, ISG15 is highly divergent among animals...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396467/offering-patients-more-how-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak-can-shape-innovation-in-therapeutic-research-for-emerging-and-epidemic-infections
#15
REVIEW
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
Although, after an epidemic of over 28 000 cases, there are still no licensed treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), significant progress was made during the West Africa outbreak. The pace of pre-clinical development was exceptional and a number of therapeutic clinical trials were conducted in the face of considerable challenges. Given the on-going risk of emerging infectious disease outbreaks in an era of unprecedented population density, international travel and human impact on the environment it is pertinent to focus on improving the research and development landscape for treatments of emerging and epidemic-prone infections...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390872/the-role-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-signaling-in-sars-coronavirus-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Thiagarajan Venkataraman, Matthew B Frieman
Many survivors of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) developed residual pulmonary fibrosis with increased severity seen in older patients. Autopsies of patients that died from SARS also showed fibrosis to varying extents. Pulmonary fibrosis can be occasionally seen as a consequence to several respiratory viral infections but is much more common after a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Given the threat of future outbreaks of severe coronavirus disease, including Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary fibrosis, so as to support the development of therapeutic countermeasures and mitigate sequelae of infection...
April 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384328/effect-of-serial-pig-passages-on-the-adaptation-of-an-avian-h9n2-influenza-virus-to-swine
#17
Jose Carlos Mancera Gracia, Silvie Van den Hoecke, Xavier Saelens, Kristien Van Reeth
H9N2 avian influenza viruses are endemic in poultry in Asia and the Middle East. These viruses sporadically cause dead-end infections in pigs and humans raising concerns about their potential to adapt to mammals or reassort with human or swine influenza viruses. We performed ten serial passages with an avian H9N2 virus (A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/1997) in influenza naïve pigs to assess the potential of this virus to adapt to swine. Virus replication in the entire respiratory tract and nasal virus excretion were examined after each passage and we deep sequenced viral genomic RNA of the parental and passage four H9N2 virus isolated from the nasal mucosa and lung...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377531/further-evidence-for-bats-as-the-evolutionary-source-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#18
S J Anthony, K Gilardi, V D Menachery, T Goldstein, B Ssebide, R Mbabazi, I Navarrete-Macias, E Liang, H Wells, A Hicks, A Petrosov, D K Byarugaba, K Debbink, K H Dinnon, T Scobey, S H Randell, B L Yount, M Cranfield, C K Johnson, R S Baric, W I Lipkin, J A K Mazet
The evolutionary origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are unknown. Current evidence suggests that insectivorous bats are likely to be the original source, as several 2c CoVs have been described from various species in the family Vespertilionidae Here, we describe a MERS-like CoV identified from a Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus bat sampled in Uganda (strain PREDICT/PDF-2180), further supporting the hypothesis that bats are the evolutionary source of MERS-CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is closely related to MERS-CoV across much of its genome, consistent with a common ancestry; however, the spike protein was highly divergent (46% amino acid identity), suggesting that the two viruses may have different receptor binding properties...
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373583/sex-based-differences-in-susceptibility-to-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection
#19
Rudragouda Channappanavar, Craig Fett, Matthias Mack, Patrick P Ten Eyck, David K Meyerholz, Stanley Perlman
Pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and the Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV, cause acute respiratory illness. Epidemiological data from the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic and recent Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak indicate that there may be sex-dependent differences in disease outcomes. To investigate these differences, we infected male and female mice of different age groups with SARS-CoV and analyzed their susceptibility to the infection...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364363/preface-emerging-viruses-from-early-detection-to-intervention
#20
Giuseppe Ippolito, Giovanni Rezza
In the last decades, several viruses emerged, as the consequence of cross-species passage from animal reservoirs to human being. Emerging infections always represent a significant challenge for public health system as knowledge about specific pathogens are generally little while and no/few effective interventions are available. In this volume we explored special aspects of emerging infectious diseases including: the application of the theory of focality of diseases to infective syndrome; the human-animal inter-face focusing on influenza; the role of bats as main reservoir of emerging and novel human pathogens; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemiology and clinical presentation; immediate impact on human health of the last Zika virus outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas; the role and potential application of animal models for the study of emerging infections, to improve disease knowledge and for developing therapeutic drugs during ongoing outbreak...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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