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middle east respiratory virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932291/influenza-not-mers-cov-among-returning-hajj-and-umrah-pilgrims-with-respiratory-illness-kashmir-north-india-2014-15
#1
Parvaiz A Koul, Hyder Mir, Siddhartha Saha, Mandeep S Chadha, Varsha Potdar, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Renu B Lal, Anand Krishnan
BACKGROUND: The increasing reports of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from many countries emphasize its importance for international travel. Muslim pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah involve mass gatherings of international travellers. We set out to assess the presence of influenza and MERS-CoV in Hajj/Umrah returnees with acute respiratory infection. . METHODS: Disembarking passengers (n = 8753) from Saudi Arabia (October 2014 to April 2015) were interviewed for the presence of respiratory symptoms; 977 (11%) reported symptoms and 300 (age 26-90, median 60 years; 140 male) consented to participate in the study...
December 5, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903740/protective-t-cell-responses-featured-by-concordant-recognition-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-derived-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-and-host-mhc
#2
William J Liu, Jiaming Lan, Kefang Liu, Yao Deng, Yanfeng Yao, Shaolian Wu, Hong Chen, Lingling Bao, Haifeng Zhang, Min Zhao, Qihui Wang, Lingxia Han, Yan Chai, Jianxun Qi, Jincun Zhao, Songdong Meng, Chuan Qin, George F Gao, Wenjie Tan
The coordinated recognition of virus-derived T cell epitopes and MHC molecules by T cells plays a pivotal role in cellular immunity-mediated virus clearance. It has been demonstrated that the conformation of MHC class I (MHC I) molecules can be adjusted by the presented peptide, which impacts T cell activation. However, it is still largely unknown whether the conformational shift of MHC I influences the protective effect of virus-specific T cells. In this study, utilizing the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected mouse model, we observed that through the unusual secondary anchor Ile5, a CD8(+) T cell epitope drove the conformational fit of Trp(73) on the α1 helix of murine MHC I H-2K(d) In vitro renaturation and circular dichroism assays indicated that this shift of the structure did not influence the peptide/MHC I binding affinity...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901465/livestock-susceptibility-to-infection-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#3
Júlia Vergara-Alert, Judith M A van den Brand, W Widagdo, Marta Muñoz, Stalin Raj, Debby Schipper, David Solanes, Ivan Cordón, Albert Bensaid, Bart L Haagmans, Joaquim Segalés
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900364/analysis-of-intrapatient-heterogeneity-uncovers-the-microevolution-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#4
Donghyun Park, Hee Jae Huh, Yeon Jeong Kim, Dae-Soon Son, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Eu-Hyun Im, Jong-Won Kim, Nam Yong Lee, Eun-Suk Kang, Cheol In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Kyong Ran Peck, Sun Shim Choi, Yae-Jean Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Woong-Yang Park
Genome sequence analysis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) variants from patient specimens has revealed the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of the virus. However, most studies have analyzed the consensus sequences of MERS-CoVs, precluding an investigation of intrapatient heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed non-consensus sequences to characterize intrapatient heterogeneity in cases associated with the 2015 outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Deep-sequencing analysis of MERS-CoV genomes performed on specimens from eight patients revealed significant intrapatient variation; therefore, sequence heterogeneity was further analyzed using targeted deep sequencing...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894035/an-isothermal-label-free-and-rapid-one-step-rna-amplification-detection-assay-for-diagnosis-of-respiratory-viral-infections
#5
Bonhan Koo, Choong Eun Jin, Tae Yoon Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Mi Kyoung Park, Heungsup Sung, Se Yoon Park, Hyun Jung Lee, Sun Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
Recently, RNA viral infections caused by respiratory viruses, such as influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus, are a major public health threats in the world. Although myriads of diagnostic methods based on RNA amplification have been developed in the last decades, they continue to lack speed, sensitivity, and specificity for clinical use. A rapid and accurate diagnostic method is needed for appropriate control, including isolation and treatment of the patients...
November 23, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892925/a-mouse-model-for-mers-coronavirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
Adam S Cockrell, Boyd L Yount, Trevor Scobey, Kara Jensen, Madeline Douglas, Anne Beall, Xian-Chun Tang, Wayne A Marasco, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890674/passive-immunotherapy-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-with-equine-immunoglobulin-or-immunoglobulin-fragments-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Yongkun Zhao, Chong Wang, Boning Qiu, Chufang Li, Hualei Wang, Hongli Jin, Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Tiecheng Wang, Weiyang Sun, Feihu Yan, Yuwei Gao, Qian Wang, Jinghua Yan, Ling Chen, Stanley Perlman, Nanshan Zhong, Jincun Zhao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal pulmonary infection caused by a coronavirus (CoV), MERS-CoV. With the continuing spread of MERS-CoV, prophylactic and therapeutic treatments are urgently needed. In this study, we prepared purified equine F(ab')2 from horses immunized with MERS-CoV virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing MERS-CoV S, M and E proteins. Both IgG and F(ab')2 efficiently neutralized MERS-CoV replication in tissue culture. Passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly reduced virus titers and accelerated virus clearance from the lungs of MERS-CoV infected mice...
November 24, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872828/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-disease-is-rare-in-children-an-update-from-saudi-arabia
#8
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Rana F Kattan, Ziad A Memish
AIM: To summarize the reported Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases, the associated clinical presentations and the outcomes. METHODS: We searched the Saudi Ministry of Health website, the World Health Organization website, and the Flutracker website. We also searched MEDLINE and PubMed for the keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, MERS-CoV in combination with pediatric, children, childhood, infancy and pregnancy from the initial discovery of the virus in 2012 to 2016...
November 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866631/rapid-detection-of-viral-antibodies-based-on-multifunctional-staphylococcus-aureus-nanobioprobes
#9
Jinjuan Qiao, Yunpeng Li, Cuihua Wei, Hang Yang, Junping Yu, Hongping Wei
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles inside S. aureus cells has enhanced the sensitivity of immunoassays based on the S. aureus nanoparticles. However, the current methods are limited to antigen detection by conjugating IgG antibodies on S. aureus nanoparticles. In this study, a simple way to conjugate antigens to the S. aureus nanobioparticles was developed by utilizing a cell wall binding domain (CBD) from a bacteriophage lysin PlyV12. Based on this novel design, simple agglutination tests of the IgG antibodies of Ebola virus (EBOV) nucleoprotein (NP) and Middle East Respiratory Virus (MERS) NP in rabbit sera were successfully developed by conjugating the S...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835664/co-circulation-of-72bp-duplication-group-a-and-60bp-duplication-group-b-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-strains-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia-during-2014
#10
Anwar Ahmed, Shakir H Haider, Shama Parveen, Mohammed Arshad, Hytham A Alsenaidy, Alawi Omar Baaboud, Khalid Fahad Mobaireek, Muslim Mohammed AlSaadi, Abdulrahman M Alsenaidy, Wayne Sullender
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important viral pathogen of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI). Limited data are available on molecular epidemiology of RSV from Saudi Arabia. A total of 130 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than 5 years of age with ARI symptoms attending the Emergency Department at King Khalid University Hospital and King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and December, 2014. RSV was identified in the 26% of the hospitalized children by reverse transcriptase PCR...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822525/mplex-a-robust-and-universal-protocol-for-single-sample-integrative-proteomic-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-analyses
#11
Ernesto S Nakayasu, Carrie D Nicora, Amy C Sims, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Young-Mo Kim, Jennifer E Kyle, Melissa M Matzke, Anil K Shukla, Rosalie K Chu, Athena A Schepmoes, Jon M Jacobs, Ralph S Baric, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
Integrative multi-omics analyses can empower more effective investigation and complete understanding of complex biological systems. Despite recent advances in a range of omics analyses, multi-omic measurements of the same sample are still challenging and current methods have not been well evaluated in terms of reproducibility and broad applicability. Here we adapted a solvent-based method, widely applied for extracting lipids and metabolites, to add proteomics to mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807241/one-health-a-safe-efficient-dual-use-vaccine-for-humans-and-animals-against-mers-cov-and-rabies-virus
#12
Christoph Wirblich, Christopher M Coleman, Drishya Kurup, Tara S Abraham, John G Bernbaum, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley, Reed F Johnson, Matthew B Frieman, Matthias J Schnell
: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 and is a highly pathogenic respiratory virus. No treatment options against MERS-CoV exist for humans or animals and there are no large-scale clinical trials for therapies against MERS-CoV. To address this need, we developed an inactivated rabies virus (RABV) that contains the MERS-CoV Spike (S) protein expressed on its surface. Our initial recombinant vaccine, BNSP333-S, expresses a full-length wildtype MERS-CoV S protein however it showed significantly reduced viral titers compared to the parental RABV strain and only low incorporation of full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) into RABV particles...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795435/cd8-t-cells-and-macrophages-regulate-pathogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-mers-cov-disease
#13
Christopher M Coleman, Jeanne M Sisk, Gabor Halasz, Jixin Zhong, Sarah E Beck, Krystal L Matthews, Thiagarajan Venkataraman, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Christos A Kyratsous, Matthew B Frieman
: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an important emerging pathogen that was first described in 2012. While the cell surface receptor for MERS-CoV has been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), the mouse DPP4 homologue does not allow for virus entry into cells. Therefore, development of mouse models of MERS-CoV has been hampered by the fact that MERS-CoV does not replicate in commonly available mouse strains. We have previously described a mouse model in which mDPP4 was replaced with hDPP4 such that hDPP4 is expressed under the endogenous mDPP4 promoter...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795425/recombinant-receptor-binding-domains-of-multiple-mers-coronaviruses-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibodies-against-divergent-human-and-camel-mers-coronaviruses-and-antibody-escape-mutants
#14
Wanbo Tai, Yufei Wang, Craig A Fett, Guangyu Zhao, Fang Li, Stanley Perlman, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Lanying Du
: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) binds to cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) via spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD contains critical neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important vaccine target. Since RBD mutations occur in different MERS-CoV isolates and antibody-escape mutants, cross-neutralization of divergent MERS-CoV strains by RBD-induced antibodies remains unknown. Here, we constructed four recombinant RBD (rRBD) proteins with single or multiple mutations detected in representative human MERS-CoV strains from the 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 outbreaks, respectively, and one rRBD protein with multiple changes derived from camel MERS-CoV strains...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795409/structural-biology-of-the-arterivirus-nsp11-endoribonucleases
#15
Manfeng Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Zengqin Deng, Zhenhang Chen, Yang Liu, Yina Gao, Wei Wu, Zhongzhou Chen
: Endoribonuclease (NendoU) is unique and conserved as a major genetic marker in nidoviruses that infect vertebrate hosts. Arterivirus non-structural protein (nsp) 11 was shown to have NendoU activity and play essential roles in the viral life cycle. Here, we report three crystal structures of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) nsp11 mutants. The structures of arterivirus nsp11 contain two conserved compact domains: N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791014/proteolytic-processing-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-spikes-expands-virus-tropism
#16
Jung-Eun Park, Kun Li, Arlene Barlan, Anthony R Fehr, Stanley Perlman, Paul B McCray, Tom Gallagher
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans from zoonotic sources and causes severe pulmonary disease. Virions require spike (S) glycoproteins for binding to cell receptors and for catalyzing virus-cell membrane fusion. Fusion occurs only after S proteins are cleaved sequentially, first during their secretion through the exocytic organelles of virus-producing cells, and second after virus binding to target-cell receptors. To more precisely determine how sequential proteolysis contributes to CoV infection, we introduced S mutations obstructing the first cleavages...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786402/vaccines-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-for-humans-and-camels
#17
REVIEW
Naif Khalaf Alharbi
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is caused by a novel betacoronavirus that was isolated in late 2012 in Saudi Arabia. The viral infections have been reported in more than 1700 humans, ranging from asymptomatic or mild cases to severe pneumonia with a mortality rate of 40%. It is well documented now that dromedary camels contract the infection and shed the virus without notable symptoms, and such animals had been infected by at least the early 1980s. The mechanism of camel to human transmission is still not clear, but several primary cases have been associated with camel contact...
October 27, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783669/middle-east-respiratory-coronavirus-accessory-protein-4a-inhibits-pkr-mediated-antiviral-stress-responses
#18
Huib H Rabouw, Martijn A Langereis, Robert C M Knaap, Tim J Dalebout, Javier Canton, Isabel Sola, Luis Enjuanes, Peter J Bredenbeek, Marjolein Kikkert, Raoul J de Groot, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response, the protein kinase R (PKR)-mediated stress response is being recognized as an important innate response pathway. Upon detecting viral dsRNA, PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, leading to the inhibition of cellular and viral translation and the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are increasingly recognized as platforms for antiviral signaling pathways...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780489/risk-assessment-and-laboratory-investigation-of-respiratory-illness-in-travellers-returning-to-singapore-2012-2015-experience-from-the-mers-cov-surveillance-programme
#19
M K Win, A Chow, H J Ho, S Y Tay, Y S Leo
Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Singapore has enhanced its national surveillance system to detect the potential importation of this novel pathogen. Using the guidelines from the Singapore Ministry of Health, a suspect case was defined as a person with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of pneumonia or severe respiratory infection with breathlessness, and with an epidemiological link to countries where MERS-CoV cases had been reported within the preceding 14 days...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761437/mers-cov-at-the-animal-human-interface-inputs-on-exposure-pathways-from-an-expert-opinion-elicitation
#20
Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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