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middle east respiratory virus

Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
David H Kingsley
Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Hainv Gao, Hangping Yao, Shigui Yang, Lanjuan Li
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. In 2012, the infectious outbreak caused by MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia has spread to more than 1600 patients in 26 countries, resulting in over 600 deaths.Without a travel history, few clinical and radiological features can reliably differentiate MERS from SARS. But in real world, comparing with SARS, MERS presents more vaguely defined epidemiology, more severe symptoms, and higher case fatality rate. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field of MERS-CoV, especially its molecular virology, interspecies mechanisms, clinical features, antiviral therapies, and the further investigation into this disease...
October 1, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
R Saito, H Akinobu, R A Shaker, I S Akel, A Assaf-Casals, M Lteif, T Odagiri, R Inaba, N Soudani, S Khafaja, S T Ghanem, M Rajab, Y Shobugawa, G S Dbaibo, H Zaraket
Despite the significant burden of influenza outbreaks, active disease monitoring has been largely absent in the Middle East, including Lebanon. In this study we characterized influenza virus in 440 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from patients with acute respiratory infections during two influenza seasons in Lebanon. Influenza A(H3N2) was dominant in the 2013/14 season while the A(H1N1)pdm09 and B/Yamagata strains were most prevalent in the 2014/15 season. All tested isolates were susceptible to 4 neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir)...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
R J G Hulswit, C A M de Haan, B-J Bosch
Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens-sparked by the SARS and MERS outbreaks-revealed important principles of inter- and intraspecies tropism changes...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
L Enjuanes, S Zuñiga, C Castaño-Rodriguez, J Gutierrez-Alvarez, J Canton, I Sola
Virus vaccines have to be immunogenic, sufficiently stable, safe, and suitable to induce long-lasting immunity. To meet these requirements, vaccine studies need to provide a comprehensive understanding of (i) the protective roles of antiviral B and T-cell-mediated immune responses, (ii) the complexity and plasticity of major viral antigens, and (iii) virus molecular biology and pathogenesis. There are many types of vaccines including subunit vaccines, whole-inactivated virus, vectored, and live-attenuated virus vaccines, each of which featuring specific advantages and limitations...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Abdullah M Assiri, Holly M Biggs, Glen R Abedi, Xiaoyan Lu, Abdulaziz Bin Saeed, Osman Abdalla, Mutaz Mohammed, Hail M Al-Abdely, Homoud S Algarni, Raafat F Alhakeem, Malak M Almasri, Ali A Alsharef, Randa Nooh, Dean D Erdman, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
During July-August 2015, the number of cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) reported from Saudi Arabia increased dramatically. We reviewed the 143 confirmed cases from this period and classified each based upon likely transmission source. We found that the surge in cases resulted predominantly (90%) from secondary transmission largely attributable to an outbreak at a single healthcare facility in Riyadh. Genome sequencing of MERS coronavirus from 6 cases demonstrated continued circulation of the recently described recombinant virus...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Mohammad-Abdul Baseer, Shahzeb-Hasan Ansari, Sultan-Saleh AlShamrani, Abdul-Rahman Alakras, Raif Mahrous, Abdul-Majeed Alenazi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of airborne and droplet isolation precautions among Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) (dental students, interns, practitioners and auxiliaries) during the outbreak of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 406 dental health professionals (DHPs) working in selected dental facilities in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of MERS (April-June 2013)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Canping Huang, Jianxun Qi, Guang-Wen Lu, Qihui Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ying Wu, Yanfang Zhang, Jinghua Yan, George F Gao
The suggested bat-origin for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has revitalized the studies on other bat-derived coronaviruses for the interspecies transmission potential. Bat coronavirus (BatCoV) HKU9 is an important betacoronavirus (betaCoV) that is phylogenetically affiliated to the same genus as MERS-CoV. The bat-surveillance data indicated that BatCoV HKU9 has been widely spreading and circulating in bats. This highlights the necessity of characterizing the virus for its potential of crossing species barriers...
October 3, 2016: Biochemistry
Canping Huang, William J Liu, Wen Xu, Tao Jin, Yingze Zhao, Jingdong Song, Yi Shi, Wei Ji, Hao Jia, Yongming Zhou, Honghua Wen, Honglan Zhao, Huaxing Liu, Hong Li, Qihui Wang, Ying Wu, Liang Wang, Di Liu, Guang Liu, Hongjie Yu, Edward C Holmes, Lin Lu, George F Gao
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. Herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 (Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1), in the rectal swab samples of Rousettus leschenaulti bats by using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Arinjay Banerjee, Noreen Rapin, Megan Miller, Philip Griebel, Yan Zhou, Vincent Munster, Vikram Misra
It is speculated that bats are important reservoir hosts for numerous viruses, with 27 viral families reportedly detected in bats. Majority of these viruses have not been isolated and there is little information regarding their biology in bats. Establishing a well-characterized bat cell line supporting the replication of bat-borne viruses would facilitate the analysis of virus-host interactions in an in vitro model. Currently, few bat cell lines have been developed and only Tb1-Lu, derived from Tadarida brasiliensis is commercially available...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
I H Mendenhall, S Borthwick, E S Neves, D Low, M Linster, B Liang, M Skiles, J Jayakumar, H Han, V Gunalan, B P Y-H Lee, K Okahara, L-F Wang, S Maurer-Stroh, Y C F Su, G J D Smith
Coronaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Bats are reservoirs for several different coronaviruses in the Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus genera. They also appear to be the natural reservoir for the ancestral viruses that generated the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreaks. Here, we detected coronavirus sequences in next-generation sequence data created from Eonycteris spelaea faeces and urine. We also screened by PCR urine samples, faecal samples and rectal swabs collected from six species of bats in Singapore between 2011 and 2014, all of which were negative...
September 16, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Alimuddin Zumla, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Matthew Cotten, Esam I Azhar
Media and World Health Organization (WHO) attention on Zika virus transmission at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and the 2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa diverted the attention of global public health authorities from other lethal infectious diseases with epidemic potential. Mass gatherings such as the annual Hajj pilgrimage hosted by Kingdom of Saudi Arabia attract huge crowds from all continents, creating high-risk conditions for the rapid global spread of infectious diseases. The highly lethal Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains in the WHO list of top emerging diseases likely to cause major epidemics...
2016: BMC Medicine
Yin Mo, Dale Fisher
The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a focus of international attention since its identification in 2012. Epidemiologically it is characterized by sporadic community cases, which are amplified by hospital-based outbreaks. Healthcare facilities in 27 countries from most continents have experienced imported cases, with the most significant outbreak involving 186 cases in Korea. The mortality internationally is 36% and guidance for clinical management has yet to be developed. Most facilities and healthcare providers outside of the Middle East receiving patients have no or little experience in the clinical management of MERS...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Elham Essa Bukhari, Mohamad Hani Temsah, Ayman A Aleyadhy, Abdulkareem A Alrabiaa, Ali An Alhboob, Amr A Jamal, Abdulaziz A Binsaeed
INTRODUCTION: Saudi Arabia was affected by an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We aimed to determine the perception of risk and level of stress among nurses. METHODOLOGY: A questionnaire survey was administered to determine the perceptions of risk of MERS-CoV infection. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were females (332; 86.0%), and there were 54 (14.0%) males. Of the 386 respondents, nurses constituted the majority of the respondents (293; 75...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Anthony R Fehr, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Stanley Perlman
In 2012, a zoonotic coronavirus was identified as the causative agent of Middle East respiratory syndrome and was named MERS coronavirus (MERSCoV). As of June 27, 2016, the virus has infected 1,768 patients, with a mortality rate of 35.6%. Although MERS-CoV generally causes subclinical or mild disease, infection can result in serious outcomes, including acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure in patients with comorbidities. The virus is endemic in camels in the Arabian Peninsula and Africa and thus poses a consistent threat of frequent reintroduction into human populations...
August 26, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Man-Lung Yeung, Yanfeng Yao, Lilong Jia, Jasper F W Chan, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Fan Cheung, Honglin Chen, Vincent K M Poon, Alan K L Tsang, Kelvin K W To, Ming-Kwong Yiu, Jade L L Teng, Hin Chu, Jie Zhou, Qing Zhang, Wei Deng, Susanna K P Lau, Johnson Y N Lau, Patrick C Y Woo, Tak-Mao Chan, Susan Yung, Bo-Jian Zheng, Dong-Yan Jin, Peter W Mathieson, Chuan Qin, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes sporadic zoonotic disease and healthcare-associated outbreaks in human. MERS is often complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure(1,2). The high incidence of renal failure in MERS is a unique clinical feature not often found in other human coronavirus infections(3,4). Whether MERS-CoV infects the kidney and how it triggers renal failure are not understood(5,6). Here, we demonstrated renal infection and apoptotic induction by MERS-CoV in human ex vivo organ culture and a nonhuman primate model...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Mizuki Yamamoto, Shutoku Matsuyama, Xiao Li, Makoto Takeda, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Zene Matsuda
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease associated with a relatively high mortality rate of approximately 40%. MERS is caused by MERS corona virus (MERS-CoV) infection, and no specific drugs or vaccines are currently available to prevent MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV is an enveloped virus and its envelope protein (S protein) mediates membrane fusion at the plasma membrane or endosomal membrane. Multiple proteolysis by host proteases, such as furin, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and cathepsins, causes the S protein to become fusion competent...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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