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Najeh Krayem, Zaineb Abdelkefi-Koubaa, Youssef Gargouri, José Luis
Integrins are a large family of cell surface receptors mediating the interaction of cells with their microenvironment and they play an important role in glioma biology. In the present work, we reported the anti-tumor effect of Sm-PLGV a phospholipase A2 from Tunisian scorpion venom glands-as well as its recombinant forms expressed in Escherichia coli-through interference with integrin receptor function in malignant glioma cells U87. These phospholipases inhibited in a dose dependent manner the adhesion, migration and invasion onto fibrinogen and fibronectin without any cytotoxicity...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
Jessica M de Souza, Bruno D C Goncalves, Marcus V Gomez, Luciene B Vieira, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mehdi Ait Laaradia, Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan, Fatimazahra Marhoume, Btissam Bouimeja, Sara Oufquir, Zahra Sokar, Ali Boumezzough, Abderrahman Chait
The present study investigated the toxic effects of B. lienhardi venom, at the histological, hematological, biochemical and motor skill levels following a subcutaneous injection of different doses of venom. The LD50 of B. lienhardi scorpion venom was found to be 0.27 mg/Kg by subcutaneous injection route. The results clearly indicate that B. lienhardi venom induces massive tissue damages in the organs, such as lungs, heart, kidneys and liver together with hematological impairments manifested by decreased levels of both red and white series...
March 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Senanayake A M Kularatne, Seyed Shahmy, Shantha S Rathnayake, Andrew H Dawson
OBJECTIVE: Arthropod stinging and bites are common environmental hazards in Sri Lanka. However, their medical importance has not been fully evaluated yet. This study aims to study the burden, epidemiology, and outcome of stings and bites in primary hospitals in the Kurunegala district in North Western Province (NWP) of Sri Lanka. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted one year from 25th May 2013 to 25th May 2014. Details of all stings and bites admissions and their outcomes were retrospectively extracted from hospital records in all 44 primary hospitals in the district...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Rouhullah Dehghani, Fatemeh Kamiabi, Malihe Mohammadi
Scorpions are distributed throughout Iran and the genus Hemiscorpius is particularly important in this region. Hemiscorpius lepturus is the most significant species within the genus in the country. Since scorpionism provoked by Hemiscorpius comprises a medical emergency, the present study is focused on this important issue. In order to perform the present work, a review of the medical and health-related literature was carried out in several databases. The current findings indicate that six species of Hemiscorpius are found in 15 states of Iran, mainly in the south and southwest...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Hadjer Saidi, Julie Bérubé, Fatima Laraba-Djebari, Djelila Hammoudi-Triki
Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion venom is well known to induce a systemic inflammatory response associated with cell infiltration in lung and edema formation. The present study investigate (i) in vivo the evolution of lung and systemic inflammation triggered by Aah venom and (ii) analyze in vitro the signaling cascade, upstream of inflammatory cytokine expression after Aah venom-stimulated mouse alveolar macrophage (MH-S), the main resident immune cells in the lung. The inflammation induced by Aah venom was assessed in mice through inflammatory cell count, nitric oxide metabolite, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in blood, concordantly with neutrophil sequestration in tissue and lung histology...
February 28, 2018: Inflammation
Yi-Quan Yan, Juan Xie, Jing-Fu Wang, Zhao-Feng Shi, Xiang Zhang, Yong-Ping Du, Xing-Cheng Zhao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant diseases worldwide. The unfavorable clinical outcome and poor prognosis are due to high rates of recurrence and metastasis after treatments. Some scholars of traditional Chinese medicine suggested that endogenous wind-evil had played an important role in metastasis of malignant tumor. Therefore, the drug of dispelling wind-evil could be used to prevent cancer metastasis and improve the poor prognosis. So we wondered whether Scorpion, one of the most important wind calming drugs, has antitumor effect especially in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of HCC in this research...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Najeh Krayem, Zaineb Abdelkefi-Koubaa, Naziha Marrakchi, José Luis, Youssef Gargouri
In a previous study, we purified Sm-PLGV an heterodimeric phospholipase A2 , from the venom glands of the Tunisian scorpion Scorpio maurus. This enzyme contains a Long chain, a penta-peptide insertion, which is cut out during the maturation process, followed by a short chain. A disulfide bridge links the two chains. Three recombinant forms of this enzyme were produced in Escherichia coli: rPLA2 (+5) with a penta-peptide insert, rPLA2 (-5) without the penta-peptide, and the Long chain alone without the short one...
February 24, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Abdelmounaim Nouri, Faez Amokrane Nait Mohamed, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Envenoming by scorpion is a major health problem in Maghreb regions as well as in several regions of the world. Immunotherapy is the only effective treatment for scorpion stings. The immune sera are obtained from hyper-immunized animals with a formulation of venom associated to Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA). This formulation seems to protect against several alterations in immunized animals leading to worsening of their health due to added toxicity of native venom and FCA adjuvant. This study aims to provide a more efficient and non-toxic alternative to this formulation...
February 23, 2018: Vaccine
Najeh Krayem, Goetz Parsiegla, Hélène Gaussier, Hanen Louati, Raida Jallouli, Pascal Mansuelle, Frédéric Carrière, Youssef Gargouri
BACKGROUND: Heterodimeric phospholipase A2 from venom glands of Tunisian scorpion Scorpio maurus (Sm-PLGV) had been purified. It contains long and short chains linked by a disulfide bridge. Sm-PLGV exhibits hemolytic activity towards human erythrocytes and interacts with phospholipid monolayers at high surface pressure. The investigation of structure-function relationships should provide new clues to understand its activity. METHODS: Molecular cloning of Sm-PLGV and heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of three recombinant forms was used to determine the role of the short chain on enzymatic activity...
February 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Viviane Fagundes Mattos, Leonardo Sousa Carvalho, Marcos André Carvalho, Marielle Cristina Schneider
Scorpions represent an intriguing group of animals characterized by a high incidence of heterozygous chromosomal rearrangements. In this work, we examined six species of Tityus (Archaeotityus) from Brazilian fauna with a particular focus on elucidating the rearrangements responsible for the intraspecific variability of diploid number and the presence of long chromosomal chains in meiosis. To access any interpopulation diversity, we also studied individuals from four species representing distinct localities...
2018: PloS One
Fernanda Gobbi Amorim, Johara Boldrini-França, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Edwin De Pauw, Loïc Quinton, Simone Kashima, Eliane Candiani Arantes
In general, hyaluronidases have a broad potential application on medicine and esthetics fields. Hyaluronidases from animal venoms cleave hyaluronan present in the extracellular matrix, acting as spreading factors of toxins into the tissues of the victim. However, the in-depth characterization of hyaluronidase from animal venoms has been neglected due to its instability and low concentration in the venom, which hamper its isolation. Thus, heterologous expression of hyaluronidase acts as a biotechnological tool in the obtainment of enough amounts of the enzyme for structural and functional studies...
February 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mark R Tanner, Michael W Pennington, Brayden H Chamberlain, Redwan Huq, Elizabeth J Gehrmann, Teresina Laragione, Percio S Gulko, Christine Beeton
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are a key cell-type involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression. We previously identified the KCa1.1 potassium channel (Maxi-K, BK, Slo 1, KCNMA1) as a regulator of FLS and that KCa1.1 inhibition reduces disease severity in RA animal models. However, systemic KCa1.1 block causes multiple side effects and in this study, we aimed to determine whether the KCa1.1 β1-3-specific venom peptide blocker iberiotoxin (IbTX) reduces disease severity in animal models of RA without inducing major side effects...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Stephan Schaffrath, Lorenzo Prendini, Reinhard Predel
Scorpion venoms comprise cocktails of proteins, peptides, and other molecules used for immobilizing prey and deterring predators. The composition and efficacy of scorpion venoms appears to be taxon-specific due to a coevolutionary arms race with prey and predators that adapt at the molecular level. The taxon-specific components of scorpion venoms can be used as barcodes for species identification if the amount of intraspecific variation is low and the analytical method is fast, inexpensive and reliable. The present study assessed the extent of intraspecific variation in newly regenerated venom collected in the field from geographically separated populations of four southern African scorpion species: three buthids, Parabuthus granulatus (Ehrenberg, 1831), Uroplectes otjimbinguensis (Karsch, 1879), and Uroplectes planimanus (Karsch, 1879), and one scorpionid, Opistophthalmus carinatus (Peters, 1861)...
February 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Jun Du, Ruijie Wang, Litian Yin, Yuejun Fu, Yuqing Cai, Zhiyun Zhang, Aihua Liang
Temozolomide (TMZ) is a drug that has been demonstrated to improve the survival time of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when administered with concomitant radiotherapy. However, chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of GBM. In the present study, an MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate that chlorotoxin-like toxin in the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Kirsch (BmK CT) markedly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in U251 cells when combined with TMZ...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Anitha Abimannane, Ramachandran Rameshkumar, Ponnarmeni Satheesh, Subramanian Mahadevan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of the second dose of scorpion antivenom in children with non-resolving or worsening scorpion sting envenomation. METHODS: 72 children aged ≤12 years with scorpion sting envenomation grade 2 and above were enrolled. 61 received the first dose of three vials of antivenom at admission (group A). Children with persistent/worsening envenomation at 6 hours received the second dose (group B). The time required for resolution of autonomic symptoms, myocardial dysfunction, predictors of the second dose and side effects were studied...
February 9, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Jiaping Ruan, Qinghong Mao, Wuguang Lu, Qing Li, Qun Fu, Xueting Cai, Huaijiang Yan, Junli Cao, Peng Cao, Jiao Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
Dorra Aissaoui, Saoussen Mlayah-Bellalouna, Jed Jebali, Zaineb Abdelkafi-Koubaa, Soumaya Souid, Wassim Moslah, Houcemeddine Othman, José Luis, Mohamed ElAyeb, Naziha Marrakchi, Khadija Essafi-Benkhadir, Najet Srairi-Abid
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are known to play a pivotal role in the progression of various cancer types and considered as new targets for designing anti-cancer therapy. However, the fact that many Kv channels are expressed in different cell lines makes it difficult to ascribe a functional role for a given Kv channel on a specific aspect of the tumorogenesis. In this work, we showed that although both Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels are expressed in U87 (glioblastoma), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) and LS174 (colon adenocarcinoma) cells, these respond differently to KAaH1 or KAaH2, two homologous Kv1 blockers from scorpion venom...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ana Leonor Abrahão Nencioni, Emidio Beraldo Neto, Lucas Alves de Freitas, Valquiria Abrão Coronado Dorce
In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus, T. bahiensis, T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus, T. silvestres, T. brazilae, T. confluens, T. costatus, T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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