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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908665/diffuse-resistance-courtship-in-the-scorpion-rhopalurus-rochai-scorpiones-buthidae
#1
Shayanne Chantall-Rocha, Hilton F Japyassú
Male-female courtship signals are frequently subject to arms races, with patterns of behaviour evolving reciprocally to manipulate the reproductive output. Female resistance should be particularly effective when asymmetrical offspring care occurs under low and unpredictable resource distribution, because this would increase maternal costs. Our hypothesis is that under these conditions females will evolve diffuse mating strategies to avoid predictable exploitation by male optimal counter tactics. Mating in scorpions is a complex process, and female resistance occurs through specific behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900054/scorpion-venoms-in-gastric-cancer
#2
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Venom secretions from snakes, scorpions, spiders and bees, have been widely applied in traditional medicine and current biopharmaceutical research. Possession of anticancer potential is another novel discovery for animal venoms and toxins. An increasing number of studies have shown the anticancer effects of venoms and toxins of snakes, and scorpions in vitro and in vivo, which were achieved mainly through the inhibition of cancer growth, arrest of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and suppression of cancer metastasis...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891163/the-visual-system-of-harvestmen-opiliones-arachnida-chelicerata-a-re-examination
#3
Tobias Lehmann, Eva Lodde-Bensch, Roland R Melzer, Martina Metz
BACKGROUND: The visual systems in chelicerates are poorly understood, even though they show strong variation in eye and visual neuropil architecture, thus may provide valuable insights for the understanding of chelicerate phylogeny and eye evolution. Comparable morphological characters are desperately sought for reconstructions of the phylogeny of Chelicerata, especially with respect to Arachnida. So far, reliable data exist only for Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, Scorpiones, and Araneae. The few earlier studies of the organisation of the visual system in harvestmen are contradictory concerning the number, morphology, and position of the visual neuropils...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889600/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-female-and-male-venoms-from-the-mexican-scorpion-centruroides-limpidus-novel-components-found
#4
Jimena Isaias Cid Uribe, Juana Maria Jiménez Vargas, Cesar Vicente Ferreira Batista, Fernando Zamudio Zuñiga, Lourival Domingos Possani
Venom from male and female scorpions of the species Centruroides limpidus were separated by HPLC and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of components eluting in equivalent retention times from the HPLC column shows some differences. A new peptide with 29 amino acids, cross-linked by three disulfide bonds was found in male scorpions and its structure determined. Another unknown peptide present in female venom, with sequence identity similar to K(+)-channel blocking peptide was isolated...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886129/insights-into-the-hypertensive-effects-of-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom-purification-of-an-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-like-peptidase
#5
Daniela Cajado-Carvalho, Alexandre Kazuo Kuniyoshi, Bruno Duzzi, Leo Kei Iwai, Úrsula Castro de Oliveira, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles Junqueira de Azevedo, Roberto Tadashi Kodama, Fernanda Vieira Portaro
The number of cases of envenomation by scorpions has grown significantly in Brazil since 2007, with the most severe cases being caused by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Although envenomed patients mostly suffer neurotoxic manifestations, other symptoms, such as hypertension, cannot be exclusively attributed to neurotoxins. Omics analyses have detected plentiful amounts of metalloproteases in T. serrulatus venom. However, the roles played by these enzymes in envenomation are still unclear. Endeavoring to investigate the functions of scorpion venom proteases, we describe here for the first time an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-like peptidase (ACE-like) purified from T...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876931/the-prevalence-of-non-indigenous-parasitic-copepod-neoergasilus-japonicus-spreads-with-fishes-of-pet-trade-in-kerman-iran
#6
Mohammad Mirzaei, Hosein Khovand, Reza Kheirandish
Ergasilids are copepods living in the river mouth of freshwaters and parasitic on Teleost fish family in both natural and artificial environments. So far, 5 species of the copepod have been discovered that belong to the genus Neoergasilus. This copepod is most likely to be disseminated through aquarium trades, aquaculture and over-nutrition, or construction of sand carrying water. The females of Ergasilidae are external parasites attaching to the anal and dorsal fins and sometimes to gills and nasal cavities of fish living in freshwaters...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873007/difference-in-capsaicinoid-biosynthesis-gene-expression-in-the-pericarp-reveals-elevation-of-capsaicinoid-contents-in-chili-peppers-capsicum-chinense
#7
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Fumihiro Nakashima, Erasmus Kirii, Tanjuro Goto, Yuichi Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro Yasuba
This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero)...
November 21, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871874/functional-and-immuno-reactive-characterization-of-a-previously-undescribed-peptide-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-centruroides-limpidus
#8
Timoteo Olamendi-Portugal, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Lidia Riaño-Umbarila, Baltazar Becerril, Lourival D Possani
A previously undescribed toxic peptide named Cl13 was purified from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides limpidus. It contains 66 amino acid residues, including four disulfide bonds. The physiological effects assayed in 7 different subtypes of voltage gated Na(+)-channels, showed that it belongs to the β-scorpion toxin type. The most notorious effects were observed in subtypes Nav1.4, Nav1.5 and Nav1.6. Although having important sequence similarities with two other lethal toxins from this scorpion species (Cll1m and Cll2), the recently developed single chain antibody fragments (scFv) of human origin were not capable of protecting against Cl13...
November 18, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869422/-scorpionism-in-children-in-tucum%C3%A3-n-descriptive-analysis-of-cases-in-a-second-level-of-complexity-hospital
#9
Mauricio R Ezquer, Manuel Villarreal, Javier Muntaner
Scorpionism in Tucumán is very frequent. The aim is to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases of scorpionism that were seen in the Emergency Department of Eva Perón Hospital, Banda del Río Salí, Tucumán, between July 2013 and March 2015. Forty patients were assisted, 21 boys and 19 girls. The average age was 6.89 years. Thirty four (85%) resultedmild, 3 (7.5%) moderated, 3 (7.5%) moderated-severe. Hands (22.6%) and feet (20%) were the places in the body where the stings were more frequently localized...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866407/forecasting-and-prediction-of-scorpion-sting-cases-in-biskra-province-algeria-using-a-seasonal-autoregressive-integrated-moving-average-model
#10
Schehrazad Selmane, Mohamed L'Hadj
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the available data for Biskra province, Algeria, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, which records the highest number of scorpion stings in Algeria. METHODS: In addition to analysing the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we used the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863510/establishing-a-reference-array-for-the-cs-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-superfamily-of-defensive-peptides
#11
D Ellen K Tarr
BACKGROUND: "Invertebrate defensins" belong to the cysteine-stabilized alpha-beta (CS-αβ), also known as the scorpion toxin-like, superfamily. Some other peptides belonging to this superfamily of defensive peptides are indistinguishable from "defensins," but have been assigned other names, making it unclear what, if any, criteria must be met to qualify as an "invertebrate defensin." In addition, there are other groups of defensins in invertebrates and vertebrates that are considered to be evolutionarily unrelated to those in the CS-αβ superfamily...
November 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863128/one-component-aluminium-heteroscorpionate-catalysts-for-the-formation-of-cyclic-carbonates-from-epoxides-and-carbon-dioxide
#12
Agustín Lara-Sánchez, Javier Marínez, José A Castro-Osma, Carlos Alonso-Moreno, Antonio Rodríguez-Diéguez, Michael North, Antonio Otero
New neutral and zwitterionic chiral NNO-donor scorpionate ligands (1 and 2) have been designed to obtain new mononuclear and dinuclear NNO-heteroscorpionate aluminium complexes. Reaction of 1 with [AlR3] (R = Me, Et) in a 1:1 or 1:2 molar ratio afforded the neutral mononuclear alkyl complexes [AlR2(2-bpzappe)], R = Me (3), Et (4) and bimetallic complexes [{AlR2(2-bpzappe)}(µ-O){AlR3}], R = Me (5), Et (6). By reaction of complexes (36) with PhCH2Br, mononuclear and dinuclear zwitterionic aluminium complexes [AlR2(2-bbpzappe)]Br, R = Me (7), Et (8), and [{AlR2(2-bbpzappe)}(µ-O){AlR3}]Br, R = Me (9), Et (10), were synthesised...
November 10, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861683/-hospitalizations-due-to-external-causes-involving-contact-with-animals-in-a-general-hospital-in-the-interior-of-bahia-state-brazil-2009-2011
#13
Érica Assunção Carmo, Adriana Alves Nery, Cleber Souza de Jesus, Cezar Augusto Casotti
OBJECTIVE: to describe the characteristics of hospitalizations due to external causes involving contact with animals in a general hospital in the interior of Bahia State (BA), Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. METHODS: this was a descriptive study using data on hospital admissions in Jequié-BA. RESULTS: there were 246 admissions owing to accidents involving contact with animals, especially venomous ones (83.3% snake venom, and 6.5% scorpion venom); most involved male victims (66...
January 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845058/identification-of-the-immunogenic-epitopes-of-the-whole-venom-component-of-the-hemiscorpius-lepturus-scorpion-using-the-phage-display-peptide-library
#14
Roghaye Jahdasani, Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani, Mahdi Behdani, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Najmeh Yardehnavi, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht
The venom of the Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion contains mixtures of bioactive compounds that disturb biochemical and physiological functions of the victims. Hemiscorpius lepturus envenomation is recognized as a serious health concern in tropical regions. So far, there is no preventive procedure, and the main focus is on treatment of victims with an antiserum purified from hyper-immunized horses. Although antisera can neutralize the venom, they, in some cases, lead to anaphylactic shock and even death. Selection of peptides mimicking antigenic and immunogenic epitopes of toxins from random peptide libraries is a novel approach for the development of recombinant toxins and poly-epitopic vaccine...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833526/sound-source-localization-through-8-mems-microphones-array-using-a-sand-scorpion-inspired-spiking-neural-network
#15
Christoph Beck, Guillaume Garreau, Julius Georgiou
Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826410/elemental-analysis-of-scorpion-venoms
#16
AbdulRahman K Al-Asmari, Faisal Kunnathodi, Khalid Al Saadon, Mohammed M Idris
Scorpion venom is a rich source of biomolecules, which can perturb physiological activity of the host on envenomation and may also have a therapeutic potential. Scorpion venoms produced by the columnar cells of venom gland are complex mixture of mucopolysaccharides, neurotoxic peptides and other components. This study was aimed at cataloguing the elemental composition of venoms obtained from medically important scorpions found in the Arabian peninsula. The global elemental composition of the crude venom obtained from Androctonus bicolor, Androctonus crassicauda and Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpions were estimated using ICP-MS analyzer...
2016: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826319/in-the-picture-disulfide-poor-conopeptides-a-class-of-pharmacologically-interesting-compounds
#17
REVIEW
Eline K M Lebbe, Jan Tytgat
During evolution, nature has embraced different strategies for species to survive. One strategy, applied by predators as diverse as snakes, scorpions, sea anemones and cone snails, is using venom to immobilize or kill a prey. This venom offers a unique and extensive source of chemical diversity as it is driven by the evolutionary pressure to improve prey capture and/or to protect their species. Cone snail venom is an example of the remarkable diversity in pharmacologically active small peptides that venoms can consist of...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822206/antiplasmodial-activity-is-an-ancient-and-conserved-feature-of-tick-defensins
#18
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Miray Tonk, Anne Bouchut, Christine Pierrot, Raymond J Pierce, Michalis Kotsyfakis, Mohammad Rahnamaeian, Andreas Vilcinskas, Jamal Khalife, James J Valdés
Ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to test evolution-based hypotheses. The genome of the European tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, encodes for defensin peptides with diverse antimicrobial activities against distantly related pathogens. These pathogens include fungi, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Ticks do not transmit these pathogens, suggesting that these defensins may act against a wide range of microbes encountered by ticks during blood feeding or off-host periods...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819327/structure-and-function-of-fs50-a-salivary-protein-from-the-flea-xenopsylla-cheopis-that-blocks-the-sodium-channel-nav1-5
#19
Xueqing Xu, Bei Zhang, Shilong Yang, Su An, José M C Ribeiro, John F Andersen
Naturally occurring toxins have been invaluable tools for the study of structural and functional relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). Few studies have been made of potential channel-modulating substances from blood-feeding arthropods. He we describe the characterization FS50, a salivary protein from the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, that exhibits an inhibitory activity against the NaV1.5 channel with an IC50 of 1.58 μM. The pore-blocking mechanism of this toxin is evident from the kinetics of activation and inactivation suggesting that FS50 does not interfere with the voltage sensor of NaV1...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811425/the-silver-i-complex-hb-3-cf3-5-ch3-pz-3-agncch3-supported-by-a-partially-fluorinated-scorpionate-ligand
#20
H V Rasika Dias, Naveen Kulkarni
Tris(pyrazolyl)borates are used extensively in metal coordination chemistry and belong to a class of ligands generally referred to as scorpionates. The steric and electronic properties of these ligands can be modified quite easily by varying the substituents on the 3-, 4-, and 5-positions of the pyrazolyl moieties on the B atom. Fluorinated tris(pyrazolyl)borates are useful in the stabilization of rare silver(I) complexes. The silver(I) adduct (acetonitrile-κN){tris[5-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2)]hydroborato}silver(I), [Ag(C15H13BF9N6)(CH3CN)] or [HB{3-(CF3),5-(CH3)Pz}3]AgNCCH3, was obtained by treating [HB{3-(CF3),5-(CH3)Pz}3]Na with CF3SO3Ag in the presence of acetonitrile, and was isolated in 85% yield...
November 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
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