Read by QxMD icon Read


R Ananda Raja, R Sridhar, C Balachandran, A Palanisammi, S Ramesh, K Nagarajan
A pathobiological study was conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) strain isolated from vibriosis affected shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) farms in Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu during August 2014 to February 2015. The isolate was identified based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters. LD50 value with intramuscular injection was determined as 2.6 × 10(4) cfu/shrimp and sequential pathology was studied giving 6.1 × 10(3) cfu/shrimp (LD25). Total plate count (TPC) and total Vibrio count (TVC) in water, pond sediment, haemolymph, muscle, HP and gut were found significantly (P < 0...
June 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
T Rajkumar, G Taju, S Abdul Majeed, M Sinwan Sajid, S Santhosh Kumar, S Sivakumar, S Thamizhvanan, S Vimal, A S Sahul Hameed
In recent years, researchers have focused on viral and plant immunostimulants which could have beneficial effects in disease prevention and control in shrimp culture. At present, the application of the recombinant VP28 protein (r-VP28) and herbal immunostimulant has been considered as a more effective approach to prevent white spot syndrome (WSS) by enhancing the immune response in shrimp. In the present study, expression of selected immune related genes in response to r-VP28 and herbal immunostimulant mix (HIM) were separately studied qualitatively and quantitatively by RT-PCR and real time PCR, respectively during ontogenetic development from nauplius to juvenile stage in Litopenaeus vannamei...
June 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Min Hui, Chengwen Song, Yuan Liu, Chaolun Li, Zhaoxia Cui
Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of adaptation to the hydrothermal vent in organisms at genomic level is significant for understanding the adaptive evolution process in the extreme environment. We performed RNA-seq on four different tissues of a vent crab species, Austinograea alayseae, producing 725,461 unigenes and 134,489 annotated genes. Genes related to sensory, circadian rhythm, hormone, hypoxia stress, metal detoxification and immunity were identified. It was noted that in the degenerated eyestalk, transcription of phototransduction related genes which are important for retinal function was greatly reduced; three crucial neuropeptide hormones, one molt-inhibiting and two crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursors were characterized with conserved domains; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and two novel isoforms of metallothioneins in the vent crabs were discovered...
2017: PloS One
Baozhen Sun, Zhi Wang, Fei Zhu
Crustin is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that plays a key role in innate immunity of crustaceans. In this study, we cloned the entire 660 bp crustin-like sequence with a 507 bp open reading frame encoding a 168 amino acid from Marsupenaeus japonicus. The crustin-like gene was primarily expressed in gills and over-expressed in shrimp hemocytes after challenge with WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus. After knockdown crustin-like gene using specific double-stranded RNA (CRU-dsRNA), IMD, Rab7, L-lectin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, p53, prophenoloxidase and Rho were down-regulated and nitric oxide synthase, myosin and tumor necrosis factor-α were up-regulated in hemocytes at 24 h post dsRNA treatment...
July 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ying Huang, Keke Han, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small molecule non-encoding RNAs, are key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many biological processes. In the current study, miR-217 from Eriocheir sinensis was selected for studying its roles during host-virus interaction. Overexpression or silencing of miR-217 led to considerable effects on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication, implying that miR-217 played a positive role in WSSV infection. In insect High Five cells, miR-217 significantly inhibited Tube gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of the Tube...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Francisco Vargas-Albores, Marcel Martínez-Porchas
Crustins are considered effector molecules of innate immunity in arthropods, and classification schemes have been proposed over the last 10 years. However, classification problems have emerged: for example, proteins that have been well identified as members of a particular category have also been classified as crustins. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript was to analyze and, based on solid arguments, improve the original proposed nomenclature to make crustins a distinctive group of antibacterial proteins...
May 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Atika Marisa Halim, Pai-Po Lee, Zhong-Wen Chang, Chin-Chyuan Chang
The hot-water Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (HMLE) was prepared for in vitro assessment on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), and phagocytic activity (PA). Furthermore, the HMLE was administrated in the diet at 0.6, 3, and 6 g (kg diet)(-1) for Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the potential effects on the immunocompetence of prawns were evaluated. PO activity, RBs, and PA in hemocytes incubated with the HMLE at 140, 20, 20, and 140 mg l(-1) significantly increased. The immune parameters of the total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), RBs, PO activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, PA, transglutaminase (TG) activity and hemolymph clotting time were evaluated before and after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks of the feeding trial...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xianyun Ren, Jianjian Lv, Baoquan Gao, Jian Li, Ping Liu
The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus are serious epidemic pathogen affecting the cultured Portunus trituberculatus and resulted in severe economic losses to local farmers. The immune and antioxidant systems are believed to be closely involved in host responses to pathogens in aerobic animals, including crustaceans. In order to explore such host-pathogen interactions in the early stage of infection in P. trituberculatus, the mRNA transcript levels of six key immune-related genes (proPO, α2M, crustin, lysozyme, NOS, and NOX) and three key antioxidant-related genes (CuZnSOD, CAT, and GPx) and their corresponding enzymatic activity were investigated in response to challenge with the three pathogens...
April 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Keiichiro Koiwai, Rod Russel R Alenton, Reina Shiomi, Reiko Nozaki, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
Hemocytes in the circulating hemolymph play important roles for immune responses in shrimp. Previous studies on immune responses by hemocytes in penaeid shrimp were based on gene expression analyses of the entire population of hemocytes and thus may have missed different immune responses of different hemocyte sub-populations. In this study, we separated hemocytes into two sub-populations by Percoll gradient centrifugation, morphological characteristics of each population were then analyzed by May-Giemsa staining, flow cytometry, and FACSCalibur...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Lin Wang, Hao Chen, Jianchao Xu, Qingsong Xu, Mengqiang Wang, Depeng Zhao, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
A robust immune response against invading pathogens is crucial for host to survive, which depends greatly on the well balance of metabolism. Increasing evidence has indicated that some metabolic hormones, such as insulin, could modulate immune responses directly. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family is a group of ecdysozoans-specific peptide hormone involved in glucose metabolism and other biological events. In the present study, two members of CHH family (designated as LvCHH I and LvCHH II) in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with one and two crustacean neurohormone domains respectively were chosen to investigate their putative modulatory roles in both glucose metabolism and immune response...
March 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ratchaneegorn Mapanao, Chin-Chyuan Chang, Winton Cheng
Catecholamines (CAs) play a crucial role in maintaining physiological and immune homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates under stressful conditions. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in CA synthesis. To develop an effective CA-related immunological defense system against stress and pathogen infection, various criteria, were evaluated in TH double-stranded (ds) RNA-injected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Specifically, the relative transcript quantification of TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), and other immune-related genes; TH activity in the haemolymph; and the estimation of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), glucose, and lactate levels in the haemolymph were examined...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Sopacha Arayamethakorn, Premruethai Supungul, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Kuakarun Krusong
CrustinPm1 and crustinPm7 are the two most abundant isoforms of crustins identified from the hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. CrustinPm1 inhibits only Gram-positive bacteria, while crustinPm7 acts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This work aims to characterize the molecular properties of recombinant crustinPm1 and crustinPm7, and the regulatory pathways of these two crustins. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that crustinPm1 contained 40.81% alpha-helix and 22...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jinling Feng, Lingling Zhao, Min Jin, Tingting Li, Lei Wu, Yihong Chen, Qian Ren
Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jie-Jie Sun, Jiang-Feng Lan, Ji-Dong Xu, Guo-Juan Niu, Jin-Xing Wang
The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family is a kind of negative regulators in the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/Stat) pathway in mammals and Drosophila. In kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, SOCS2 is identified and its expression can be stimulated by peptidoglycan and polycytidylic acid. However, if SOCS2 participates in regulating Jak/Stat pathway in shrimp still needs further study. In this study, SOCS2 with Src homology 2 domain and SOCS box was identified in kuruma shrimp, M...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xin Huang, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. In this study, we identified a dorsal homolog (MrDorsal) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrDorsal comprised 2533 bp with an open reading frame of 1986 bp, which encoded a peptide of 661 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal contains a Rel homolog domain and an IPT/TIG (i.e., Ig-like, plexin, and transcription factors) domain. The signature sequence of dorsal protein FRYMCEG existed in the deduced amino acid sequence...
October 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Peng-Cheng Chai, Xiao-Ling Song, Guo-Fu Chen, Hua Xu, Jie Huang
This study conducted a 30-day feeding trial and a subsequent 20-day anti-virus infection trial to determine the effects of probiotic Bacillus PC465 on the growth, health status, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp samples were fed with three practical diets prepared from shrimp feed containing varying probiotic doses [0 (control), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU g(-1)]. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the weight gain and survival of L. vannamei (p < 0.05). The effect of 10(9) CFU g(-1) on the growth rate was higher than that of 10(7) CFU g(-1)...
July 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ancy Thomas, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed Sudheer, Viswanath Kiron, Issac S Bright Singh, Rangarajan Badri Narayanan
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge...
July 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ning Liu, Ran-Ran Zhang, Zhen-Xu Fan, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Xian-Wei Wang, Jin-Xing Wang
Crustins are a family of antimicrobial peptides mainly identified in crustaceans and characterized by a whey acidic protein (WAP) domain and an additional glycine-, cysteine-, or proline-rich region. In this study, we identified and characterized PcCru, a new crustin isolated from red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The open reading frame of PcCru was 333 base pairs long and encoded a 110-residue polypeptide, which contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich region, and a WAP domain. The architecture and phylogenetic analysis suggested that PcCru was a new member of the type-I crustin family...
August 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xianyun Ren, Xuan Yu, Baoquan Gao, Jian Li, Ping Liu
Vibrio alginolyticus is a virulent pathogen that affects crab aquacultures. In the present study, the immune responses and antioxidant status of big and small (based on body weight and size) 80-, 100- and 120-day-old specimens of Portunus trituberculatus, challenged for 72 h with Vibrio alginolyticus, were studied. The total hemocyte count (THC), and phagocytic, prophenoloxidase and phenoloxidase activities, of the big individuals (BIs) were higher than those of the small individuals (SIs) (P < 0.05)...
April 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yongjie Liu, Lei Song, Yuhang Sun, Tao Liu, Fujun Hou, Xiaolin Liu
The Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways are essential for inducing immune related genes during invasion of pathogens. In the present study, transcripts of eight pathway-related genes in Litopenaeus vannamei, including Toll, IMD, Pelle, IAP1, TRAF6, ALF, Crustin and Penaeidin3 were analyzed to further understand the potential relationship between Toll and IMD pathway. The high transcription levels of TRAF6, Pelle, Toll, IMD and IAP1 in selected tissues indicates their functional roles in Toll and IMD pathways...
July 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"