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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478887/investigating-the-neurobiology-of-schizophrenia-and-other-major-psychiatric-disorders-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#1
REVIEW
Rachel E Kaskie, Fabio Ferrarelli
Characterizing the neurobiology of schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders is one of the main challenges of the current research in psychiatry. The availability of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) allows to directly probe virtually any cortical areas, thus providing a unique way to assess the neurophysiological properties of cortical neurons. This article presents a review of studies employing TMS in combination with Motor Evoked Potentials (TMS/MEPs) and high density Electroencephalogram (TMS/hd-EEG) in schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders...
May 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470381/relationship-of-serum-ferritin-level-and-tic-severity-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome
#2
Debabrata Ghosh, Elizabeth Burkman
PURPOSE: Tics can be considered hyperkinetic movements akin to restless leg syndrome (RLS). Drawing the analogy of iron deficiency as an etiology of RLS, it is conceivable that iron deficiency may underlie or worsen tics in Tourette syndrome (TS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and tic severity, as well as consequent impact on life, in children with TS. METHODS: Children <18 years, diagnosed with TS during 2009-2015, were reviewed...
May 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451624/tics-in-the-pediatric-population-pragmatic-management
#3
REVIEW
Christos Ganos, Davide Martino, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Primary tic disorders, notably Tourette syndrome, are very common movement disorders in childhood. However, the management of such patients still poses great therapeutic challenges to medical professionals. METHODS: Based on a synthesis of the available guidelines published in Europe, Canada, and the United States, coupled with more recent therapeutic developments, the authors provide a pragmatic guide to aid clinicians in deciding when and how to treat patients who have primary tic disorders...
March 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429606/parent-and-patient-perceptions-of-functional-impairment-due-to-tourette-syndrome-development-of-a-shortened-version-of-the-child-tourette-syndrome-impairment-scale
#4
Kara S Francis Barfell, Ryan R Snyder, Kelly M Isaacs-Cloes, Jordan F Garris, Alyssa R Roeckner, Paul S Horn, Michael D Guthrie, Steve W Wu, Donald L Gilbert
The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale (CTIM) rates 37 problems in school, social, and home domains separately for tics and for comorbid diagnoses. However, a shorter version would be easier to implement in busy clinics. Using published data from 85 children with Tourette syndrome, 92 controls, and parents, factor analysis was used to generate a "mini-CTIM" composed of 12 items applied to tic and comorbid diagnoses. Child- and parent-rated mini-CTIM scores were compared and correlated across raters and accounting for clinician-rated tic severity and presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407363/de-novo-unbalanced-translocation-4p-duplication-8p-deletion-in-a-patient-with-autism-ocd-and-overgrowth-syndrome
#5
Angela Sagar, Dalila Pinto, Fedra Najjar, Stephen J Guter, Carol Macmillan, Edwin H Cook
Chromosomal abnormalities, such as unbalanced translocations and copy number variants (CNVs), are found in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) [Sanders et al. () Neuron 70: 863-885]. Many chromosomal abnormalities, including sub microscopic genomic deletions and duplications, are missed by G-banded karyotyping or Fragile X screening alone and are picked up by chromosomal microarrays [Shen et al. () Pediatrics 125: e727-735]. Translocations involving chromosomes 4 and 8 are possibly the second most frequent translocation in humans and are often undetected in routine cytogenetics [Giglio et al...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386217/genome-wide-association-study-gwas-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
#6
McKenzie L Ritter, Wei Guo, Jack F Samuels, Ying Wang, Paul S Nestadt, Janice Krasnow, Benjamin D Greenberg, Abby J Fyer, James T McCracken, Daniel A Geller, Dennis L Murphy, James A Knowles, Marco A Grados, Mark A Riddle, Steven A Rasmussen, Nicole C McLaughlin, Erika L Nurmi, Kathleen D Askland, Bernadette Cullen, John Piacentini, David L Pauls, Joseph Bienvenu, Evelyn Stewart, Fernando S Goes, Brion Maher, Ann E Pulver, Manuel Mattheisen, Ji Qian, Gerald Nestadt, Yin Yao Shugart
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, a protein-protein analysis was completed in order to examine the interactions between proteins; p-values for the protein-protein interaction analysis was calculated using permutation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379724/parsing-the-phenotype-of-obsessive-compulsive-tic-disorder-octd-a-multidisciplinary-consensus
#7
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Donatella Marazziti, Umberto Albert, Stefano Pallanti, Orsola Gambini, Antonio Tundo, Carlotta Zanaboni, Domenico Servello, Renata Rizzo, Luciana Scalone, Beatrice Benatti, A Carlo Altamura, Mauro Porta
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Tic Disorder (TD) are highly disabling and often comorbid conditions. Of note, the DSM-5 acknowledged a new 'tic-related' specifier for OCD, which might be referred to as Obsessive-Compulsive Tic Disorder (OCTD), raising new interest toward a better clinical characterisation of affected patients. Available literature indicates that early onset, male gender, sensory phenomena and obsessions of symmetry, aggressiveness, hoarding, exactness and sounds as well as comorbidity with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be of more frequent observation in patients with OCTD...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335874/course-of-tourette-syndrome-and-comorbidities-in-a-large-prospective-clinical-study
#8
Camilla Groth, Nanette Mol Debes, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Theis Lange, Liselotte Skov
OBJECTIVE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and frequent comorbidities. Although tics often improve during adolescence, recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to persist. This large prospective follow-up study describes the clinical course of tics and comorbidities during adolescence and the prevalence of coexisting psychopathologies. METHOD: The clinical cohort was recruited at the Danish National Tourette Clinic, and data were collected at baseline (n = 314, age range 5-19 years) and at follow-up 6 years later (n = 227) to establish the persistence and severity of tics and comorbidities...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032202/pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-tic-symptoms-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-outcome
#9
Davíð R M A Højgaard, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Judith Becker Nissen, Katja A Hybel, Tord Ivarsson, Per Hove Thomsen
Some studies have shown that children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and co-morbid tics differ from those without co-morbid tics in terms of several demographic and clinical characteristics. However, not all studies have confirmed these differences. This study examined children and adolescents with OCD and with possible or definite tic specifiers according to the DSM-5 in order to see whether they differ from patients without any tic symptoms regarding clinical presentation and outcome of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)...
December 28, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866155/the-assessment-of-the-relationship-between-adhd-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-child-and-adolescent-patients
#10
Hatice Ünver, Işık Karakaya
OBJECTIVE: This study examined ADHD comorbidity in child and adolescent patients who diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: Sixty-eight child and adolescent patients with PTSD and 42 child and adolescent patients with OCD were evaluated for ADHD. The sample included 110 patients who were administered structured clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862704/what-happens-to-children-who-move-off-the-autism-spectrum-clinical-follow-up-study
#11
Nahit Motavalli Mukaddes, Tuba Mutluer, Basak Ayik, Ayla Umut
BACKGROUND: There is controversial information on outcome of school age individuals who lose the diagnosis of autism and achieve "optimal outcome" (OO). The present study assessed the autism symptoms and other psychiatric disorders in a group of children with a past history of autism. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 26 individuals who had lost the diagnosis of autism 2-8 years previously. Clinical assessment was done with both parents and children. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn; DSM-V) criteria were used for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
November 12, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821363/the-use-of-the-sdq-with-chinese-adolescents-in-the-clinical-context
#12
David Mellor, Wenhong Cheng, Marita McCabe, Mathew Ling, Yi Liu, Zhimin Zhao, Juan Fan, Meina You, Fang Zhang, Jinhua Sun, Linda Byrne, Yifeng Xu
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when it was applied to a sample of 443 outpatients in China. Included in the sample were 88 adolescents diagnosed with depression, 96 with schizophrenia, 98 with generalized anxiety, 70 with OCD, and 91 with ADHD. Each patient and one of their parents completed the SDQ at intake. Confirmatory Factor Analyses provided limited support for the proposed five factor structure of the scale over other models. Internal reliabilities of the subscales for both self and parent report were weak, and inter-rater agreement between self- and parent-report was moderate...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809572/identification-of-two-heritable-cross-disorder-endophenotypes-for-tourette-syndrome
#13
Sabrina M Darrow, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Lea K Davis, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, Dongmei Yu, Lauren M McGrath, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Phenotypic heterogeneity in Tourette syndrome is partly due to complex genetic relationships among Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying symptom-based endophenotypes across diagnoses may aid gene-finding efforts. METHOD: Assessments for Tourette syndrome, OCD, and ADHD symptoms were conducted in a discovery sample of 3,494 individuals recruited for genetic studies. Symptom-level factor and latent class analyses were conducted in Tourette syndrome families and replicated in an independent sample of 882 individuals...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807804/tourette-syndrome-increases-risk-of-bone-fractures-a-population-based-cohort-study
#14
Yuan-Yuan Lu, Ming-Yu Wang, I-Hua Wei, Che-Chen Lin, Chih-Chia Huang
This study assesses the risk of fractures among children with Tourette syndrome (TS), and identifies the effects of comorbidities and antipsychotics. We randomly sampled the claims data of 1 million enrollees in the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan, and identified 1258 children with TS diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Additionally, 12,580 children without TS who were frequency matched for sex, age, residential area, parental occupation, and index year were identified for comparison. The children's cases were followed until December 31, 2010, or censored to ascertain incident fractures cases and associations with comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and treatments with antipsychotics, antidepressants, or clonidine...
November 2, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782808/compuls-design-of-a-multicenter-phenotypic-cognitive-genetic-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-in-children-with-compulsive-syndromes
#15
Jilly Naaijen, Saskia de Ruiter, Marcel P Zwiers, Jeffrey C Glennon, Sarah Durston, David J Lythgoe, Steven C R Williams, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity, the closely linked trait impulsivity and addictive behaviour are associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). All three disorders show impaired fronto-striatal functioning, which may be related to altered glutamatergic signalling. Genetic factors are also thought to play an important role in the aetiology of compulsivity-related disorders...
October 26, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683657/methylphenidate-in-the-treatment-of-an-adolescent-female-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-case-report
#16
Joel King, Nathan Dowling, Fiona Leow
OBJECTIVES: We describe a case whereby a 15-year-old female with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was treated with methylphenidate for co-morbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD-OCD co-morbidity has often been overlooked clinically due to conflicting opinions about their underlying neurobiology and treatment options. CONCLUSIONS: In this adolescent with co-morbid ADHD and OCD, we observed that the adjunctive use of methylphenidate resulted in enhanced treatment response to both psychological and pharmacological interventions for OCD...
September 28, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672358/aripiprazole-improves-associated-comorbid-conditions-in-addition-to-tics-in-adult-patients-with-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#17
Sarah Gerasch, Ahmad Seif Kanaan, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672357/new-insights-into-clinical-characteristics-of-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-findings-in-1032-patients-from-a-single-german-center
#18
Tanvi Sambrani, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder defined by the presence of motor and phonic tics, but often associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The main objective of this study was to explore the clinical presentation and comorbidities of TS. METHOD: We analyzed clinical data obtained from a large sample (n = 1032; 529 children and 503 adults) of patients with tic disorders from one single German TS center assessed by one investigator...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650395/the-features-of-comorbidity-of-childhood-adhd-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Fahri Çelebi, Ahmet Koyuncu, Erhan Ertekin, Behiye Alyanak, Raşit Tükel
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to investigate the impact of childhood ADHD comorbidity on the clinical features of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: Ninety-five adult outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD were assessed by using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version, ADHD module, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Patients with or without childhood ADHD were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical features, psychiatric comorbidities, and rating scales...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631146/tic-related-versus-tic-free-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-clinical-picture-and-2-year-natural-course
#20
Froukje E de Vries, Danielle C Cath, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Patricia van Oppen, Gerrit Glas, Dick J Veltman, Odile A van den Heuvel, Anton J L M van Balkom
OBJECTIVE: The tic-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a distinct clinical profile. The course of tic-related OCD has previously been investigated in treatment studies, with inconclusive results. This study aimed to compare clinical profiles between tic-related and tic-free OCD patients and to establish the influence of tics on the 2-year natural course in adult OCD patients. METHODS: Within the Netherlands OCD Association cohort, 377 patients with a current DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were divided into a tic-related group (28%) and a tic-free group and compared on clinical variables with t tests or χ² tests...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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