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nosocomial meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783937/enterococcus-gallinarum-meningitis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Bo Zhao, Mao Sheng Ye, Rui Zheng
BACKGROUND: As an opportunistic pathogen, E. gallinarum mainly leads to nosocomial infections, and it's multi-drug resistance has gained more and more attention. Central nervous system infections caused by E. gallinarum are rare, but have been reported more often in recent years. The previous cases were generally secondary to neurosurgery, especially ventriculoperitoneal shunts. In recent years, the cases largely occurred in patients with impaired immune function. The patient in our report may have had dual risk factors (immune impairment and an invasive surgical procedure)...
May 21, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690925/staphylococcus-epidermidis-meningitis-in-the-absence-of-a-neurosurgical-device-secondary-to-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Taro Noguchi, Miki Nagao, Masaki Yamamoto, Yasufumi Matsumura, Toshiyuki Kitano, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Satoshi Ichiyama
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis can cause nosocomial meningitis in the presence of prosthetic devices. We describe a case of Staphylococcus epidermidis meningitis in a patient with neutropenia who had no intracranial foreign body, and we review the literature on meningitis that is caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. without a neurosurgical device. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old Japanese man with acute myeloid leukemia receiving chemotherapy through a totally implantable central venous catheter developed fever and headache...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502719/nosocomial-infections-in-the-neurointensive-care-unit
#3
REVIEW
Katharina Maria Busl
Infectious complications in the neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU) are common, including pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, and intracranial infection. The neuro-ICU population poses a specific challenge in the diagnosis of infections, because of the high incidence of fever in acutely brain-injured patients. Furthermore, susceptibility to infections is likely enhanced by brain-injury (induced immune modulation). This article reviews the concept of brain injury-induced immune modulation, and summarizes available data and knowledge on nosocomial meningitis and ventriculitis, and systemic infectious complications in patients with traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus...
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456841/successful-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventriculitis-with-polymyxin-b-and-tigecycline-a-case-report
#4
Wei Guo, Shao-Chun Guo, Min Li, Li-Hong Li, Yan Qu
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial ventriculitis/meningitis, especially those due to drug-resistant strains, has substantially increased over recent years. However, limited therapeutic options exist for the Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis/meningitis because of the poor penetration rate of most antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier. Case presentation: A 57-year-old male patient developed ventriculitis from an extensively drug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii after the decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410025/whole-genome-shotgun-sequences-of-seven-colistin-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-bacteraemia
#5
Saranya Vijayakumar, Baby Abirami S, Kalaiyarasi Kanthan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
OBJECTIVES: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen responsible for various infections, including bloodstream infections, meningitis and ventilator-associated pneumonia. It is resistant to most antimicrobial agents, including colistin, and the development of colistin-resistant A. baumannii is of serious concern in the hospital setting. In this study, the whole-genome shotgun sequences of seven colistin-resistant A. baumannii isolates from bloodstream infections were characterised...
March 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396061/anaerobic-bacterial-meningitis-in-adults
#6
Jun-Jun Lee, Chia-Yi Lien, Chun-Chih Chien, Chi-Ren Huang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Wen-Neng Chang
Anaerobic infection is a very uncommon condition in adult bacterial meningitis (ABM), and its clinical characteristics have yet to be clarified. We enrolled 540 patients with culture-proven bacterial meningitis during a study period of 30 years (1986-2015), of whom 13 (2.4%) had anaerobic infections. These 13 patients were eight men and five women, aged 22-77 years. Among them, 53.8% (7/13) had a postneurosurgical state as the preceding event, and 79.6% (10/13) had underlying medical conditions including diabetes mellitus, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, cerebral infarct and alcoholism...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352265/type-i-ifn-operates-pyroptosis-and-necroptosis-during-multidrug-resistant-a-baumannii-infection
#7
Yang Li, Xiaomin Guo, Chunmiao Hu, Yan Du, Chuansheng Guo, Di Wang, Weiheng Zhao, Gonghua Huang, Chunliang Li, Qiumin Lu, Ren Lai, Tao Xu, Xiaopeng Qi
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, a common pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections, is the main cause for outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia, especially among critically ill patients. Epidemic A. baumannii is a growing public health concern as it is resistant to all existing antimicrobial agents, thereby necessitating the development of new therapeutic approaches to mount an effective immune response against this bacterial pathogen. In this study, we identified a critical role for type I interferon (IFN) in epigenetic regulation during A...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319262/successful-management-of-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-meningitis-with-intraventricular-vancomycin
#8
Rajeev Soman, Umang Agrawal, Mitesh Suthar, Ketan Desai, Anjali Shetty
Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, formerly Chryseobacterium meningosepticum usually causes neonatal meningitis and is a rare cause of nosocomial meningitis in adults. E. meningoseptica is resistant to most antibiotics, and the use of inactive drugs as empirical therapy may contribute to poor outcome in many patients. Vancomycin, alone or in combination with rifampicin, has been successful in the treatment of meningitis in infants1. We present a case of E. meningoseptica meningitis in an adult who was treated initially with intravenous vancomycin and oral rifampicin, but did not respond to the treatment...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286017/a-case-of-invasive-infection-caused-by-a-highly-virulent-strain-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-displaying-hypermucoviscosity-in-a-patient-with-hepatic-involvement-without-liver-abscess
#9
Margherita Scapaticci, Marta Biscaro, Francesco Burelli, Lucio Cadamuro, Renzo Biscaro, Andrea Bartolini
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family that is associated with a wide range of infections. In the 1980s a new hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) emerged in southeast Asia and is now increasingly spreading to Western countries due to an invasive syndrome. hvKP isolates can cause serious, life-threatening community-acquired infections in younger healthy hosts, including liver abscess, pneumonia, meningitis and endophthalmitis...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142521/fatal-infections-in-older-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-on-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#10
Way-Seah Lee, Najib Azmi, Ruey-Terng Ng, Sik-Yong Ong, Sasheela Sri La Ponnampalavanar, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Ida Hilmi
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109928/ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-associated-vancomycin-resistant-meningitis-complicating-a-patient-undergoing-plasmapheresis-for-presumed-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-associated-transverse-myelitis
#11
Adam John Covach, William Nicholas Rose
Objectives  We report a patient who had a working diagnosis of transverse myelitis secondary to a lupus exacerbation. As his clinical course evolved, continued vigilance clarified that he was in fact suffering from a nosocomial infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Methods  We performed a retrospective review of the patient's medical record. Results  Despite radiographic improvement, he did not improve clinically following immunosuppressive therapy including plasma exchange. Once meningitis was diagnosed and treated, he improved rapidly...
October 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098104/late-onset-streptococcus-agalactiae-meningitis-following-early-onset-septicemia-a-preventable-disease
#12
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, King Woon So, Alexander K C Leung
We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962814/nosocomial-infections-in-the-neurointensive-care-unit
#13
REVIEW
Katharina Maria Busl
Infectious complications in the neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU) are common, including pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, and intracranial infection. The neuro-ICU population poses a specific challenge in the diagnosis of infections, because of the high incidence of fever in acutely brain-injured patients. Furthermore, susceptibility to infections is likely enhanced by brain-injury (induced immune modulation). This article reviews the concept of brain injury-induced immune modulation, and summarizes available data and knowledge on nosocomial meningitis and ventriculitis, and systemic infectious complications in patients with traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895709/recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-treatment-for-intracardiac-vegetation-in-a-very-low-birth-weight-infant
#14
Abdurrahman A Ozdemir
Developing treatment options have resulted in prolonged admission and increased bacterial and fungal nosocomial infections as well as improved survival in neonatal intensive care unit. Invasive fungal infections in newborns are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and can cause endorgan dissemination such as endocarditis, endophthalmitis, septic arthritis, obstructive nephropathy and meningitis. Endocarditis requires aggressive systemic antifungal therapy and sometimes surgical intervention in neonates...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861076/case-of-meningitis-in-a-neonate-caused-by-an-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-strain-of-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#15
Khalit S Khaertynov, Vladimir A Anokhin, Yuri N Davidyuk, Irina V Nicolaeva, Svetlana V Khalioullina, Dina R Semyenova, Evgeny Y Alatyrev, Natalia N Skvortsova, Levon G Abrahamyan
Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important infectious agents among neonates. This pathogen has a potential to develop an increased antimicrobial resistance and virulence. The classic non-virulent strain of K. pneumoniae, producing an extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), is associated with nosocomial infection mainly in preterm neonates. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains are associated with invasive infection among previously healthy ambulatory patients, and most of them exhibit antimicrobial susceptibility...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758186/the-causes-of-post-operative-meningitis-the-comparison-of-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-pathogens
#16
Behice Kurtaran, Ferit Kuscu, Aslihan Ulu, Ayse Seza Inal, Suheyla Komur, Filiz Kibar, Nuri Eralp Cetinalp, Kerem Mazhar Ozsoy, Yusuf Kemal Arslan, Hasan Salih Aksu, Yesim Tasova
AIM: In this study, we aim to determine the microbiological etiology in critically ill neurosurgical patients with nosocomial meningitis (NM) and show the impact of Gram-negative rods and differences of patient's characteristics, clinical and prognostic measures between Gram-negative and Gram-positive meningitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective, one center study we reviewed all adult patients hospitalized during a 12-year period and identified pathogens isolated from post-neurosurgical cases of NM...
June 20, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706393/cotrimoxazole-a-wonder-drug-in-the-era-of-multiresistance-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#17
Priyam Batra, Vishant Deo, Purva Mathur, Amit Kumar Gupta
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. The rate of development of newer antibiotics is much slower than the rate of development of antibiotic resistance. A survey reported that it takes 15 years and US$800 million (including preclinical and clinical costs) to bring a single drug to the market, whereas the reuse of the older drugs for antimicrobial use takes $17 million, thereby circumventing 40% of the overall cost. The first case is a patient with nosocomial pyrexia of unknown origin who was given treatment with tigecycline and cefepime/tazobactam but failed to respond to the same...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689399/sphingomonas-paucimobilis-a-rare-infectious-agent-found-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#18
Tuncer Göker, Rahile Zülal Aşık, Muhammet Bahadır Yılmaz, İlhami Çelik, Ayhan Tekiner
Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S. paucimobilis) is a gram negative bacillus. It has existed in soil, drinking water and plants. It has been isolated from distilled water tanks, respirators, and hemodialysis devices at the hospital setting. Patients with chronic disorders or immune suppression may be susceptible to infections with it. This microorganism has also been reported to infect healthy persons. Both nosocomial and community-acquired infections have been reported. So far, a variety of infections have been reported, including sepsis, septic pulmonary embolism, septic arthritis, peritonitis, and endophthalmitis...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#19
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567316/spontaneous-nosocomial-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-meningitis-presenting-as-trismus
#20
C J Parr, J Wheeler, A Sharma, C Smith
We describe the case of a 78-year-old female receiving adjuvant postsurgical chemotherapy for colon adenocarcinoma who spontaneously developed nosocomial Pseudomonas meningitis causing severe trismus. The patient was initially admitted for ileus, developing neck stiffness and trismus on the thirteenth day of admission. Cerebrospinal fluid grew pansensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was consistent with bilateral subacute infarcts secondary to meningitis. The patient responded well to 21 days of broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy modified to ceftazidime alone following speciation and sensitivity...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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