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electrolyte disorders in children

Panagiotis Krepis, Ioanna Argyri, Adamantia Krepi, Areti Syrmou, Nikos Spyridis, Maria Tsolia
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health problem in endemic regions. Current anti-leishmanial agents share several limitations including potentially serious side effects and the risk of clinical failure. OBJECTIVES: Aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness and safety of short-course liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens in the treatment of childhood VL in our area. METHODS: The cases of 43 VL patients (20 males, 23 females, mean age 4...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jon Kaufman, Daniel Phadke, Suhong Tong, Jennifer Eshelman, Sarah Newman, Christopher Ruzas, Eduardo M da Cruz, Suzanne Osorio
Dysnatremias (DN) are common electrolyte disturbances in cardiac critical illness and are known risk factors for adverse outcomes in certain populations. Little information exists on DN in children with cardiac disease admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) after undergoing cardiac surgery, either corrective or palliative. The aim was to determine the incidence and adverse outcomes associated with DN in neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Retrospective cohort and single center study performed at Children's Hospital Colorado from May 2013 to May 2014, in children under 1 year old admitted to the CICU after undergoing surgery for congenital or acquired cardiac disease...
January 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
Anna Musielak, Alfred Warzywoda, Michał Wojtalik, Bartłomiej Kociński, Paweł Kroll, Danuta Ostalska-Nowicka, Jacek Zachwieja
Patients after a cardiac surgery in cardiopulmonary bypass often present an acute kidney failure. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is often required. The aim of this study was to present effectiveness and safety of CRRT with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA-CRRT) in small children after cardiac surgery. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 15 patients after cardiac surgery and who had RCA-CRRT performed in 2014. The established protocol was followed. Mean time on the RCA-CRRT was 192 h 40 min with the circuit mean lifetime of 43 h 33 min...
December 2016: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Fredrick Ibinda, Hans-Christoph Zarnack, Charles R Newton
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of blood sodium are the most frequently encountered electrolyte disorder in sick children, and may influence fluid therapy. We examined the frequency of blood sodium perturbations, and factors and outcomes associated with hyponatremia in children admitted to a rural Kenyan hospital and investigated the risk factors associated with deaths in hyponatremic children. METHODS: Plasma sodium levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in children admitted to a rural Kenyan hospital...
2016: PloS One
S Ibáñez-Micó, A M Marcos Oltra, S de Murcia Lemauviel, R Ruiz Pruneda, C Martínez Ferrández, R Domingo Jiménez
INTRODUCTION: ROHHAD syndrome (rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysregulation, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation) is a rare and complex disease, presenting in previously healthy children at the age of 2-4 years. Up to 40% of cases are associated with neural crest tumours. DEVELOPMENT: We present the case of a 2-year-old girl with symptoms of rapidly progressing obesity, who a few months later developed hypothalamic dysfunction with severe electrolyte imbalance, behaviour disorder, hypoventilation, and severe autonomic dysregulation, among other symptoms...
June 20, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Kathryn K Ridout, Jonathan Kole, Kelly L Fitzgerald, Samuel J Ridout, Abigail A Donaldson, Brian Alverson
PURPOSE: This study investigates how the clinical practice guideline-recommended laboratory monitoring for refeeding syndrome impacts management and outcomes of adolescents with eating disorders hospitalized for acute medical stabilization and examines the value of laboratory monitoring (defined as the patient health outcomes achieved per dollar spent). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of medical admissions in a children's hospital between October 2010 and February 2014 was performed...
July 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Abdul Wahid, Mubashra Ahmad, Nazia Mahboob, Ramlah Mehmood
OBJECTIVE: To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. METHODOLOGY: All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study...
May 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
E A Krieger, O V Samodova, N N Gulakova, A B Aruiev, L A Krylova, L V Titova
Every year about 800,000 cases of intestinal infections end in lethal outcome due to dehydration. The different types of dehydration acquire differential approach to correction. Everywhere there is no application of routine detection of osmolarity of blood plasma under exicosis in children in view of absence of possibility of instrumental measurement. The search of techniques is needed to make it possible to indirectly detect types of dehydration in children hospitalized because of acute intestinal infection with purpose to apply rationale therapy of water-electrolyte disorders...
November 2015: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Jakub Zieg, Lucie Gonsorcikova, Daniel Landau
UNLABELLED: Hypokalaemia is a common electrolyte disorder in children, caused by decreased potassium intake, increased gastrointestinal and urinary losses or transcellular shift. Patients with severe hypokalaemia may suffer from symptoms such as life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of our study was to review the aetiology of hypokalaemia, suggest a diagnostic algorithm and discuss the management of patients with various aetiologies of hypokalaemia. CONCLUSION: Understanding the pathophysiology of hypokalaemic states, along with a detailed medical history, physical examination and specific laboratory tests are required for proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment...
July 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Se Young Kim
It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment...
December 2015: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Malik M Adil, Lauren A Beslow, Adnan I Qureshi, Ahmed A Malik, Lori C Jordan
BACKGROUND: Recently a single-center study suggested that hypertension after stroke in children was a risk factor for mortality. Our goal was to assess the association between hypertension and outcome after arterial ischemic stroke in children from a large national sample. METHODS: Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database, children (1-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] codes 433-437...
March 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Shawana Bibi, Saima Bibi, Syed Yasir Hussain Gilani, Syed Raza Ali Shah, Anwar ul Haq, Abdul Ghaffar Billo
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is the most commonly encountered electrolyte disorder in children. In our country the epidemiology of hospital acquired hyponatremia has hardly ever been explored whereas the administration of hypotonic IV fluids is widely practiced here. Therefore we pioneered to conduct this study to determine the frequency of hospital acquired hyponatremia. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study carried out at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi in paediatric ward and ICU over a period of 12 months...
July 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Syed Raza Shah, Sameer Altaf Tunio, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Zorays Moazzam, Komal Noorani, Anushe Mohsin Feroze, Maham Shafquat, Huma Syed Hussain, Syed Ali Hyder Jeoffrey
Acute renal failure is defined as a rapid decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, occurring over a period of hours to days and by the inability of the kidney to regulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis appropriately. AKI is a catastrophic, life-threatening event in critically ill patients. AKI can be divided into pre-renal injury, intrinsic kidney disease (including vascular insults) and obstructive uropathies. The prognosis of AKI is highly dependent on the underlying cause of the injury. Children who have AKI as a component of multisystem failure have a much higher mortality rate than children with intrinsic renal disease...
September 18, 2015: Global Journal of Health Science
Filipa Correia, Alexandre Fernandes, Teresa C Mota, Milagros Garcia, Cíntia Castro-Correia, Manuel Fontoura, Augusto Ribeiro
INTRODUCTION: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte alteration which has the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Endocrine disorders, such as primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency are uncommon causes of hyponatremia. We present the case of a teenager with symptomatic hyponatremia caused by a rare disorder. CASE: A 17-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, asthenia, and weight loss...
December 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Veerajalandhar Allareddy, Natalia Martinez-Schlurmann, Sankeerth Rampa, Romesh P Nalliah, Karen B Lidsky, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Alexandre T Rotta
Outcomes of tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy [w/woA]) in hospitalized children are unclear. We sought, to describe the characteristics of hospitalized children who underwent tonsillectomy (w/woA), to estimate the prevalence of complications and to evaluate the relative impact of different comorbid conditions (CMC) on the risk of occurrence of common complications following these procedures. All patients aged ≤21years who underwent a tonsillectomy (w/woA) were selected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS 2001-2010)...
June 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Prayong Vachvanichsanong, Edward McNeil
Dengue virus infection (DVI) is endemic in tropical countries in both children and adults. The classical presentation includes fever, hepatomegaly, thrombocytopenia-related bleeding disorders, and plasma leakage. Multi-organ involvement, including kidneys is found in complex cases. Asymptomatic electrolyte disturbances, abnormal urinalysis, and more severe manifestation such as acute kidney injury (AKI) usually indicate kidney involvement. Such manifestations are not rare in DVI, but are often not recognized and can cause the physician to misread the real situation of the patient...
2015: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Fatemeh Ghane Shahrbaf, Farahnak Assadi
Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring...
2015: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
I Mastro-Martínez, M I Iglesias-Bouzas, B Cabeza-Martin, G Oñoro-Otero, C Pérez-Díaz, A Serrano-González, J Casado-Flores
BACKGROUND: To describe the complications experienced by patients after central nervous system tumor resection during PICU admission. To assess the association between epidemiological, clinical data and tumor characteristics prior to surgery and presence of postoperative complications. METHODS: We design an observational, descriptive and retrospective study by review of medical records. Patients aged 0-18 years, admitted to the PICU of our hospital, after surgery for tumor resection in the central nervous system RESULTS: We collected a total of 145 postoperative...
September 1, 2015: Minerva Pediatrica
Clímaco Andres Jiménez-Triana, Osvaldo D Castelán-Martínez, Rodolfo Rivas-Ruiz, Ricardo Jiménez-Méndez, Aurora Medina, Patricia Clark, Rod Rassekh, Gilberto Castañeda-Hernández, Bruce Carleton, Mara Medeiros
Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight.We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1...
August 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Siba Prosad Paul, Emily Natasha Kirkham, Bethany Shirt
Febrile convulsion is characterised by convulsion associated with fever in an infant or child aged between six months and six years. The febrile illness causing the convulsion should not be secondary to an intracranial infection (meningitis or encephalitis) or acute electrolyte imbalance. Most cases of febrile convulsion are short lived and self-terminating. However, a few cases of prolonged febrile convulsion may need anticonvulsant medication to stop the seizure. Management is mainly symptomatic, although anticonvulsants may have a role in a small number of children with complex or recurrent febrile convulsion...
August 26, 2015: Nursing Standard
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