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Electrolytic disorders in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701060/epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-304-patients-with-infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-in-anhui%C3%A2-province-of-east-china-2012-2015
#1
Jing Li, Wei Gao, Ji-Min Zhu, Wei Zuo, Xiang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) so as to provide scientific evidences for diagnosis and prevention of IHPS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of IHPS patients diagnosed from 2012 to 2015 at Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital. Demographic characteristic and clinical data were collected. RESULTS: Three hundred four patients (264 males and 40 females) were studied...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621826/cerebral-metabolic-alterations-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-wechsler-intelligence-scale
#2
Doaa Mohammed Youssef, Ahmed Hosny Mohamed, Wafaa Mahmoud Kamel Attia, Faten Fawzy Mohammad, Nelly Rafaat Abd El Fatah, Amal Saeed Elshal
BACKGROUND: Many studies described Impaired intelligence, attention, memory and executive function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) dialyzed and non-dialyzed, but there is still lacking the early and sensitive method of detection of these deficits. The purpose of this study is to investigate relation between the brain metabolic alteration [measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)] and cognitive dysfunction in CKD children (detected by psychometric analysis). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty patients with CKD were included [ 40 patients with stage 5 CKD on dialysis, 30 patients with stage 4 to 5 CKD without dialysis, and 70 patients with stage 1 to 3 CKD]...
June 16, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606713/rhabdomyolysis-and-coeliac-disease-a-causal-or-casual-association-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Claudia Mandato, Alessandro Rossi, Mariano Caldore, Marta Lamba, Michele Rocco, Renata Auricchio, Pietro Vajro, Paolo Siani
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition, caused by multiple disorders. The association with Coeliac Disease (CD) has been rarely reported and in these cases muscular damage was imputed to hypokalemia. Herein we describe a new case of severe rhabdomyolysis in a child subsequently diagnosed as affected by CD, and review previous reports. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old boy was referred for diarrhea, brown urine, muscular pain/weakness, and no history of muscular trauma...
June 9, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593552/a-reformed-surgical-treatment-modality-for-children-with-giant-cystic-craniopharyngioma
#4
Wanchun Zhu, Xiang Li, Jintao He, Tao Sun, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECTIVE: Surgical removal plays an important role in treating children's craniopharyngioma. For a safe and minimally invasive craniotomy, a reformed surgical modality was proposed in this paper by combining the insertion of an Ommaya reservoir system (ORS) by stereotactic puncture, aspiration of cystic fluid in 2-day interval for consecutive 7-10 days, and the delayed tumor resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients (aged from 5 to 9 years old) with giant cystic craniopharyngiomas who had undergone the reformed surgical modality during November 2014 and December 2015 were collected as group A...
June 7, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554723/new-treatments-targeting-the-basic-defects-in-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Isabelle Fajac, Claire E Wainwright
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic autosomal recessive disorder affecting around 75,000 individuals worldwide. It is a multi-system disease but the main morbidity and mortality is caused by chronic lung disease. Due to newborn screening, a multidisciplinary approach to care and intensive symptomatic treatment, the prognosis has dramatically improved over the last decades and there are currently more adults than children in many countries. However, CF is still a very severe disease with a current median age of life expectancy in the fourth decade of life...
May 26, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515029/tolvaptan-utilization-in-children-with-chronic-hyponatremia-due-to-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-siadh-three-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Gerdi Tuli, Daniele Tessaris, Luisa De Sanctis, Patrizia Matarazzo
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder among hospitalized patients and it is sometimes considered as a poor outcome predictor. Its correction is thus indicated, even in asymptomatic patients. The conventional treatment is represented by fluid restriction in presence of euvolemia or hypervolemia; whereas loop diuretics are used in some hypervolemic conditions (cardiac heart failure, liver cirrhosis and nephrotic syndrome) and intravenous isotonic or hypertonic solution are administered in hypovolemic conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473256/malnutrition-among-hospitalized-children-in-the-united-states-changing-prevalence-clinical-correlates-and-practice-patterns-between-2002-and-2011
#7
Jennifer Carvalho-Salemi, Jason L Salemi, Molly R Wong-Vega, Kiara K Spooner, Marisa D Juarez, Stacey S Beer, Nicki L Canada
BACKGROUND: Pediatric malnutrition has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes, longer lengths of stay, and higher health care costs. OBJECTIVE: To characterize prevalence, temporal trends, and short-term clinical outcomes of coded diagnoses of pediatric malnutrition (CDM) across sociodemographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics from 2002 to 2011. DESIGN: This study is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the Kids' Inpatient Database...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399053/short-course-regimens-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-for-the-treatment-of-mediterranean-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-children-an-11-year-retrospective-study-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#8
Panagiotis Krepis, Ioanna Argyri, Adamantia Krepi, Areti Syrmou, Nikos Spyridis, Maria Tsolia
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health problem in endemic regions. Current anti-leishmanial agents share several limitations including potentially serious side effects and the risk of clinical failure. OBJECTIVES: Aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness and safety of short-course liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens in the treatment of childhood VL in our area. METHODS: The cases of 43 VL patients (20 males, 23 females, mean age 4...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826706/clinical-associations-of-early-dysnatremias-in-critically-ill-neonates-and-infants-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#9
Jon Kaufman, Daniel Phadke, Suhong Tong, Jennifer Eshelman, Sarah Newman, Christopher Ruzas, Eduardo M da Cruz, Suzanne Osorio
Dysnatremias (DN) are common electrolyte disturbances in cardiac critical illness and are known risk factors for adverse outcomes in certain populations. Little information exists on DN in children with cardiac disease admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) after undergoing cardiac surgery, either corrective or palliative. The aim was to determine the incidence and adverse outcomes associated with DN in neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Retrospective cohort and single center study performed at Children's Hospital Colorado from May 2013 to May 2014, in children under 1 year old admitted to the CICU after undergoing surgery for congenital or acquired cardiac disease...
January 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786420/outcomes-of-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-with-regional-citrate-anticoagulation-in-small-children-after-cardiac-surgery-experience-and-protocol-from-a-single-center
#10
Anna Musielak, Alfred Warzywoda, Michał Wojtalik, Bartłomiej Kociński, Paweł Kroll, Danuta Ostalska-Nowicka, Jacek Zachwieja
Patients after a cardiac surgery in cardiopulmonary bypass often present an acute kidney failure. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is often required. The aim of this study was to present effectiveness and safety of CRRT with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA-CRRT) in small children after cardiac surgery. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 15 patients after cardiac surgery and who had RCA-CRRT performed in 2014. The established protocol was followed. Mean time on the RCA-CRRT was 192 h 40 min with the circuit mean lifetime of 43 h 33 min...
December 2016: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603309/sodium-disturbances-in-children-admitted-to-a-kenyan-hospital-magnitude-outcome-and-associated-factors
#11
Fredrick Ibinda, Hans-Christoph Zarnack, Charles R Newton
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of blood sodium are the most frequently encountered electrolyte disorder in sick children, and may influence fluid therapy. We examined the frequency of blood sodium perturbations, and factors and outcomes associated with hyponatremia in children admitted to a rural Kenyan hospital and investigated the risk factors associated with deaths in hyponatremic children. METHODS: Plasma sodium levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in children admitted to a rural Kenyan hospital...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340018/rapid-onset-obesity-with-hypothalamic-dysregulation-hypoventilation-and-autonomic-dysregulation-rohhad-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
S Ibáñez-Micó, A M Marcos Oltra, S de Murcia Lemauviel, R Ruiz Pruneda, C Martínez Ferrández, R Domingo Jiménez
INTRODUCTION: ROHHAD syndrome (rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysregulation, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation) is a rare and complex disease, presenting in previously healthy children at the age of 2-4 years. Up to 40% of cases are associated with neural crest tumours. DEVELOPMENT: We present the case of a 2-year-old girl with symptoms of rapidly progressing obesity, who a few months later developed hypothalamic dysfunction with severe electrolyte imbalance, behaviour disorder, hypoventilation, and severe autonomic dysregulation, among other symptoms...
June 20, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338666/daily-laboratory-monitoring-is-of-poor-health-care-value-in-adolescents-acutely-hospitalized-for-eating-disorders
#13
Kathryn K Ridout, Jonathan Kole, Kelly L Fitzgerald, Samuel J Ridout, Abigail A Donaldson, Brian Alverson
PURPOSE: This study investigates how the clinical practice guideline-recommended laboratory monitoring for refeeding syndrome impacts management and outcomes of adolescents with eating disorders hospitalized for acute medical stabilization and examines the value of laboratory monitoring (defined as the patient health outcomes achieved per dollar spent). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of medical admissions in a children's hospital between October 2010 and February 2014 was performed...
July 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225145/prevalence-of-electrolyte-disorders-among-cases-of-diarrhea-with-severe-dehydration-and-correlation-of-electrolyte-levels-with-age-of-the-patients
#14
Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Abdul Wahid, Mubashra Ahmad, Nazia Mahboob, Ramlah Mehmood
OBJECTIVE: To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. METHODOLOGY: All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study...
May 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999860/-the-modes-of-evaluation-of-type-of-dehydration-in-children-hospitalized-because-of-acute-intestinal-infection
#15
E A Krieger, O V Samodova, N N Gulakova, A B Aruiev, L A Krylova, L V Titova
Every year about 800,000 cases of intestinal infections end in lethal outcome due to dehydration. The different types of dehydration acquire differential approach to correction. Everywhere there is no application of routine detection of osmolarity of blood plasma under exicosis in children in view of absence of possibility of instrumental measurement. The search of techniques is needed to make it possible to indirectly detect types of dehydration in children hospitalized because of acute intestinal infection with purpose to apply rationale therapy of water-electrolyte disorders...
November 2015: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972906/current-views-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-hypokalaemia-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Jakub Zieg, Lucie Gonsorcikova, Daniel Landau
UNLABELLED: Hypokalaemia is a common electrolyte disorder in children, caused by decreased potassium intake, increased gastrointestinal and urinary losses or transcellular shift. Patients with severe hypokalaemia may suffer from symptoms such as life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of our study was to review the aetiology of hypokalaemia, suggest a diagnostic algorithm and discuss the management of patients with various aetiologies of hypokalaemia. CONCLUSION: Understanding the pathophysiology of hypokalaemic states, along with a detailed medical history, physical examination and specific laboratory tests are required for proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment...
July 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26817004/endocrine-and-metabolic-emergencies-in-children-hypocalcemia-hypoglycemia-adrenal-insufficiency-and-metabolic-acidosis-including-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#17
REVIEW
Se Young Kim
It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment...
December 2015: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746784/hypertension-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-children-hospitalized-with-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#18
Malik M Adil, Lauren A Beslow, Adnan I Qureshi, Ahmed A Malik, Lori C Jordan
BACKGROUND: Recently a single-center study suggested that hypertension after stroke in children was a risk factor for mortality. Our goal was to assess the association between hypertension and outcome after arterial ischemic stroke in children from a large national sample. METHODS: Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database, children (1-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] codes 433-437...
March 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26721007/frequency-of-hospital-acquired-hyponatremia-in-a-pediatric-tertiary-care-setting
#19
Shawana Bibi, Saima Bibi, Syed Yasir Hussain Gilani, Syed Raza Ali Shah, Anwar ul Haq, Abdul Ghaffar Billo
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is the most commonly encountered electrolyte disorder in children. In our country the epidemiology of hospital acquired hyponatremia has hardly ever been explored whereas the administration of hypotonic IV fluids is widely practiced here. Therefore we pioneered to conduct this study to determine the frequency of hospital acquired hyponatremia. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study carried out at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi in paediatric ward and ICU over a period of 12 months...
July 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652074/acute-kidney-injury-recognition-and-management-a-review-of-the-literature-and-current-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Syed Raza Shah, Sameer Altaf Tunio, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Zorays Moazzam, Komal Noorani, Anushe Mohsin Feroze, Maham Shafquat, Huma Syed Hussain, Syed Ali Hyder Jeoffrey
Acute renal failure is defined as a rapid decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, occurring over a period of hours to days and by the inability of the kidney to regulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis appropriately. AKI is a catastrophic, life-threatening event in critically ill patients. AKI can be divided into pre-renal injury, intrinsic kidney disease (including vascular insults) and obstructive uropathies. The prognosis of AKI is highly dependent on the underlying cause of the injury. Children who have AKI as a component of multisystem failure have a much higher mortality rate than children with intrinsic renal disease...
September 18, 2015: Global Journal of Health Science
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