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Host factors and malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322872/plasmodium-hsp40-and-human-hsp70-a-potential-cochaperone-chaperone-complex
#1
Payal Jha, Shyamasree Laskar, Swati Dubey, Mrinal K Bhattacharyya, Sunanda Bhattacharyya
Out of the total forty four members of Plasmodium falciparum Hsp40 protein family, nineteen of them possess a PEXEL motif, and are predicted to be exported into the cytosol of an infected RBC. It is speculated that the human Hsp70 (hHsp70), which resides into the cytosol of the host erythrocyte, along with the exported PfHsp40s assists in the folding of parasitic proteins, thus playing a crucial role in the establishment of virulence. However, till date no experimental evidence supports this hypothesis. Our work establishes that the PEXEL motifs containing Type II PfDNAJ proteins specifically interact with hHsp70 (HSPA1A)...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242785/malaria-parasite-liver-infection-and-exoerythrocytic-biology
#2
Ashley M Vaughan, Stefan H I Kappe
In their infection cycle, malaria parasites undergo replication and population expansions within the vertebrate host and the mosquito vector. Host infection initiates with sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, followed by a dramatic parasite amplification event during liver stage parasite growth and replication within hepatocytes. Each liver stage forms up to 90,000 exoerythrocytic merozoites, which are in turn capable of initiating a blood stage infection. Liver stages not only exploit host hepatocyte resources for nutritional needs but also endeavor to prevent hepatocyte cell death and detection by the host's immune system...
February 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231248/intensive-trapping-of-blood-fed-anopheles-darlingi-in-amazonian-peru-reveals-unexpectedly-high-proportions-of-avian-blood-meals
#3
Marta Moreno, Marlon P Saavedra, Sara A Bickersmith, Catharine Prussing, Adrian Michalski, Carlos Tong Rios, Joseph M Vinetz, Jan E Conn
Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220125/hgf-secreted-by-activated-kupffer-cells-induces-apoptosis-of-plasmodium-infected-hepatocytes
#4
Lígia Antunes Gonçalves, Joana Rodo, Lurdes Rodrigues-Duarte, Luciana Vieira de Moraes, Carlos Penha-Gonçalves
Malaria liver stage infection is an obligatory parasite development step and represents a population bottleneck in Plasmodium infections, providing an advantageous target for blocking parasite cycle progression. Parasite development inside hepatocytes implies a gross cellular insult evoking innate host responses to counteract intra-hepatocytic infection. Using primary hepatocyte cultures, we investigated the role of Kupffer cell-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in malaria liver stage infection. We found that Kupffer cells from Plasmodium-infected livers produced high levels of HGF, which trigger apoptosis of infected hepatocytes through a mitochondrial-independent apoptosis pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219387/geographical-distributions-of-african-malaria-vector-sibling-species-and-evidence-for-insecticide-resistance
#5
Antoinette Wiebe, Joshua Longbottom, Katherine Gleave, Freya M Shearer, Marianne E Sinka, N Claire Massey, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Peter W Gething, Janet Hemingway, David L Smith, Michael Coleman, Catherine L Moyes
BACKGROUND: Many of the mosquito species responsible for malaria transmission belong to a sibling complex; a taxonomic group of morphologically identical, closely related species. Sibling species often differ in several important factors that have the potential to impact malaria control, including their geographical distribution, resistance to insecticides, biting and resting locations, and host preference. The aim of this study was to define the geographical distributions of dominant malaria vector sibling species in Africa so these distributions can be coupled with data on key factors such as insecticide resistance to aid more focussed, species-selective vector control...
February 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203236/the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-cylindromatosis-dampens-cd8-t-cell-responses-and-is-a-critical-factor-for-experimental-cerebral-malaria-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage
#6
Ursula Schmid, Werner Stenzel, Josephin Koschel, Maria Raptaki, Xu Wang, Michael Naumann, Kai Matuschewski, Dirk Schlüter, Gopala Nishanth
Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of human malaria and may lead to death of Plasmodium falciparum-infected individuals. Cerebral malaria is associated with sequestration of parasitized red blood cells within the cerebral microvasculature resulting in damage of the blood-brain barrier and brain pathology. Although CD8(+) T cells have been implicated in the development of murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), several other studies have shown that CD8(+) T cells confer protection against blood-stage infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183301/cellulose-filtration-of-blood-from-malaria-patients-for-improving-ex-vivo-growth-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites
#7
Sixbert I Mkumbaye, Daniel T R Minja, Jakob S Jespersen, Michael Alifrangis, Reginald A Kavishe, Steven B Mwakalinga, John P Lusingu, Thor G Theander, Thomas Lavstsen, Christian W Wang
BACKGROUND: Establishing in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture lines from patient parasite isolates can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations of drug sensitivity and mechanisms of malaria pathogenesis and immunity. Cellulose column filtration of blood is an inexpensive, rapid and effective method for the removal of host factors, such as leucocytes and platelets, significantly improving the purification of parasite DNA in a blood sample. METHODS: In this study, the effect of cellulose column filtration of venous blood on the initial in vitro growth of P...
February 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158202/high-plasmodium-falciparum-longitudinal-prevalence-is-associated-with-high-multiclonality-and-reduced-clinical-malaria-risk-in-a-seasonal-transmission-area-of-mali
#8
Yaw Adomako-Ankomah, Matthew S Chenoweth, Katelyn Durfee, Saibou Doumbia, Drissa Konate, Mory Doumbouya, Abdoul S Keita, Daria Nikolaeva, Gregory S Tullo, Jennifer M Anderson, Rick M Fairhurst, Rachel Daniels, Sarah K Volkman, Mahamadou Diakite, Kazutoyo Miura, Carole A Long
The effects of persistent Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection and multiclonality on subsequent risk of clinical malaria have been reported, but the relationship between these 2 parameters and their relative impacts on the clinical outcome of infection are not understood. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in a seasonal and high-transmission area of Mali, in which 500 subjects aged 1-65 years were followed for 1 year. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks, and incident malaria cases were diagnosed and treated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155887/signatures-of-malaria-associated-pathology-revealed-by-high-resolution-whole-blood-transcriptomics-in-a-rodent-model-of-malaria
#9
Jing-Wen Lin, Jan Sodenkamp, Deirdre Cunningham, Katrien Deroost, Tshibuayi Christine Tshitenge, Sarah McLaughlin, Tracey J Lamb, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Caroline Hosking, Jai Ramesar, Chris J Janse, Christine Graham, Anne O'Garra, Jean Langhorne
The influence of parasite genetic factors on immune responses and development of severe pathology of malaria is largely unknown. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic profiling of mouse whole blood during blood-stage infections of two strains of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi that differ in virulence. We identified several transcriptomic signatures associated with the virulent infection, including signatures for platelet aggregation, stronger and prolonged anemia and lung inflammation...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109696/three-rosetting-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#10
REVIEW
Xue Yan Yam, Makhtar Niang, Kripa Gopal Madnani, Peter R Preiser
The intracellular malaria parasites extensively modify host erythrocytes to allow nutrient uptake, ensure homeostasis, and evade the host's immune response. To achieve this, the parasite exports several proteins to the erythrocyte surface. In Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most severe form of human malaria, three major variant surface antigen families - PfEMP1, STEVOR, and RIFIN - have been implicated in contributing to immune evasion, parasite sequestration, and parasite-mediated rosetting of uninfected erythrocytes...
January 18, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107409/targeted-deletion-of-a-plasmodium-site-2-protease-impairs-life-cycle-progression-in-the-mammalian-host
#11
Konstantinos Koussis, Evi Goulielmaki, Anna Chalari, Chrislaine Withers-Martinez, Inga Siden-Kiamos, Kai Matuschewski, Thanasis G Loukeris
Site-2 proteases (S2P) belong to the M50 family of metalloproteases, which typically perform essential roles by mediating activation of membrane-bound transcription factors through regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Protease-dependent liberation of dormant transcription factors triggers diverse cellular responses, such as sterol regulation, Notch signalling and the unfolded protein response. Plasmodium parasites rely on regulated proteolysis for controlling essential pathways throughout the life cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094293/the-transmission-potential-of-malaria-infected-mosquitoes-an-gambiae-keele-an-arabiensis-ifakara-is-altered-by-the-vertebrate-blood-type-they-consume-during-parasite-development
#12
S Noushin Emami, Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright, Heather M Ferguson
The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by the host species upon which infected mosquitoes feed...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049150/fosl1-inhibits-type-i-interferon-responses-to-malaria-and-viral-infections-by-blocking-tbk1-and-traf3-trif-interactions
#13
Baowei Cai, Jian Wu, Xiao Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Rong-Fu Wang
Innate immune response plays a critical role in controlling invading pathogens, but such an immune response must be tightly regulated. Insufficient or overactivated immune responses may lead to harmful or even fatal consequences. To dissect the complex host-parasite interactions and the molecular mechanisms underlying innate immune responses to infections, here we investigate the role of FOS-like antigen 1 (FOSL1) in regulating the host type I interferon (IFN-I) response to malaria parasite and viral infections...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941985/diversity-of-cultivable-midgut-microbiota-at-different-stages-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-from-tezpur-india
#14
Kamlesh K Yadav, Sibnarayan Datta, Ashok Naglot, Ajitabh Bora, Vanlal Hmuaka, Sameer Bhagyawant, Hemanta K Gogoi, Vijay Veer, P Srinivas Raju
Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are among the most important vectors of arboviral diseases, worldwide. Recent studies indicate that diverse midgut microbiota of mosquitoes significantly affect development, digestion, metabolism, and immunity of their hosts. Midgut microbiota has also been suggested to modulate the competency of mosquitoes to transmit arboviruses, malaria parasites etc. Interestingly, the midgut microbial flora is dynamic and the diversity changes with the development of vectors, in addition to other factors such as species, sex, life-stage, feeding behavior and geographical origin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939609/epcr-and-malaria-severity-the-center-of-a-perfect-storm
#15
REVIEW
Maria Bernabeu, Joseph D Smith
Severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection causes nearly half a million deaths per year. The different symptomatology and disease manifestations among patients have hampered understanding of severe malaria pathology and complicated efforts to develop targeted disease interventions. Infected erythrocyte sequestration in the microvasculature plays a critical role in the development of severe disease, and there is increasing evidence that cytoadherent parasites interact with host factors to enhance the damage caused by the parasite...
December 6, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923070/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-derived-from-cd4-t-cells-contributes-to-control-of-a-blood-borne-infection
#16
Mary F Fontana, Gabrielly L de Melo, Chioma Anidi, Rebecca Hamburger, Chris Y Kim, So Youn Lee, Jennifer Pham, Charles C Kim
Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913644/the-impact-of-established-immunoregulatory-networks-on-vaccine-efficacy-and-the-development-of-immunity-to-malaria
#17
REVIEW
Marcela Montes de Oca, Michael F Good, James S McCarthy, Christian R Engwerda
The development of vaccines to protect against parasites is difficult, in large part due to complex host-parasite interactions that have evolved over millennia. Parasitic factors such as antigenic variation and host factors such as age, transmission intensity, and genetic influences are all thought to contribute to the limited efficacy of parasite vaccines. A developing theme in field studies investigating antiparasitic immunity is the emergence, establishment, and maintenance of immunoregulatory networks that shape the immune responses to new infections, as well as vaccines, thereby influencing disease outcome...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905633/-failure-to-radical-cure-in-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#18
Julián García, Agustín Seijo, Andrés Benchetrit, Esteban Couto, Sofía Echazarreta, Susana Lloveras, Tomás Orduna
Relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria is due to activation of dormant intrahepatic parasitic forms known as hypnozoits. Primaquine is the only available drug effective against hypnozoits and, alongside a schizonticidal drug, constitutes the radical treatment of malaria. Failure of radical treatment is frequently attributed to inadequate dosing, poor adherence, or reinfection. However, several cases of radical treatment failure without these factors have been reported, inferring that metabolic properties of the host or tolerance mechanisms of the parasite may be implied...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860197/crispr-cas9-the-ultimate-weapon-to-battle-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
M Doerflinger, W Forsyth, G Ebert, M Pellegrini, M J Herold
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. Novel therapeutics are urgently required to treat multidrug-resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by acute infections such as malaria and dengue fever virus as well as chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, which has revolutionized biomedical research, holds great promise for the identification and validation of novel drug targets...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836912/biology-of-malaria-transmission
#20
Elamaran Meibalan, Matthias Marti
Understanding transmission biology at an individual level is a key component of intervention strategies that target the spread of malaria parasites from human to mosquito. Gametocytes are specialized sexual stages of the malaria parasite life cycle developed during evolution to achieve crucial steps in transmission. As sexual differentiation and transmission are tightly linked, a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular events defining this relationship is essential to combat malaria. Recent advances in the field are gradually revealing mechanisms underlying sexual commitment, gametocyte sequestration, and dynamics of transmissible stages; however, key questions on fundamental gametocyte biology still remain...
November 11, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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