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Host factors and malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800735/life-span-of-in-vitro-differentiated-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes
#1
Tamirat Gebru, Albert Lalremruata, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Jana Held
BACKGROUND: The sexual stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium falciparum do not directly contribute to the pathology of malaria but are essential for transmission of the parasite from the human host to the mosquito. Mature gametocytes circulate in infected human blood for several days and their circulation time has been modelled mathematically from data of previous in vivo studies. This is the first time that longevity of gametocytes is studied experimentally in vitro. METHODS: The in vitro longevity of P...
August 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793894/prevalence-of-polymorphisms-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-sickle-haemoglobin-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-genes-and-their-relationship-with-incidence-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-iganga-uganda
#2
Catherine Nassozi Lwanira, Fred Kironde, Mark Kaddumukasa, Göte Swedberg
BACKGROUND: Host genetics play an important role in Plasmodium falciparum malaria susceptibility. However, information on host genetic factors and their relationships with malaria in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected host genetic markers and their relationship to malaria incidence in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda. In a 1-year longitudinal cohort study, 423 children aged below 9 years were recruited and their malaria episodes were investigated...
August 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768914/dichotomous-mir-expression-and-immune-responses-following-primary-blood-stage-malaria
#3
Julie G Burel, Simon H Apte, Penny L Groves, Michelle J Boyle, Christine Langer, James G Beeson, James S McCarthy, Denise L Doolan
Clinical responses to infection or vaccination and the development of effective immunity are characterized in humans by a marked interindividual variability. To gain an insight into the factors affecting this variability, we used a controlled human infection system to study early immune events following primary infection of healthy human volunteers with blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria. By day 4 of infection, a dichotomous pattern of high or low expression of a defined set of microRNAs (miRs) emerged in volunteers that correlated with variation in parasite growth rate...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768894/phenotypic-plasticity-in-reproductive-effort-malaria-parasites-respond-to-resource-availability
#4
Philip L G Birget, Charlotte Repton, Aidan J O'Donnell, Petra Schneider, Sarah E Reece
The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental in the life history of all sexually reproducing organisms. This includes malaria parasites, which rely on asexually replicating stages for within-host survival and on sexually reproducing stages (gametocytes) for between-host transmission. The proportion of asexual stages that form gametocytes (reproductive effort) varies during infections-i.e. is phenotypically plastic-in response to changes in a number of within-host factors, including anaemia...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751162/new-insights-into-the-factors-affecting-synonymous-codon-usage-in-human-infecting-plasmodium-species
#5
REVIEW
Shivani Gajbhiye, P K Patra, Manoj Kumar Yadav
Codon usage bias is due to the non-random usage of synonymous codons for coding amino acids. The synonymous sites are under weak selection, and codon usage bias is maintained by the equilibrium in mutational bias, genetic drift and selection pressure. The differential codon usage choices are also relevant to human infecting Plasmodium species. Recently, P. knowlesi switches its natural host, long-tailed macaques, and starts infecting humans. This review focuses on the comparative analysis of codon usage choices among human infecting P...
July 24, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729672/plasmodium-berghei-p47-is-essential-for-ookinete-protection-from-the-anopheles-gambiae-complement-like-response
#6
Chiamaka Valerie Ukegbu, Maria Giorgalli, Hassan Yassine, Jose Luis Ramirez, Chrysanthi Taxiarchi, Carolina Barillas-Mury, George K Christophides, Dina Vlachou
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease affecting millions of people every year. The rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei has served as a model for human malaria transmission studies and played a pivotal role in dissecting the mosquito immune response against infection. The 6-cysteine protein P47, known to be important for P. berghei female gamete fertility, is shown to serve a different function in Plasmodium falciparum, protecting ookinetes from the mosquito immune response. Here, we investigate the function of P...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720113/evaluation-of-electric-nets-as-means-to-sample-mosquito-vectors-host-seeking-on-humans-and-primates
#7
Frances Hawkes, Benny Obrain Manin, Sui Han Ng, Stephen J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua, Heather M Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is found in macaques and is the only major zoonotic malaria to affect humans. Transmission of P. knowlesi between people and macaques depends on the host species preferences and feeding behavior of mosquito vectors. However, these behaviours are difficult to measure due to the lack of standardized methods for sampling potential vectors attracted to different host species. This study evaluated electrocuting net traps as a safe, standardised method for sampling P...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707393/malaria-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-the-pathogenesis-of-burkitt-s-lymphoma
#8
Anthony R Mawson, Suvankar Majumdar
A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR, Path Global Health 2013;107(3):122-9)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700639/the-effects-of-ingestion-of-hormonal-host-factors-on-the-longevity-and-insecticide-resistance-phenotype-of-the-major-malaria-vector-anopheles-arabiensis-diptera-culicidae
#9
Shüné V Oliver, Basil D Brooke
Exogenous vertebrate-derived factors circulating in the blood have the capacity to modulate the biology of haematophagous insects. These include insulin, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ). The effects of the consumption of these three proteins were examined on laboratory strains of Anopheles arabiensis. SENN, an insecticide susceptible strain and SENN DDT, a resistant strain selected from SENN, were fed with host factor-supplemented sucrose. Adult longevity was measured and insecticide resistance phenotype over time was assessed by WHO bioassay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676051/community-perceptions-on-outdoor-malaria-transmission-in-kilombero-valley-southern-tanzania
#10
Irene R Moshi, Halfan Ngowo, Angel Dillip, Daniel Msellemu, Edith P Madumla, Fredros O Okumu, Maureen Coetzee, Ladslaus L Mnyone, Lenore Manderson
BACKGROUND: The extensive use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Africa has contributed to a significant reduction in malaria transmission. Even so, residual malaria transmission persists in many regions, partly driven by mosquitoes that bite people outdoors. In areas where Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a dominant vector, most interventions target the reduction of indoor transmission. The increased use of ITNs/LLINs and IRS has led to the decline of this species...
July 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664674/adaptive-immunity-is-essential-in-preventing-recrudescence-of-plasmodium-yoelii-malaria-parasites-after-artesunate-treatment
#11
Carla Claser, Zi Wei Chang, Bruce Russell, Laurent Rénia
Artemisinin-based antimalarials, such as artesunate (ART), alone or in combination, are the mainstay of the therapy against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance threatens the future success of its global malaria eradication. Although much of the reported artemisinin resistance can be attributed to mutations intrinsic to the parasite, a significant proportion of treatment failures are thought to be due to other factors such as the host's immune system...
June 30, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655315/comparison-of-apoptosis-in-human-primary-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-and-a-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cell-line-co-cultured-with-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates
#12
Jean Claude Biteghe Bi Essone, Nadine N'Dilimabaka, Julien Ondzaga, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Dieudonné Nkoghe Mba, Philippe Deloron, Dominique Mazier, Frédrérick Gay, Fousseyni S Touré Ndouo
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infection can progress unpredictably to severe forms including respiratory distress and cerebral malaria. The mechanisms underlying the variable natural course of malaria remain elusive. METHODS: The cerebral microvascular endothelial cells-D3 and lung endothelial cells both from human were cultured separately and challenged with P. falciparum field isolates taken directly from malaria patients or 3D7 strain (in vitro maintained culture)...
June 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637923/infectivity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites-determines-emerging-parasitemia-in-infected-volunteers
#13
Matthew B B McCall, Linda J Wammes, Marijke C C Langenberg, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Jona Walk, Cornelus C Hermsen, Wouter Graumans, Rob Koelewijn, Jean-François Franetich, Sandra Chishimba, Max Gerdsen, Audrey Lorthiois, Marga van de Vegte, Dominique Mazier, Else M Bijker, Jaap J van Hellemond, Perry J J van Genderen, Robert W Sauerwein
Malaria sporozoites must first undergo intrahepatic development before a pathogenic blood-stage infection is established. The success of infection depends on host and parasite factors. In healthy human volunteers undergoing controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), we directly compared three clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates for their ability to infect primary human hepatocytes in vitro and to drive the production of blood-stage parasites in vivo. Our data show a correlation between the efficiency of strain-specific sporozoite invasion of human hepatocytes and the dynamics of patent parasitemia in study subjects, highlighting intrinsic differences in infectivity among P...
June 21, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618269/red-blood-cell-invasion-by-the-malaria-parasite-is-coordinated-by-the-pfap2-i-transcription-factor
#14
Joana Mendonca Santos, Gabrielle Josling, Philipp Ross, Preeti Joshi, Lindsey Orchard, Tracey Campbell, Ariel Schieler, Ileana M Cristea, Manuel Llinás
Obligate intracellular parasites must efficiently invade host cells in order to mature and be transmitted. For the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, invasion of host red blood cells (RBCs) is essential. Here we describe a parasite-specific transcription factor PfAP2-I, belonging to the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family, that is responsible for regulating the expression of genes involved in RBC invasion. Our genome-wide analysis by ChIP-seq shows that PfAP2-I interacts with a specific DNA motif in the promoters of target genes...
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611446/genome-wide-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-protein-secretion-of-babesia-canis-during-virulent-infection-identifies-potential-pathogenicity-factors
#15
Ramon M Eichenberger, Chandra Ramakrishnan, Giancarlo Russo, Peter Deplazes, Adrian B Hehl
Infections of dogs with virulent strains of Babesia canis are characterized by rapid onset and high mortality, comparable to complicated human malaria. As in other apicomplexan parasites, most Babesia virulence factors responsible for survival and pathogenicity are secreted to the host cell surface and beyond where they remodel and biochemically modify the infected cell interacting with host proteins in a very specific manner. Here, we investigated factors secreted by B. canis during acute infections in dogs and report on in silico predictions and experimental analysis of the parasite's exportome...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607435/preferential-suppression-of-anopheles-gambiae-host-sequences-allows-detection-of-the-mosquito-eukaryotic-microbiome
#16
Eugeni Belda, Boubacar Coulibaly, Abdrahamane Fofana, Abdoul H Beavogui, Sekou F Traore, Daryl M Gohl, Kenneth D Vernick, Michelle M Riehle
Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The vector microbiota is a likely factor influencing parasite transmission. The prokaryotic microbiota of mosquitoes is efficiently surveyed by sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. However, identification of the eukaryotic microbiota by targeting the 18s rRNA gene is challenging due to simultaneous amplification of the abundant 18s rRNA gene target in the mosquito host. Consequently, the eukaryotic microbial diversity of mosquitoes is vastly underexplored...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605553/pyruvate-kinase-and-fc-gamma-receptor-gene-copy-numbers-associated-with-malaria-phenotypes
#17
Imad Faik, Hoang van Tong, Bertrand Lell, Christian G Meyer, Peter G Kremsner, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
Genetic factors are associated with susceptibility to many infectious diseases and may be determinants of clinical progression. Gene copy number variation (CNV) has been shown to be associated with phenotypes of numerous diseases, including malaria. We quantified gene copy numbers of the pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cells (PKLR) gene as well as of the Fcγ receptor 2A and Fcγ receptor 2C (FCGR2A, FCGR2C) and Fcγ receptor 3 (FCGR3) genes using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays in Gabonese children with severe (n=184) or and mild (n=189) malaria and in healthy Gabonese and Caucasian individuals (n=76 each)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589330/triple-combination-therapy-and-drug-cycling-tangential-strategies-for-countering-artemisinin-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Bhattacharjee Dipanjan, G Shivaprakash, O Balaji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review attempts to understand the reasons for the successes and failures of the two novel strategies that have slowly begun to emerge as potential counters for anti-malarial drug resistance-"Triple Combination Therapy" and "Drug Cycling." RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have suggested that increasing the heterogeneity within the parasite's environment, both at an individual and the population level, may help raise the probabilistic barrier of development of resistance in the parasite...
July 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572796/host-parasite-interactions-in-human-malaria-clinical-implications-of-basic-research
#19
REVIEW
Pragyan Acharya, Manika Garg, Praveen Kumar, Akshay Munjal, K D Raja
The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is one of the oldest parasites documented to infect humans and has proven particularly hard to eradicate. One of the major hurdles in designing an effective subunit vaccine against the malaria parasite is the insufficient understanding of host-parasite interactions within the human host during infections. The success of the parasite lies in its ability to evade the human immune system and recruit host responses as physiological cues to regulate its life cycle, leading to rapid acclimatization of the parasite to its immediate host environment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541483/malaria-host-candidate-genes-validated-by-association-with-current-recent-and-historic-measures-of-transmission-intensity
#20
Nuno Sepúlveda, Alphaxard Manjurano, Susana G Campino, Martha Lemnge, John Lusingu, Raimos Olomi, Kirk A Rockett, Christina Hubbart, Anna Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Taane G Clark, Eleanor M Riley, Chris J Drakeley
Background: Human malaria susceptibility is determined by multiple genetic factors. It is however unclear which genetic variants remain important over time. Methods: Genetic associations of 175 high quality polymorphisms within several malaria candidate genes were examined in a sample of 8,096 individuals from northeast Tanzania using altitude, seroconversion rates and parasite rates as proxies of historical, recent and current malaria transmission intensity. A principal component (PC) analysis was used to derive two alternative measures of overall malaria propensity of a location across different time scales...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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