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Host factors and malaria

Djane Clarys Baia-da-Silva, Luis Carlos Salazar Alvarez, Omaira Vera Lizcano, Fabio Trindade Maranhão Costa, Stefanie Costa Pinto Lopes, Alessandra Silva Orfanó, Denner Oliveira Pascoal, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Iria Cabral Rodriguez, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães Lacerda, Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is predominant in the Amazon region, and enhanced knowledge of its development inside a natural vector, Anopheles aquasalis, is critical for future strategies aimed at blocking parasite development. The peritrophic matrix (PM), a chitinous layer produced by the mosquito midgut in response to blood ingestion, is a protective barrier against pathogens. Plasmodium can only complete its life-cycle, and consequently be transmitted to a new host, after successfully passing this barrier...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Leen Vandermosten, Thao-Thy Pham, Hendrik Possemiers, Sofie Knoops, Evelien Van Herck, Julie Deckers, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Tracey J Lamb, Chris J Janse, Ghislain Opdenakker, Philippe E Van den Steen
BACKGROUND: Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) is a complication of malaria with a lethality rate of up to 80% despite anti-malarial treatment. It is characterized by a vast infiltration of leukocytes, microhaemorrhages and vasogenic oedema in the lungs. Previously, a mouse model for MA-ARDS was developed by infection of C57BL/6 mice with the Edinburgh line NK65-E of Plasmodium berghei. RESULTS: Here, both host and parasite factors were demonstrated to play crucial roles in the development and severity of lung pathology...
March 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
So Hee Dho, Jae Cheong Lim, Lark Kyun Kim
The complement is a part of the immune system that plays several roles in removing pathogens. Despite the importance of the complement system, the exact role of each component has been overlooked because the complement system was thought to be a nonspecific humoral immune mechanism that worked against pathogens. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) is a known inhibitor of the complement system and has recently attracted substantial attention due to its role in various diseases, such as cancer, protein-losing enteropathy, and malaria...
February 2018: Immune Network
Murad A Mubaraki, Mohamed Dkhil, Taghreed A Hafiz, Mona F Khalil, Esam M Al-Shaebi, Denis Delic, Kamal Elshaikh, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Malaria is a harmful disease affecting both tropical and subtropical countries and causing sometimes fatal complications. The effects of malaria-related complications on the intestine have been relatively neglected, and the reasons for the intestinal damage caused by malaria infection are not yet clear. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor on host-pathogen interactions during malaria induced in mice by Plasmodium chabaudi. To induce the infection, animals were infected with 106 P...
February 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Martina Ferraguti, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Staffan Bensch, David Roiz, Santigo Ruiz, Duarte S Viana, Ramon C Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
Vector and host communities, as well as habitat characteristics, may have important but different impacts on the prevalence, richness and evenness of vector-borne parasites. We investigated the relative importance of (1) the mosquito community composition, (2) the vertebrate community composition and (3) landscape characteristics on the prevalence, richness and evenness of avian Plasmodium. We hypothesized that parasite prevalence will be more affected by vector-related parameters, while host parameters should be also important to explain Plasmodium richness and evenness...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Elizabeth M Schultz, Jamie M Cornelius, Dustin G Reichard, Kirk C Klasing, Thomas P Hahn
While parasite infection can have substantial fitness consequences in organisms, the predictors of parasite prevalence and intensity are often complex and vary depending on the host species. Here, we examined correlates of Haemoproteus (a common malaria parasite) prevalence and intensity in an opportunistically breeding songbird, the red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra). Specifically, we quantified Haemoproteus prevalence and intensity in crossbills caught in the Grand Teton National Park from 2010 to 2013. We found that parasite prevalence varies seasonally and across years, with the highest number of infected individuals occurring in the summer, although there was variation across summers sampled, and that prevalence was positively related to annual mean cone crop sizes (a measure of crossbill food abundance) and daily ambient temperature (a correlate of vector abundance)...
February 21, 2018: Parasitology
Maria Del Pilar Quintana, Jun-Hong Ch'ng, Kirsten Moll, Arash Zandian, Peter Nilsson, Zulkarnain Md Idris, Somporn Saiwaew, Ulrika Qundos, Mats Wahlgren
Naturally acquired antibodies to proteins expressed on the Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) surface steer the course of a malaria infection by reducing sequestration and stimulating phagocytosis of pRBC. Here we have studied a selection of proteins representing three different parasite gene families employing a well-characterized parasite with a severe malaria phenotype (FCR3S1.2). The presence of naturally acquired antibodies, impact on rosetting rate, surface reactivity and opsonization for phagocytosis in relation to different blood groups of the ABO system were assessed in a set of sera from children with mild or complicated malaria from an endemic area...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nina Simon, Oliver Friedrich, Barbara Kappes
The human complement system is the most effective defense mechanism of the human innate immune system. One major negative regulator of the alternative pathway in human blood is complement factor H (FH). It binds to autologous cells and thus, prevents complement attack against body-cells or tissues. Various pathogens are known to escape complement recognition by recruiting FH to provide protection against the host's immune system. This immune evasion mechanism was recently qualitatively reported for asexual malaria blood stages...
February 12, 2018: Vaccine
Sakineh Pirahmadi, Sedigheh Zakeri, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Navid Dinparast Djadid
Plasmodium falciparum cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PfCelTOS) has been reported as one of the most attractive malaria vaccine candidate antigens. To design a broadly effective malaria vaccine based on this antigen, it is crucial to have adequate information on genetic diversity in global PfCelTOS. Therefore, the extent of sequence diversity at the full-length of the pfceltos was assessed among both natural P. falciparum isolates collected from Iran (n = 93) and from available global pfceltos sequence data retrieved from PlasmoDB database (n = 159)...
January 29, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Matt Ravenhall, Susana Campino, Nuno Sepúlveda, Alphaxard Manjurano, Behzad Nadjm, George Mtove, Hannah Wangai, Caroline Maxwell, Raimos Olomi, Hugh Reyburn, Christopher J Drakeley, Eleanor M Riley, Taane G Clark
Significant selection pressure has been exerted on the genomes of human populations exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection, resulting in the acquisition of mechanisms of resistance against severe malarial disease. Many host genetic factors, including sickle cell trait, have been associated with reduced risk of developing severe malaria, but do not account for all of the observed phenotypic variation. Identification of novel inherited risk factors relies upon high-resolution genome-wide association studies (GWAS)...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
Stephanie Tannous, Esther Ghanem
Malaria infection caused by Plasmodium parasites remains a major health burden worldwide especially in the tropics and subtropics. Plasmodium exhibits a complex life cycle whereby it undergoes a series of developmental stages in the Anopheles mosquito vector and the vertebrate human host. Malaria severity is mainly attributed to the genetic complexity of the parasite which is reflected in the sophisticated mechanisms of invasion and evasion that allow it to overcome the immune responses of both its invertebrate and vertebrate hosts...
January 29, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Yongyut Pewkliang, Siriwan Rungin, Kaewta Lerdpanyangam, Apisak Duangmanee, Phongthon Kanjanasirirat, Phichaya Suthivanich, Khanit Sa-Ngiamsuntorn, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Suradej Hongeng
BACKGROUND: Eradication of malaria is difficult because of the ability of hypnozoite, the dormant liver-stage form of Plasmodium vivax, to cause relapse in patients. Research efforts to better understand the biology of P. vivax hypnozoite and design relapse prevention strategies have been hampered by the lack of a robust and reliable model for in vitro culture of liver-stage parasites. Although the HC-04 hepatoma cell line is used for culturing liver-stage forms of Plasmodium, these cells proliferate unrestrictedly and detach from the culture dish after several days, which limits their usefulness in a long-term hypnozoite assay...
January 25, 2018: Malaria Journal
Abhishek Dey, Kausik Chakrabarti
Replicative capacity of a cell is strongly correlated with telomere length regulation. Aberrant lengthening or reduction in the length of telomeres can lead to health anomalies, such as cancer or premature aging. Telomerase is a master regulator for maintaining replicative potential in most eukaryotic cells. It does so by controlling telomere length at chromosome ends. Akin to cancer cells, most single-cell eukaryotic pathogens are highly proliferative and require persistent telomerase activity to maintain constant length of telomere and propagation within their host...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Natália G Sampaio, Samantha J Emery, Alexandra L Garnham, Qiao Y Tan, Xavier Sisquella, Matthew A Pimentel, Aaron R Jex, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Louis Schofield, Emily M Eriksson
Pathogens can release extracellular vesicles (EVs) for cell-cell communication and host modulation. EVs from Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species, can transfer drug resistance genes between parasites. EVs from late-stage parasite-infected RBC (iRBC-EVs) are immunostimulatory and affect endothelial cell permeability, but little is known about EVs from early stage iRBC. We detected the parasite virulence factor PfEMP1, which is responsible for iRBC adherence and a major contributor to disease severity, in EVs, only up to 12-hr post-RBC invasion...
January 18, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Pornlada Nuchnoi, Hathairad Hananantachai, Uranan Tumkosit, David Saunders, Izumi Naka, Jun Ohashi, Jintana Patarapotikul
Parasite virulence, an important factor contributing to the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, varies among P. falciparum strains. Relatively little is known regarding markers of virulence capable of identifying strains responsible for severe malaria. We investigated the effects of genetic variations in the P.f. merozoite surface protein 2 gene (msp2) on virulence, as it was previously postulated as a factor. We analyzed 300 msp2 sequences of single P. falciparum clone infection from patients with uncomplicated disease as well as those admitted for severe malaria with and without cerebral disease...
2018: PloS One
Martha Betson, Sarah Clifford, Michelle Stanton, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
As part of a longitudinal cohort investigation of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria in Ugandan children and their mothers on the shorelines of Lakes Victoria and Albert, we documented risk factors and morbidity associated with nonfalciparum Plasmodium infections and the longitudinal dynamics of Plasmodium species in children. Host age, household location, and Plasmodium falciparum infection were strongly associated with nonfalciparum Plasmodium infections, and Plasmodium malariae infection was associated with splenomegaly...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Diletta Scaccabarozzi, Katrien Deroost, Yolanda Corbett, Natacha Lays, Paola Corsetto, Fausta Omodeo Salè, Philippe E Van den Steen, Donatella Taramelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria and severe anaemia are the most common deadly complications of malaria, and are often associated, both in paediatric and adult patients, with hepatopathy, whose pathogenesis is not well characterized, and sometimes also with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, two species of murine malaria, the lethal Plasmodium berghei strain NK65 and self-healing Plasmodium chabaudi strain AS which differ in their ability to cause hepatopathy and/or ARDS were used to investigate the lipid alterations, oxidative damage and host immune response during the infection in relation to parasite load and accumulation of parasite products, such as haemozoin...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Wesley Wong, Edward A Wenger, Daniel L Hartl, Dyann F Wirth
Unlike in most pathogens, multiple-strain (polygenomic) infections of P. falciparum are frequently composed of genetic siblings. These genetic siblings are the result of sexual reproduction and can coinfect the same host when cotransmitted by the same mosquito. The degree with which coinfecting strains are related varies among infections and populations. Because sexual recombination occurs within the mosquito, the relatedness of cotransmitted strains could depend on transmission dynamics, but little is actually known of the factors that influence the relatedness of cotransmitted strains...
January 9, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Raquel A Pinna, Adriana C Dos Santos, Daiana S Perce-da-Silva, Luciene A da Silva, Rodrigo N R da Silva, Marcelo R Alves, Fátima Santos, Joseli de Oliveira Ferreira, Josué C Lima-Junior, Déa M Villa-Verde, Paula M De Luca, Carla E Carvalho-Pinto, Dalma M Banic
INTRODUCTION: A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B cell activation factor (BAFF) are known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including BAFF in malaria. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APRIL and BAFF plasma concentrations could be part of inflammatory responses associated with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in patients from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from P. vivax and P...
January 3, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Patrick M Lelliott, Hong Ming Huang, Matthew W Dixon, Arman Namvar, Adam J Blanch, Vijay Rajagopal, Leann Tilley, Cevayir Coban, Brendan J McMorran, Simon J Foote, Gaetan Burgio
The malaria parasite hijacks host erythrocytes to shield itself from the immune system and proliferate. Red blood cell abnormalities can provide protection from malaria by impeding parasite invasion and growth within the cell or by compromising the ability of parasites to avoid host clearance. Here, we describe 2 N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mouse lines, SptbMRI26194 and SptbMRI53426 , containing single-point mutations in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton gene, β spectrin (Sptb), which exhibit microcytosis but retain a relatively normal ratio of erythrocyte surface area to volume and are highly resistant to rodent malaria...
December 12, 2017: Blood Advances
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