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Host factors and malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349926/extracellular-vesicles-from-early-stage-p-falciparum-infected-red-blood-cells-contain-pfemp1-and-induce-transcriptional-changes-in-human-monocytes
#1
Natália G Sampaio, Samantha Emery, Alexandra Garnham, Qiao Y Tan, Xavier Sisquella, Matthew A Pimentel, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Louis Schofield, Emily M Eriksson
Pathogens can release extracellular vesicles (EVs) for cell-cell communication and host modulation. EVs from Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species, can transfer drug resistance genes between parasites. EVs from late-stage parasite-infected RBC (iRBC-EVs) are immunostimulatory and affect endothelial cell permeability, but little is known about EVs from early-stage iRBC. We detected the parasite virulence factor PfEMP1, which is responsible for iRBC adherence and a major contributor to disease severity, in EVs only up to 12 hours-post RBC invasion...
January 18, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342212/sequence-variation-in-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-2-is-associated-with-virulence-causing-severe-and-cerebral-malaria
#2
Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Pornlada Nuchnoi, Hathairad Hananantachai, Uranan Tumkosit, David Saunders, Izumi Naka, Jun Ohashi, Jintana Patarapotikul
Parasite virulence, an important factor contributing to the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection, varies among P. falciparum strains. Relatively little is known regarding markers of virulence capable of identifying strains responsible for severe malaria. We investigated the effects of genetic variations in the P.f. merozoite surface protein 2 gene (msp2) on virulence, as it was previously postulated as a factor. We analyzed 300 msp2 sequences of single P. falciparum clone infection from patients with uncomplicated disease as well as those admitted for severe malaria with and without cerebral disease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325068/emergence-of-non-falciparum-plasmodium-infection-despite-regular-artemisinin-combination-therapy-in-a-18-month-longitudinal-study-of-ugandan-children-and-their-mothers
#3
Martha Betson, Sarah Clifford, Michelle Stanton, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
As part of a longitudinal cohort investigation of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria in Ugandan children and their mothers on the shorelines of Lakes Victoria and Albert, we documented risk factors and morbidity associated with non-falciparum Plasmodium infections and the longitudinal dynamics of Plasmodium species in children. Host age, household location and P. falciparum infection were strongly associated with non-falciparum Plasmodium infections, and P. malariae infection was associated with splenomegaly...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316914/differential-induction-of-malaria-liver-pathology-in-mice-infected-with-plasmodium-chabaudi-as-or-plasmodium-berghei-nk65
#4
Diletta Scaccabarozzi, Katrien Deroost, Yolanda Corbett, Natacha Lays, Paola Corsetto, Fausta Omodeo Salè, Philippe E Van den Steen, Donatella Taramelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria and severe anaemia are the most common deadly complications of malaria, and are often associated, both in paediatric and adult patients, with hepatopathy, whose pathogenesis is not well characterized, and sometimes also with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, two species of murine malaria, the lethal Plasmodium berghei strain NK65 and self-healing Plasmodium chabaudi strain AS which differ in their ability to cause hepatopathy and/or ARDS were used to investigate the lipid alterations, oxidative damage and host immune response during the infection in relation to parasite load and accumulation of parasite products, such as haemozoin...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315306/modeling-the-genetic-relatedness-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites-following-meiotic-recombination-and-cotransmission
#5
Wesley Wong, Edward A Wenger, Daniel L Hartl, Dyann F Wirth
Unlike in most pathogens, multiple-strain (polygenomic) infections of P. falciparum are frequently composed of genetic siblings. These genetic siblings are the result of sexual reproduction and can coinfect the same host when cotransmitted by the same mosquito. The degree with which coinfecting strains are related varies among infections and populations. Because sexual recombination occurs within the mosquito, the relatedness of cotransmitted strains could depend on transmission dynamics, but little is actually known of the factors that influence the relatedness of cotransmitted strains...
January 9, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314720/correlation-of-april-with-production-of-inflammatory-cytokines-during-acute-malaria-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#6
Raquel A Pinna, Adriana C Dos Santos, Daiana S Perce-da-Silva, Luciene A da Silva, Rodrigo N R da Silva, Marcelo R Alves, Fátima Santos, Joseli de Oliveira Ferreira, Josué C Lima-Junior, Déa M Villa-Verde, Paula M De Luca, Carla E Carvalho-Pinto, Dalma M Banic
INTRODUCTION: A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B cell activation factor (BAFF) are known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including BAFF in malaria. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APRIL and BAFF plasma concentrations could be part of inflammatory responses associated with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in patients from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from P. vivax and P...
January 3, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296915/erythrocyte-%C3%AE-spectrin-can-be-genetically-targeted-to-protect-mice-from-malaria
#7
Patrick M Lelliott, Hong Ming Huang, Matthew W Dixon, Arman Namvar, Adam J Blanch, Vijay Rajagopal, Leann Tilley, Cevayir Coban, Brendan J McMorran, Simon J Foote, Gaetan Burgio
The malaria parasite hijacks host erythrocytes to shield itself from the immune system and proliferate. Red blood cell abnormalities can provide protection from malaria by impeding parasite invasion and growth within the cell or by compromising the ability of parasites to avoid host clearance. Here, we describe 2 N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mouse lines, SptbMRI26194 and SptbMRI53426 , containing single-point mutations in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton gene, β spectrin (Sptb), which exhibit microcytosis but retain a relatively normal ratio of erythrocyte surface area to volume and are highly resistant to rodent malaria...
December 12, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281764/interferon-regulatory-factor-1-is-essential-for-pathogenic-cd8-t-cell-migration-and-retention-in-the-brain-during-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#8
Sin Yee Gun, Carla Claser, Teck Hui Teo, Shanshan W Howland, Chek Meng Poh, Rebecca Ren Ying Chye, Lisa F P Ng, Laurent Rénia
Host immune response has a key role in controlling the progression of malaria infection. In the well-established murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) with P. berghei ANKA infection, pro-inflammatory Th1 and CD8+ T cells response are essential for disease development. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is a transcription factor which promotes Th1 responses and its absence was previously shown to protect from ECM death. Yet, the exact mechanism of protection remains unknown. Here we demonstrated that IRF1-deficient mice (IRF1KO) were protected from ECM death despite displaying early neurological signs...
December 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249333/beyond-hemoglobin-screening-for-malaria-host-factors
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Egan
Severe malaria is caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and results in significant global morbidity and mortality, particularly among young children and pregnant women. P. falciparum exclusively infects human erythrocytes during clinical illness, and several natural erythrocyte polymorphisms are protective against severe malaria. Since erythrocytes are enucleated and lack DNA, genetic approaches to understand erythrocyte determinants of malaria infection have historically been limited. This review highlights recent advances in the use of hematopoietic stem cells to facilitate genetic screening for malaria host factors...
December 14, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247222/modelling-mosquito-infection-at-natural-parasite-densities-identifies-drugs-targeting-ef2-pi4k-or-atp4-as-key-candidates-for-interrupting-malaria-transmission
#10
Koen J Dechering, Hans-Peter Duerr, Karin M J Koolen, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Teun Bousema, Jeremy Burrows, Didier Leroy, Robert W Sauerwein
Eradication of malaria requires a novel type of drug that blocks transmission from the human to the mosquito host, but selection of such a drug is hampered by a lack of translational models. Experimental mosquito infections yield infection intensities that are substantially higher than observed in natural infections and, as a consequence, underestimate the drug effect on the proportion of mosquitoes that become infected. Here we introduce a novel experimental and computational method to adequately describe drug efficacy at natural parasite densities...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246158/a-deep-sequencing-approach-to-estimate-plasmodium-falciparum-complexity-of-infection-coi-and-explore-apical-membrane-antigen-1-diversity
#11
Robin H Miller, Nicholas J Hathaway, Oksana Kharabora, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Steven R Meshnick, Steve M Taylor, Jonathan J Juliano, V Ann Stewart, Jeffrey A Bailey
BACKGROUND: Humans living in regions with high falciparum malaria transmission intensity harbour multi-strain infections comprised of several genetically distinct malaria haplotypes. The number of distinct malaria parasite haplotypes identified from an infected human host at a given time is referred to as the complexity of infection (COI). In this study, an amplicon-based deep sequencing method targeting the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (pfama1) was utilized to (1) investigate the relationship between P...
December 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233900/systematic-crispr-cas9-mediated-modifications-of-plasmodium-yoelii-apiap2-genes-reveal-functional-insights-into-parasite-development
#12
Cui Zhang, Zhenkui Li, Huiting Cui, Yuanyuan Jiang, Zhenke Yang, Xu Wang, Han Gao, Cong Liu, Shujia Zhang, Xin-Zhuan Su, Jing Yuan
Malaria parasites have a complex life cycle with multiple developmental stages in mosquito and vertebrate hosts, and different developmental stages express unique sets of genes. Unexpectedly, many transcription factors (TFs) commonly found in eukaryotic organisms are absent in malaria parasites; instead, a family of genes encoding proteins similar to the plant Apetala2 (ApiAP2) transcription factors is expanded in the parasites. Several malaria ApiAP2 genes have been shown to play a critical role in parasite development; however, the functions of the majority of the ApiAP2 genes remain to be elucidated...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218601/regulation-of-myelopoiesis-by-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-infectious-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Yukino Chiba, Izuru Mizoguchi, Hideaki Hasegawa, Mio Ohashi, Naoko Orii, Taro Nagai, Miyaka Sugahara, Yasunori Miyamoto, Mingli Xu, Toshiyuki Owaki, Takayuki Yoshimoto
Hematopoiesis is hierarchically orchestrated by a very small population of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in the bone-marrow niche and are tightly regulated to maintain homeostatic blood production. HSCs are predominantly quiescent, but they enter the cell cycle in response to inflammatory signals evoked by severe systemic infection or injury. Thus, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can be activated by pathogen recognition receptors and proinflammatory cytokines to induce emergency myelopoiesis during infection...
December 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217460/tissue-specific-cellular-immune-responses-to-malaria-pre-erythrocytic-stages
#14
REVIEW
Olivier Silvie, Rogerio Amino, Julius Clemence Hafalla
Complete and long-lasting protective immunity against malaria can be achieved through vaccination with invasive live attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites, the motile stage inoculated in the host skin during a mosquito bite. Protective immunity relies primarily on effector CD8+ T cells targeting the parasite in the liver. Understanding the tissue-specific features of the immune response is emerging as a vital requirement for understanding protective immunity. The small parasite inoculum, the scarcity of infected cells and the tolerogenic properties of the liver represent hurdles for the establishment of protective immunity in endemic areas...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215015/malaria-parasite-dna-harbouring-vesicles-activate-cytosolic-immune-sensors
#15
Xavier Sisquella, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Matthew A Pimentel, Lesley Cheng, Paula Abou Karam, Natália G Sampaio, Jocelyn Sietsma Penington, Dympna Connolly, Tal Giladi, Benjamin J Scicluna, Robyn A Sharples, Andreea Waltmann, Dror Avni, Eli Schwartz, Louis Schofield, Ziv Porat, Diana S Hansen, Anthony T Papenfuss, Emily M Eriksson, Motti Gerlic, Andrew F Hill, Andrew G Bowie, Neta Regev-Rudzki
STING is an innate immune cytosolic adaptor for DNA sensors that engage malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) or other pathogen DNA. As P. falciparum infects red blood cells and not leukocytes, how parasite DNA reaches such host cytosolic DNA sensors in immune cells is unclear. Here we show that malaria parasites inside red blood cells can engage host cytosolic innate immune cell receptors from a distance by secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) containing parasitic small RNA and genomic DNA. Upon internalization of DNA-harboring EVs by human monocytes, P...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207239/the-human-microbiota-infectious-disease-and-global-health-challenges-and-opportunities
#16
Abraham J Waldman, Emily P Balskus
Despite significant advances in treating infectious diseases worldwide, morbidity and mortality associated with pathogen infection remains extraordinarily high and represents a critical scientific and global health challenge. Current strategies to combat these infectious agents include a combination of vaccines, small molecule drugs, increased hygiene standards, and disease-specific interventions. While these approaches have helped to drastically reduce the incidence and number of deaths associated with infection, continued investment in current strategies and the development of novel therapeutic approaches will be required to address these global health threats...
December 13, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197127/overview-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-catabolite-metabolism-in-the-virulence-of-human-pathogenic-fungi
#17
REVIEW
Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Sarah Beattie, Robert A Cramer, Gustavo H Goldman
It is estimated that fungal infections, caused most commonly by Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans, result in more deaths annually than malaria or tuberculosis. It has long been hypothesized the fungal metabolism plays a critical role in virulence though specific nutrient sources utilized by human pathogenic fungi in vivo has remained enigmatic. However, the metabolic utilisation of preferred carbon and nitrogen sources, encountered in a host niche-dependent manner, is known as carbon catabolite and nitrogen catabolite repression (CCR, NCR), and has been shown to be important for virulence...
December 2, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158512/wild-bonobos-host-geographically-restricted-malaria-parasites-including-a-putative-new-laverania-species
#18
Weimin Liu, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Gerald H Learn, Erik J Scully, Yingying Li, Alexa N Avitto, Dorothy E Loy, Abigail P Lauder, Sesh A Sundararaman, Lindsey J Plenderleith, Jean-Bosco N Ndjango, Alexander V Georgiev, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Martine Peeters, Paco Bertolani, Jef Dupain, Cintia Garai, John A Hart, Terese B Hart, George M Shaw, Paul M Sharp, Beatrice H Hahn
Malaria parasites, though widespread among wild chimpanzees and gorillas, have not been detected in bonobos. Here, we show that wild-living bonobos are endemically Plasmodium infected in the eastern-most part of their range. Testing 1556 faecal samples from 11 field sites, we identify high prevalence Laverania infections in the Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba (TL2) area, but not at other locations across the Congo. TL2 bonobos harbour P. gaboni, formerly only found in chimpanzees, as well as a potential new species, Plasmodium lomamiensis sp...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157310/zooprophylaxis-as-a-control-strategy-for-malaria-caused-by-the-vector-anopheles-arabiensis-diptera-culicidae-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Abebe Asale, Luc Duchateau, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Gerdien Huisman, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Zooprophylaxis is the use of wild or domestic animals, which are not the reservoir host of a given disease, to divert the blood-seeking malaria vectors from human hosts. In this paper, we systematically reviewed zooprophylaxis to assess its efficacy as a malaria control strategy and to evaluate the possible methods of its application. METHODS: The electronic databases, PubMed Central®, Web of Science, Science direct, and African Journals Online were searched using the key terms: "zooprophylaxis" or "cattle and malaria", and reports published between January 1995 and March 2016 were considered...
October 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155505/phistc-protein-family-members-localize-to-different-sub-cellular-organelles-and-bind-plasmodium-falciparum-major-virulence-factor-pfemp-1
#20
Vikash Kumar, Jasweer Kaur, Amrit Pal Singh, Vineeta Singh, Anjali Bisht, Jiban Jyoti Panda, Prakash Chandra Mishra, Rachna Hora
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) encodes a novel repertoire of exported protein family called as Plasmodium helical interspersed sub-telomeric (PHIST) that plays diverse roles in infected red blood cells (iRBCs), contributing to malaria pathogenesis. PHIST proteins are central to parasite biology, and modify human erythrocytes by executing interactions with parasite and host proteins. Here, we have attempted to understand the localization and function of two unexplored proteins of PHISTc sub-family 'PFD1140w and PF11_0503', and compared our findings with a well characterized member 'PFI1780w'...
November 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
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