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Host factors and malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923070/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-derived-from-cd4-t-cells-contributes-to-control-of-a-blood-borne-infection
#1
Mary F Fontana, Gabrielly L de Melo, Chioma Anidi, Rebecca Hamburger, Chris Y Kim, So Youn Lee, Jennifer Pham, Charles C Kim
Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913644/the-impact-of-established-immunoregulatory-networks-on-vaccine-efficacy-and-the-development-of-immunity-to-malaria
#2
REVIEW
Marcela Montes de Oca, Michael F Good, James S McCarthy, Christian R Engwerda
The development of vaccines to protect against parasites is difficult, in large part due to complex host-parasite interactions that have evolved over millennia. Parasitic factors such as antigenic variation and host factors such as age, transmission intensity, and genetic influences are all thought to contribute to the limited efficacy of parasite vaccines. A developing theme in field studies investigating antiparasitic immunity is the emergence, establishment, and maintenance of immunoregulatory networks that shape the immune responses to new infections, as well as vaccines, thereby influencing disease outcome...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905633/-failure-to-radical-cure-in-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#3
Julián García, Agustín Seijo, Andrés Benchetrit, Esteban Couto, Sofía Echazarreta, Susana Lloveras, Tomás Orduna
Relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria is due to activation of dormant intrahepatic parasitic forms known as hypnozoits. Primaquine is the only available drug effective against hypnozoits and, alongside a schizonticidal drug, constitutes the radical treatment of malaria. Failure of radical treatment is frequently attributed to inadequate dosing, poor adherence, or reinfection. However, several cases of radical treatment failure without these factors have been reported, inferring that metabolic properties of the host or tolerance mechanisms of the parasite may be implied...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860197/crispr-cas9-the-ultimate-weapon-to-battle-infectious-diseases
#4
REVIEW
M Doerflinger, W Forsyth, G Ebert, M Pellegrini, M J Herold
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. Novel therapeutics are urgently required to treat multidrug-resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by acute infections such as malaria and dengue fever virus as well as chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, which has revolutionized biomedical research, holds great promise for the identification and validation of novel drug targets...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836912/biology-of-malaria-transmission
#5
Elamaran Meibalan, Matthias Marti
Understanding transmission biology at an individual level is a key component of intervention strategies that target the spread of malaria parasites from human to mosquito. Gametocytes are specialized sexual stages of the malaria parasite life cycle developed during evolution to achieve crucial steps in transmission. As sexual differentiation and transmission are tightly linked, a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular events defining this relationship is essential to combat malaria. Recent advances in the field are gradually revealing mechanisms underlying sexual commitment, gametocyte sequestration, and dynamics of transmissible stages; however, key questions on fundamental gametocyte biology still remain...
November 11, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830190/phenotypic-screens-identify-parasite-genetic-factors-associated-with-malarial-fever-response-in-plasmodium-falciparum-piggybac-mutants
#6
Phaedra Thomas, Jennifer Sedillo, Jenna Oberstaller, Suzanne Li, Min Zhang, Naresh Singh, Chengqi C Q Wang, Kenneth Udenze, Rays H Y Jiang, John H Adams
Malaria remains one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide, with 90% of the malaria deaths in Africa in 2013 attributable to Plasmodium falciparum. The clinical symptoms of malaria include cycles of fever, corresponding to parasite rupture from red blood cells every 48 h. Parasite pathways involved in the parasite's ability to survive the host fever response, and indeed, the functions of ~40% of P. falciparum genes as a whole, are still largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the potential of scalable forward-genetic screening methods to identify genes involved in the host fever response...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812214/ifnar1-signalling-obstructs-icos-mediated-humoral-immunity-during-non-lethal-blood-stage-plasmodium-infection
#7
Ismail Sebina, Kylie R James, Megan S F Soon, Lily G Fogg, Shannon E Best, Fabian de Labastida Rivera, Marcela Montes de Oca, Fiona H Amante, Bryce S Thomas, Lynette Beattie, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Mark J Smyth, Paul J Hertzog, Geoffrey R Hill, Andreas Hutloff, Christian R Engwerda, Ashraful Haque
Parasite-specific antibodies protect against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, in malaria-endemic regions, it takes many months for naturally-exposed individuals to develop robust humoral immunity. Explanations for this have focused on antigenic variation by Plasmodium, but have considered less whether host production of parasite-specific antibody is sub-optimal. In particular, it is unclear whether host immune factors might limit antibody responses. Here, we explored the effect of Type I Interferon signalling via IFNAR1 on CD4+ T-cell and B-cell responses in two non-lethal murine models of malaria, P...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809838/characterization-of-plasmodium-falciparum-atp-dependent-dna-helicase-ruvb3
#8
Paviga Limudomporn, Saengduen Moonsom, Ubolsree Leartsakulpanich, Pattra Suntornthiticharoen, Songsak Petmitr, Michael Weinfeld, Porntip Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most serious and widespread parasitic diseases affecting humans. Because of the spread of resistance in both parasites and the mosquito vectors to anti-malarial drugs and insecticides, controlling the spread of malaria is becoming difficult. Thus, identifying new drug targets is urgently needed. Helicases play key roles in a wide range of cellular activities involving DNA and RNA transactions, making them attractive anti-malarial drug targets. METHODS: ATP-dependent DNA helicase gene (PfRuvB3) of Plasmodium falciparum strain K1, a chloroquine and pyrimethamine-resistant strain, was inserted into pQE-TriSystem His-Strep 2 vector, heterologously expressed and affinity purified...
November 3, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802326/is-avian-malaria-playing-a-role-in-native-bird-declines-in-new-zealand-testing-hypotheses-along-an-elevational-gradient
#9
Chris N Niebuhr, Robert Poulin, Daniel M Tompkins
The mosquito-borne disease avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) has impacted both captive populations and wild individuals of native New Zealand bird species. However, whether or not it is a cause of concern to their wild populations is still unclear. In Hawaii, the disease has been a major factor in the population declines of some native forest bird species, often limiting their elevational distribution due to an inverse relationship between force of infection and elevation. While studies have investigated latitudinal patterns of infection in New Zealand, elevational patterns are unexplored...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799922/immune-escape-strategies-of-malaria-parasites
#10
REVIEW
Pollyanna S Gomes, Jyoti Bhardwaj, Juan Rivera-Correa, Celio G Freire-De-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins, and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793594/cross-regulation-of-two-type-i-interferon-signaling-pathways-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-controls-anti-malaria-immunity-and-host-mortality
#11
Xiao Yu, Baowei Cai, Mingjun Wang, Peng Tan, Xilai Ding, Jian Wu, Jian Li, Qingtian Li, Pinghua Liu, Changsheng Xing, Helen Y Wang, Xin-Zhuan Su, Rong-Fu Wang
Type I interferon (IFN) is critical for controlling pathogen infection; however, its regulatory mechanisms in plasmacytoid cells (pDCs) still remain unclear. Here, we have shown that nucleic acid sensors cGAS-, STING-, MDA5-, MAVS-, or transcription factor IRF3-deficient mice produced high amounts of type I IFN-α and IFN-β (IFN-α/β) in the serum and were resistant to lethal plasmodium yoelii YM infection. Robust IFN-α/β production was abolished when gene encoding nucleic acid sensor TLR7, signaling adaptor MyD88, or transcription factor IRF7 was ablated or pDCs were depleted...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773760/preferential-expression-of-domain-cassettes-4-8-and-13-of-plasmodium-falciparum-erythrocyte-membrane-protein-1-in-severe-malaria-imported-in-france
#12
N Argy, G I Bertin, J Milet, V Hubert, J Clain, S Cojean, P Houzé, N Tuikue-Ndam, E Kendjo, P Deloron, S Houzé
OBJECTIVES: Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria (SM) involves cytoadhesion of parasitized red blood cells, mediated by P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1, which is encoded by var genes. Expression of var gene group A and B or encoding domain cassettes DC4, DC5, DC8 and DC13 has been implicated in SM in African children, but no data exist in the context of imported malaria. The aim of this study was to investigate var gene expression linked to clinical presentation and host factors in SM imported into France...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734894/genomic-evidence-for-plant-parasitic-nematodes-as-the-earliest-wolbachia-hosts
#13
Amanda M V Brown, Sulochana K Wasala, Dana K Howe, Amy B Peetz, Inga A Zasada, Dee R Denver
Wolbachia, one of the most widespread endosymbionts, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new Wolbachia strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Phylogenomic analyses placed wPpe as the earliest diverging Wolbachia, suggesting two evolutionary invasions into nematodes. The next branches comprised strains in sap-feeding insects, suggesting Wolbachia may have first evolved as a nutritional mutualist...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721445/infected-erythrocyte-derived-extracellular-vesicles-alter-vascular-function-via-regulatory-ago2-mirna-complexes-in-malaria
#14
Pierre-Yves Mantel, Daisy Hjelmqvist, Michael Walch, Solange Kharoubi-Hess, Sandra Nilsson, Deepali Ravel, Marina Ribeiro, Christof Grüring, Siyuan Ma, Prasad Padmanabhan, Alexander Trachtenberg, Johan Ankarklev, Nicolas M Brancucci, Curtis Huttenhower, Manoj T Duraisingh, Ionita Ghiran, Winston P Kuo, Luis Filgueira, Roberta Martinelli, Matthias Marti
Malaria remains one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The clinical outcome of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum parasites depends on many factors including host systemic inflammatory responses, parasite sequestration in tissues and vascular dysfunction. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines promotes endothelial activation as well as recruitment and infiltration of inflammatory cells, which in turn triggers further endothelial cell activation and parasite sequestration...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678168/a-natural-anopheles-associated-penicillium-chrysogenum-enhances-mosquito-susceptibility-to-plasmodium-infection
#15
Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Benjamin J Blumberg, Yuemei Dong, Simone L Sandiford, Andrew Pike, April M Clayton, George Dimopoulos
Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670685/acquisition-of-natural-humoral-immunity-to-p-falciparum-in-early-life-in-benin-impact-of-clinical-environmental-and-host-factors
#16
Célia Dechavanne, Ibrahim Sadissou, Aziz Bouraima, Claude Ahouangninou, Roukiyath Amoussa, Jacqueline Milet, Kabirou Moutairou, Achille Massougbodji, Michael Theisen, Edmond J Remarque, David Courtin, Gregory Nuel, Florence Migot-Nabias, André Garcia
To our knowledge, effects of age, placental malaria infection, infections during follow-up, nutritional habits, sickle-cell trait and individual exposure to Anopheles bites were never explored together in a study focusing on the acquisition of malaria antibody responses among infants living in endemic areas.Five hundred and sixty-seven Beninese infants were weekly followed-up from birth to 18 months of age. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1 and IgG3 specific for 5 malaria antigens were measured every 3 months. A linear mixed model was used to analyze the effect of each variable on the acquisition of antimalarial antibodies in 6-to18-month old infants in univariate and multivariate analyses...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660051/quantitative-model-based-estimates-of-variability-in-the-generation-and-serial-intervals-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#17
John H Huber, Geoffrey L Johnston, Bryan Greenhouse, David L Smith, T Alex Perkins
BACKGROUND: The serial interval is a fundamentally important quantity in infectious disease epidemiology that has numerous applications to inferring patterns of transmission from case data. Many of these applications are apropos of efforts to eliminate falciparum malaria from locations throughout the world, yet the serial interval for this disease is poorly understood quantitatively. METHODS: To obtain a quantitative estimate of the serial interval for falciparum malaria, the sum of the components of the falciparum malaria transmission cycle was taken based on a combination of mathematical models and empirical data...
September 22, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611863/hsp70-may-be-a-molecular-regulator-of-schistosome-host-invasion
#18
Kenji Ishida, Emmitt R Jolly
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide and is considered the most important neglected tropical disease following malaria. Free-swimming freshwater cercariae, one of the six morphologically distinct schistosome life stages, infect humans by directly penetrating through the skin. Cercariae identify and seek the host by sensing chemicals released from human skin. When they reach the host, they burrow into the skin with the help of proteases and other contents released from their acetabular glands and transform into schistosomula, the subsequent larval worm stage upon skin infection...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610227/the-rise-and-fall-of-infectious-disease-in-a-warmer-world
#19
REVIEW
Kevin D Lafferty, Erin A Mordecai
Now-outdated estimates proposed that climate change should have increased the number of people at risk of malaria, yet malaria and several other infectious diseases have declined. Although some diseases have increased as the climate has warmed, evidence for widespread climate-driven disease expansion has not materialized, despite increased research attention. Biological responses to warming depend on the non-linear relationships between physiological performance and temperature, called the thermal response curve...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579474/reduced-hsp70-and-glutamine-in-pediatric-severe-malaria-anemia-role-of-hemozoin-in-suppressing-hsp70-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#20
Prakasha Kempaiah, Karol Dokladny, Zachary Karim, Evans Raballah, John M Ong'echa, Pope L Moseley, Douglas J Perkins
Severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb) <5.0 g/dL] is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality among children residing in Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions. Exploration of molecular pathways through global gene expression profiling revealed that SMA was characterized by decreased HSPA1A, a heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 coding gene. Hsp70 is a ubiquitous chaperone that regulates Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines known to be important in malaria pathogenesis (e...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Medicine
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