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Host factors and malaria

Amanda M V Brown, Sulochana K Wasala, Dana K Howe, Amy B Peetz, Inga A Zasada, Dee R Denver
Wolbachia, one of the most widespread endosymbionts, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new Wolbachia strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Phylogenomic analyses placed wPpe as the earliest diverging Wolbachia, suggesting two evolutionary invasions into nematodes. The next branches comprised strains in sap-feeding insects, suggesting Wolbachia may have first evolved as a nutritional mutualist...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pierre-Yves Mantel, Daisy Hjelmqvist, Michael Walch, Solange Kharoubi-Hess, Sandra Nilsson, Deepali Ravel, Marina Ribeiro, Christof Grüring, Siyuan Ma, Prasad Padmanabhan, Alexander Trachtenberg, Johan Ankarklev, Nicolas M Brancucci, Curtis Huttenhower, Manoj T Duraisingh, Ionita Ghiran, Winston P Kuo, Luis Filgueira, Roberta Martinelli, Matthias Marti
Malaria remains one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The clinical outcome of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum parasites depends on many factors including host systemic inflammatory responses, parasite sequestration in tissues and vascular dysfunction. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines promotes endothelial activation as well as recruitment and infiltration of inflammatory cells, which in turn triggers further endothelial cell activation and parasite sequestration...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Benjamin J Blumberg, Yuemei Dong, Simone L Sandiford, Andrew Pike, April M Clayton, George Dimopoulos
Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Célia Dechavanne, Ibrahim Sadissou, Aziz Bouraima, Claude Ahouangninou, Roukiyath Amoussa, Jacqueline Milet, Kabirou Moutairou, Achille Massougbodji, Michael Theisen, Edmond J Remarque, David Courtin, Gregory Nuel, Florence Migot-Nabias, André Garcia
To our knowledge, effects of age, placental malaria infection, infections during follow-up, nutritional habits, sickle-cell trait and individual exposure to Anopheles bites were never explored together in a study focusing on the acquisition of malaria antibody responses among infants living in endemic areas.Five hundred and sixty-seven Beninese infants were weekly followed-up from birth to 18 months of age. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1 and IgG3 specific for 5 malaria antigens were measured every 3 months. A linear mixed model was used to analyze the effect of each variable on the acquisition of antimalarial antibodies in 6-to18-month old infants in univariate and multivariate analyses...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
John H Huber, Geoffrey L Johnston, Bryan Greenhouse, David L Smith, T Alex Perkins
BACKGROUND: The serial interval is a fundamentally important quantity in infectious disease epidemiology that has numerous applications to inferring patterns of transmission from case data. Many of these applications are apropos of efforts to eliminate falciparum malaria from locations throughout the world, yet the serial interval for this disease is poorly understood quantitatively. METHODS: To obtain a quantitative estimate of the serial interval for falciparum malaria, the sum of the components of the falciparum malaria transmission cycle was taken based on a combination of mathematical models and empirical data...
2016: Malaria Journal
Kenji Ishida, Emmitt R Jolly
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide and is considered the most important neglected tropical disease following malaria. Free-swimming freshwater cercariae, one of the six morphologically distinct schistosome life stages, infect humans by directly penetrating through the skin. Cercariae identify and seek the host by sensing chemicals released from human skin. When they reach the host, they burrow into the skin with the help of proteases and other contents released from their acetabular glands and transform into schistosomula, the subsequent larval worm stage upon skin infection...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kevin D Lafferty, Erin A Mordecai
Now-outdated estimates proposed that climate change should have increased the number of people at risk of malaria, yet malaria and several other infectious diseases have declined. Although some diseases have increased as the climate has warmed, evidence for widespread climate-driven disease expansion has not materialized, despite increased research attention. Biological responses to warming depend on the non-linear relationships between physiological performance and temperature, called the thermal response curve...
2016: F1000Research
Prakasha Kempaiah, Karol Dokladny, Zachary Karim, Evans Raballah, John M Ong'echa, Pope L Moseley, Douglas J Perkins
Severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb) <5.0 g/dL] is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality among children residing in Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions. Exploration of molecular pathways through global gene expression profiling revealed that SMA was characterized by decreased HSPA1A, a heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 coding gene. Hsp70 is a ubiquitous chaperone that regulates Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines known to be important in malaria pathogenesis (e...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Nicholas J Clark, Konstans Wells, Dimitar Dimitrov, Sonya M Clegg
Experimental work increasingly suggests that non-random pathogen associations can affect the spread or severity of disease. Yet due to difficulties distinguishing and interpreting co-infections, evidence for the presence and directionality of pathogen co-occurrences in wildlife is rudimentary. We provide empirical evidence for pathogen co-occurrences by analysing infection matrices for avian malaria (Haemoproteus and Plasmodium spp.) and parasitic filarial nematodes (microfilariae) in wild birds (New Caledonian Zosterops spp...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Michael J Delves, Ursula Straschil, Andrea Ruecker, Celia Miguel-Blanco, Sara Marques, Jake Baum, Robert E Sinden
The prevention of parasite transmission from the human host to the mosquito has been recognized as a vital tool for malaria eradication campaigns. However, transmission-blocking antimalarial drug and/or vaccine discovery and development is currently hampered by the expense and difficulty of producing mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in vitro-the parasite stage responsible for mosquito infection. Current protocols for P. falciparum gametocyte culture usually require complex parasite synchronization and addition of stimulating and/or inhibitory factors, and they may not have demonstrated the essential property of mosquito infectivity...
September 2016: Nature Protocols
Kyle D Wilson, Sonja J Stutz, Lorenzo F Ochoa, Gustavo A Valbuena, Petra D Cravens, Kelly T Dineley, Gracie Vargas, Robin Stephens
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria is one of the most severe complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection and occurs mostly in young African children. This syndrome results from a combination of high levels of parasitaemia and inflammation. Although parasite sequestration in the brain is a feature of the human syndrome, sequestering strains do not uniformly cause severe malaria, suggesting interplay with other factors. Host genetic factors such as mutations in the promoters of the cytokines IL-10 and TNF are also clearly linked to severe disease...
2016: Malaria Journal
Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Larson Boundenga, Céline Arnathau, Illich Manfred Mombo, Patrick Durand, Thierry-Audrey Tsoumbou, Bertony Vacky Otoro, Rick Sana, Alain-Prince Okouga, Nancy Moukodoum, Eric Willaume, Anaïs Herbert, David Fouchet, Virginie Rougeron, Cheikh Tidiane Bâ, Benjamin Ollomo, Christophe Paupy, Eric M Leroy, François Renaud, Dominique Pontier, Franck Prugnolle
Recent studies have revealed a large diversity of Plasmodium spp. among African great apes. Some of these species are related to Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria (subgenus Laverania), and others to Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax (subgenus Plasmodium), three other human malaria agents. Laverania parasites exhibit strict host specificity in their natural environment. Plasmodium reichenowi, Plasmodium billcollinsi, Plasmodium billbrayi and Plasmodium gaboni infect only chimpanzees, while Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium blacklocki and Plasmodium adleri are restricted to gorillas and Plasmodium falciparum is pandemic in humans...
October 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Esther Dalko, Delphine Genete, Florent Auger, Claire Dovergne, Claire Lambert, Fabien Herbert, Pierre-André Cazenave, Jacques Roland, Sylviane Pied
Cerebral malaria is the deadliest complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Its pathophysiology is associated with a strong pro-inflammatory reaction and the activation of glial cells. Among modulators released during the infection, heme seems to play a controversial role in the pathophysiology of malaria. Herein, we first investigated the phenotype of glial cells during cerebral malaria in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. Given the fact that high levels of heme were associated with cerebral malaria, we then investigated its impact on microglial, astrocyte, and T cell responses to further clarify its contribution in the neuropathophysiology...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Julien Guizetti, Anna Barcons-Simon, Artur Scherf
Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members...
July 27, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Liting Lim, Claire P Sayers, Christopher D Goodman, Geoffrey I McFadden
Apicoplasts are vestigial plastids in apicomplexan parasites like Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria. Apicomplexan parasites are dependant on their apicoplasts for synthesis of various molecules that they are unable to scavenge in sufficient quantity from their host, which makes apicoplasts attractive drug targets. Proteins known as plastid phosphate translocators (pPTs) are embedded in the outer apicoplast membrane and are responsible for the import of carbon, energy and reducing power to drive anabolic synthesis in the organelle...
2016: PloS One
Andrey Mukhin, Vaidas Palinauskas, Elena Platonova, Dmitry Kobylkov, Irina Vakoliuk, Gediminas Valkiūnas
Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood...
2016: PloS One
Murad A Mubaraki, Taghreed A Hafiz, Mohamed A Dkhil, Saleh Al-Quraishy
BACKGROUND: Multiple drug-resistant malaria parasites have been widely detected, which has encouraged research studies focused on discovering alternative therapies. Medicinal plants such as pomegranate, Punica granatum, have been proven to exhibit antiprotozoal effects and therefore, we examined its effects on murine malaria-induced splenic injury and oxidative stress in this study. METHODS: Mice were divided into three groups, a vehicle control and two groups that were infected with 10(6) Plasmodium chabaudi-parasitized red blood cells (RBCs)...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Christian N Nguetse, Christian G Meyer, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Tsiri Agbenyega, Bernhards R Ogutu, Peter G Kremsner, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
BACKGROUND: Extensive studies investigating the role of host genetic factors during malaria associate glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with relative protection. G6PD deficiency had been reported to associate with anti-malarial drug induced with haemolytic anaemia. METHODS: A total of 301 Gabonese, Ghanaian, and Kenyan children aged 6-120 months with severe malaria recruited in a multicentre trial on artesunate were included in this sub-study. G6PD normal (type B), heterozygous (type A(+)) and deficient (type A(-)) genotypes were determined by direct sequencing of the common African mutations G202A and A376G...
2016: Malaria Journal
Jessica Kehrer, Friedrich Frischknecht, Gunnar R Mair
Malaria transmission from an infected host to the mosquito vector requires the uptake of intraerythrocytic sexual precursor cells into the mosquito midgut. For the release of mature extracellular gametes two membrane barriers-the parasite parasitophorous vacuole membrane and the host red blood cell membrane-need to be dissolved. Membrane lysis occurs after the release of proteins from specialized secretory vesicles including osmiophilic bodies. In this study we conducted proteomic analyses of the P. berghei gametocyte egressome and developed a vesicular bioID approach to identify hitherto unknown proteins with a potential function in gametocyte egress...
September 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Andrés F Vallejo, Kelly Rubiano, Andres Amado, Amy R Krystosik, Sócrates Herrera, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera
INTRODUCTION: Individuals exposed to malaria infections for a long time develop immune responses capable of blocking Plasmodium transmission to mosquito vectors, potentially limiting parasite spreading in nature. Development of a malaria TB vaccine requires a better understanding of the mechanisms and main effectors responsible for transmission blocking (TB) responses. The lack of an in vitro culture system for Plasmodium vivax has been an important drawback for development of a standardized method to assess TB responses to this parasite...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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