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Immunological factors in malaria

Roberta Reis Soares, Luciana Maria Ribeiro Antinarelli, Clarice Abramo, Gilson Costa Macedo, Elaine Soares Coimbra, Kézia Katiani Gorza Scopel
Parasitic diseases, such as malaria and leishmaniasis, are relevant public health problems worldwide. For both diseases, the alarming number of clinical cases and deaths reported annually has justified the incentives directed to better understanding of host's factors associated with susceptibility to infection or protection. In this context, over recent years, some studies have given special attention to B lymphocytes with a regulator phenotype, known as Breg cells. Essentially important in the maintenance of immunological tolerance, especially in autoimmune disease models such as rheumatoid arthritis and experimentally induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the function of these lymphocytes has so far been poorly explored during the course of diseases caused by parasites...
March 29, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Mulualem Tadesse, Haimanot Disassa, Melkamu B Beyene
The magnitude of concurrent malaria infection and the impact it has on hematological abnormalities, such as anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS, is not well studied in Ethiopian set up. In this cross sectional study, therefore, we assessed the prevalence of concurrent malaria infection and anemia among highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) naive people living with HIV/AIDS between October, 2012 to May, 2013 in Northern Ethiopia. After obtaining consent, socio demographic, clinical, immunological and behavioural data was obtained...
May 2017: Acta Tropica
Richard H G Baxter, Alicia Contet, Kathryn Krueger
Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases, including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue, and Zika, yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is the group of genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization, and agglutination...
February 8, 2017: Biochemistry
Pollyanna S Gomes, Jyoti Bhardwaj, Juan Rivera-Correa, Celio G Freire-De-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins, and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aline Silva de Miranda, Fátima Brant, Luciene Bruno Vieira, Natália Pessoa Rocha, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Gustavo Henrique Souza Rezende, Pollyana Maria de Oliveira Pimentel, Marcio F D Moraes, Fabíola Mara Ribeiro, Richard M Ransohoff, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Fabiana Simão Machado, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which can result in long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits despite successful anti-malarial therapy. Due to the substantial social and economic burden of CM, the development of adjuvant therapies is a scientific goal of highest priority. Apart from vascular and immune responses, changes in glutamate system have been reported in CM pathogenesis suggesting a potential therapeutic target. Based on that, we hypothesized that interventions in the glutamatergic system induced by blockage of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors could attenuate experimental CM long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Estela Shabani, Robert O Opoka, Paul Bangirana, Gregory S Park, Gregory M Vercellotti, Weihua Guan, James S Hodges, Thomas Lavstsen, Chandy C John
The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) appears to play an important role in Plasmodium falciparum endothelial cell binding in severe malaria (SM). Despite consistent findings of elevated soluble EPCR (sEPCR) in other infectious diseases, field studies to date have provided conflicting data about the role of EPCR in SM. To better define this role, we performed genotyping for the rs867186-G variant, associated with increased sEPCR levels, and measured sEPCR levels in two prospective studies of Ugandan children designed to understand immunologic and genetic factors associated with neurocognitive deficits in SM including 551 SM children, 71 uncomplicated malaria (UM) and 172 healthy community children (CC)...
June 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Laura N Cruz, Yang Wu, Henning Ulrich, Alister G Craig, Célia R S Garcia
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium has a complex biology including the ability to interact with host signals modulating their function through cellular machinery. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) elicits diverse cellular responses including effects in malarial pathology and increased infected erythrocyte cytoadherence. As TNF levels are raised during Plasmodium falciparum infection we have investigated whether it has an effect on the parasite asexual stage. METHODS: Flow cytometry, spectrofluorimetric determinations, confocal microscopy and PCR real time quantifications were employed for characterizing TNF induced effects and membrane integrity verified by wheat germ agglutinin staining...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jannike Blank, Lars Eggers, Jochen Behrends, Thomas Jacobs, Bianca E Schneider
Malaria and tuberculosis (Tb) are two of the main causes of death from infectious diseases globally. The pathogenic agents, Plasmodium parasites and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are co-endemic in many regions in the world, however, compared to other co-infections like HIV/Tb or helminth/Tb, malaria/Tb has been given less attention both in clinical and immunological studies. Due to the lack of sufficient human data, the impact of malaria on Tb and vice versa is difficult to estimate but co-infections are likely to occur very frequently...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rhea J Longley, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Ivo Mueller
Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread of the malaria parasites causing human disease, yet it is comparatively understudied compared with Plasmodium falciparum. In this article we review what is known about naturally acquired immunity to P. vivax, and importantly, how this differs to that acquired against P. falciparum. Immunity to clinical P. vivax infection is acquired more quickly than to P. falciparum, and evidence suggests humans in endemic areas also have a greater capacity to mount a successful immunological memory response to this pathogen...
February 2016: Parasitology
Katrien Deroost, Thao-Thy Pham, Ghislain Opdenakker, Philippe E Van den Steen
Coevolution of humans and malaria parasites has generated an intricate balance between the immune system of the host and virulence factors of the parasite, equilibrating maximal parasite transmission with limited host damage. Focusing on the blood stage of the disease, we discuss how the balance between anti-parasite immunity versus immunomodulatory and evasion mechanisms of the parasite may result in parasite clearance or chronic infection without major symptoms, whereas imbalances characterized by excessive parasite growth, exaggerated immune reactions or a combination of both cause severe pathology and death, which is detrimental for both parasite and host...
March 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
L Manning, J Cutts, D I Stanisic, M Laman, A Carmagnac, S Allen, A O'Donnell, H Karunajeewa, A Rosanas-Urgell, P Siba, T M E Davis, P Michon, L Schofield, K Rockett, D Kwiatkowski, I Mueller
Genetic factors are likely to contribute to low severe malaria case fatality rates in Melanesian populations, but association studies can be underpowered and may not provide plausible mechanistic explanations if significant associations are detected. In preparation for a genome-wide association study, 29 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequencies >5% were examined in a case-control study of 504 Papua New Guinean children with severe malaria. In parallel, an immunological substudy was performed on convalescent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cases and controls...
January 2016: Genes and Immunity
M Barasa, Z W Ng'ang'a, G A Sowayi, J M Okoth, M B O Barasa, F B M Namulanda, E A Kagasi, M M Gicheru, S H Ozwara
Malaria parasites are known to mediate the induction of inflammatory immune responses at the maternal-foetal interface during placental malaria (PM) leading to adverse consequences like pre-term deliveries and abortions. Immunological events that take place within the malaria-infected placental micro-environment leading to retarded foetal growth and disruption of pregnancies are among the critical parameters that are still in need of further elucidation. The establishment of more animal models for studying placental malaria can provide novel ways of circumventing problems experienced during placental malaria research in humans such as inaccurate estimation of gestational ages...
2012: Open veterinary journal
G G Simon
The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common infections of humans in Sub-Saharan Africa. Virtually all of the population living below the World Bank poverty figure is affected by one or more NTDs. New evidence indicates a high degree of geographic overlap between the highest-prevalence NTDs (soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and trachoma) and malaria and HIV, exhibiting a high degree of co-infection. Recent research suggests that NTDs can affect HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria disease progression...
January 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Peter Pemberton-Ross, Thomas A Smith, Eva Maria Hodel, Katherine Kay, Melissa A Penny
Effective population-level interventions against Plasmodium falciparum malaria lead to age-shifts, delayed morbidity or rebounds in morbidity and mortality whenever they are deployed in ways that do not permanently interrupt transmission. When long-term intervention programmes target specific age-groups of human hosts, the age-specific morbidity rates ultimately adjust to new steady-states, but it is very difficult to study these rates and the temporal dynamics leading up to them empirically because the changes occur over very long time periods...
2015: Malaria Journal
Cyril Badaut, Léa Guyonnet, Jacqueline Milet, Emmanuelle Renard, Rémy Durand, Firmine Viwami, Gratien Sagbo, Francis Layla, Philippe Deloron, Serge Bonnefoy, Florence Migot-Nabias
BACKGROUND: The three members of the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) proteins family share high sequence homologies, which impair the detection and assignment to one or another protein of some pathogenic processes inherent to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The present study was intended to determine if the antibody and inflammatory responses of children living in a malaria-endemic area varied depending on the RESA-1, RESA-2 or RESA-3 proteins and the severity of the disease, two groups of severe and uncomplicated malaria cases being considered...
2015: Malaria Journal
Tsige Ketema, Ketema Bacha, Esayas Alemayehu, Argaw Ambelu
Although more emphasis has been given to the genetic and environmental factors that determine host vulnerability to malaria, other factors that might have a crucial role in burdening the disease have not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the effect of khat chewing on the incidence of severe malaria syndromes and immune responses during malaria infection in an area where the two problems co-exist. Clinical, physical, demographic, hematological, biochemical and immunological data were collected from Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected malaria patients (age ≥ 10 years) seeking medication in Halaba Kulito and Jimma Health Centers...
2015: PloS One
Liz Stevenson, Erik Laursen, Graeme J Cowan, Betty Bandoh, Lea Barfod, David R Cavanagh, Gregers R Andersen, Lars Hviid
Rosetting, the adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes, involves clonal variants of the parasite protein P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) and soluble serum factors. While rosetting is a well-known phenotypic marker of parasites associated with severe malaria, the reason for this association remains unclear, as do the molecular details of the interaction between the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the adhering erythrocytes. Here, we identify for the first time a single serum factor, the abundant serum protease inhibitor α2-macroglobulin (α2M), which is both required and sufficient for rosetting mediated by the PfEMP1 protein HB3VAR06 and some other rosette-mediating PfEMP1 proteins...
July 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Peter C Dumoulin, Stefanie A Trop, Jinxia Ma, Hao Zhang, Matthew A Sherman, Jelena Levitskaya
Malaria, the disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, remains a major global health burden. The liver stage of Plasmodium falciparum infection is a leading target for immunological and pharmacological interventions. Therefore, novel approaches providing specific detection and isolation of live P. falciparum exoerythrocytic forms (EEFs) are warranted. Utilizing a recently generated parasite strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) we established a method which, allows for detection and isolation of developing live P...
2015: PloS One
Abigail J Perrin, S Josefin Bartholdson, Gavin J Wright
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium parasites typically elicit a non-sterile but protective immune response in human host populations, suggesting that the parasites actively modulate normal immunological mechanisms. P-selectin is a cell surface receptor expressed in mammals, that is a known component of the inflammatory response against pathogens and has been previously identified as a host factor that influences malaria-associated pathology both in human patients and rodent infection models. METHODS: To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of P-selectin in the pathogenesis of malaria, a systematic extracellular protein interaction screen was used to identify Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 7 (MSP7) as a binding partner of human P-selectin...
2015: Malaria Journal
Pilar Requena, Diana Barrios, Leanne J Robinson, Paula Samol, Alexandra J Umbers, Regina Wangnapi, Maria Ome-Kaius, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Alfredo Mayor, Marta López, Elisa de Lazzari, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Hernando del Portillo, Chetan E Chitnis, Peter M Siba, Stephen Rogerson, Ivo Mueller, Azucena Bardají, Clara Menéndez, Carlota Dobaño
Pregnancy triggers immunological changes aimed to tolerate the fetus. However, it has not been properly addressed whether similar changes occur in tropical areas with high infection pressure and whether these changes render women more susceptible to infectious diseases. We compared the frequencies of T cell subsets, including regulatory T cells, in pregnant and nonpregnant women from Papua New Guinea, a high malaria transmission area, and from Spain, a malaria-free country. We also assessed the relationship among these cellular subsets, malaria infection, and delivery outcomes...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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