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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728506/microsatellite-instability-and-promoter-hypermethylation-of-dna-repair-genes-in-hematologic-malignancies-a-forthcoming-direction-toward-diagnostics
#1
Priyanjali Bhattacharya, Trupti N Patel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our review is to highlight the significance of microsatellite hypervariation in diagnostics of hematologic malignancies. METHODS: For the past few decades, extensive experiments in cancer research have explored all the possible pathways and a number of deleterious mutations that either make the tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) dysfunctional or cause the proto-oncogenes to behave abnormally by changing the cellular phenotype hence rendering disease...
July 20, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679532/the-non-homologous-end-joining-factor-nej1-inhibits-resection-mediated-by-dna2-sgs1-at-dna-double-strand-breaks
#2
Kyle S Sorenson, Brandi L Mahaney, Susan P Lees-Miller, Jennifer A Cobb
Double strand breaks (DSBs) represent highly deleterious DNA damage and need to be accurately repaired. Homology directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) are the two major DSB repair pathways that are highly conserved from yeast to mammals. The choice between these pathways is largely based on 5' to 3' DNA resection, and NHEJ proceeds only if resection has not initiated. In yeast, yKu70/80 (Ku) rapidly localizes to the break, protecting DNA ends from nuclease accessibility and recruits additional NHEJ factors, including Nej1 and Lif1...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672003/endogenous-small-interfering-rnas-associated-with-maize-embryonic-callus-formation
#3
Fei Ge, Xing Huang, Hongmei Hu, Yanling Zhang, Zhaoling Li, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Lujiang Li, Shibin Gao, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen
The induction efficiency of maize embryonic callus is highly dependent on the genotype, and only a few lines possess a high capacity for callus formation. Although certain genes and pathways have been reported to contribute to the regulation of callus induction, to the best of our knowledge, the functions of the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) involved in this process remain unknown. In this study, we identified 861 differentially expressed siRNAs and 576 target genes in the callus induction process. These target genes were classified into 3 clusters, and their functions involve controlling metalloexopeptidase activity, catalase activity, transcription regulation, and O-methyltransferase activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655714/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-restoration-rescues-the-fatty-liver-regeneration-in-mice
#4
Teresa A Zimmers, Xioling Jin, Zongxiu Zhang, Yanlin Jiang, Leonidas G Koniaris
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is a common histological finding in obese patients. Even mild steatosis is associated with delayed hepatic regeneration and poor outcomes following liver resection or transplantation. We sought to identify and target molecular pathways that mediate this dysfunction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lean mice and mice made obese through feeding of a high fat, hyper-caloric diet underwent 70% or 80% hepatectomy. RESULTS: After 70% resection, obese mice demonstrated 100% survival but experienced increased liver injury, reduced energy stores, reduced mitoses, increased necroapoptosis and delayed recovery of liver mass...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648366/-oxidative-stress-in-perinatal-asphyxia-and-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy
#5
Antonio Nuñez, Isabel Benavente, Dorotea Blanco, Héctor Boix, Fernando Cabañas, Mercedes Chaffanel, Belén Fernández-Colomer, José Ramón Fernández-Lorenzo, Begoña Loureiro, María Teresa Moral, Antonio Pavón, Inés Tofé, Eva Valverde, Máximo Vento
Birth asphyxia is one of the principal causes of early neonatal death. In survivors it may evolve to hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and major long-term neurological morbidity. Prolonged and intense asphyxia will lead to energy exhaustion in tissues exclusively dependent on aerobic metabolism, such as the central nervous system. Energy deficit leads to ATP-dependent pumps blockage, with the subsequent loss of neuronal transmembrane potential. The most sensitive areas of the brain will die due to necrosis. In more resistant areas, neuronal hyper-excitability, massive entrance of ionic calcium, activation of NO-synthase, free radical generation, and alteration in mitochondrial metabolism will lead to a secondary energy failure and programmed neuronal death by means of the activation of the caspase pathways...
June 22, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582473/connectivity-in-ictal-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-perfusion-a-cortico-cortical-evoked-potential-study
#6
Simon Tousseyn, Balu Krishnan, Zhong I Wang, Sattawut Wongwiangjunt, Chetan S Nayak, John C Mosher, Guiyun Wu, Wim Van Paesschen, Richard M Leahy, Jorge A Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Bulacio, Imad M Najm, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Dileep R Nair
Subtraction ictal and interictal single photon emission computed tomography can demonstrate complex ictal perfusion patterns. Regions with ictal hyperperfusion are suggested to reflect seizure onset and propagation pathways. The significance of ictal hypoperfusion is not well understood. The aim of this study was to verify whether ictal perfusion changes, both hyper- and hypoperfusion, correspond to electrically connected brain networks. A total of 36 subtraction ictal and interictal perfusion studies were analysed in 31 consecutive medically refractory focal epilepsy patients, evaluated by stereo-electroencephalography that demonstrated a single focal onset...
July 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554479/rice-pcg-gene-osemf2b-controls-seed-dormancy-and-seedling-growth-by-regulating-the-expression-of-osvp1
#7
Min Chen, Shiyong Xie, Yidan Ouyang, Jialing Yao
The induction and release of seed dormancy are a precisely regulated process that influences seed germination. ABA promotes seed dormancy but suppresses seed germination and seedling growth. However, how chromatin and epigenetic mechanisms regulate the expression of ABA related genes during these processes remains unclear. Polycomb gene OsEMF2b was required for regulation of seed dormancy and seedling growth by dynamically activating and repressing ABA signal response genes. Downregulation of OsEMF2b led to vivipary and decreased expression level of OsVP1, which was involved in ABA signal pathway in seed dormancy...
July 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535128/low-and-high-let-ionizing-radiation-induces-delayed-homologous-recombination-that-persists-for-two-weeks-before-resolving
#8
Christopher P Allen, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Nakako Izumi Nakajima, Sophia Moore, Jingyi Nie, Neelam Sharma, Mayumi Sugiura, Yuko Hoki, Ryoko Araki, Masumi Abe, Ryuichi Okayasu, Akira Fujimori, Jac A Nickoloff
Genome instability is a hallmark of cancer cells and dysregulation or defects in DNA repair pathways cause genome instability and are linked to inherited cancer predisposition syndromes. Ionizing radiation can cause immediate effects such as mutation or cell death, observed within hours or a few days after irradiation. Ionizing radiation also induces delayed effects many cell generations after irradiation. Delayed effects include hypermutation, hyper-homologous recombination, chromosome instability and reduced clonogenic survival (delayed death)...
July 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508477/the-novel-intracellular-protein-creg-inhibits-hepatic-steatosis-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#9
Quan-Yu Zhang, Ling-Ping Zhao, Xiao-Xiang Tian, Cheng-Hui Yan, Yang Li, Yan-Xia Liu, Pi-Xiao Wang, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Ya-Ling Han
Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG), a novel cellular glycoprotein, has been identified as a suppressor of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) because of its capacity to reduce hyperplasia, maintain vascular homeostasis, and promote endothelial restoration. However, the effects and mechanism of CREG in metabolic disorder and hepatic steatosis remain unknown. Here, we report that hepatocyte-specific CREG deletion dramatically exacerbates high fat diet (HFD) and leptin deficiency-induced (ob/ob) adverse effects such as obesity, hepatic steatosis and metabolic disorders, whereas a beneficial effect is conferred by CREG overexpression...
May 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502844/a-novel-approach-to-map-induced-activation-of-neuronal-networks-using-chemogenetics-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-rats-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-the-mesocorticolimbic-system
#10
Theresia J M Roelofs, Jeroen P H Verharen, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Linde Boekhoudt, Annette van der Toorn, Johannes W de Jong, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Willem M Otte, Roger A H Adan, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429652/atypical-regulators-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Jianxiang Chen, Muthukumar Rajasekaran, Kam M Hui
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma development depends on the inhibition and activation of multiple vital pathways, including the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway lies at the center of various signaling pathways that regulate embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and cancers. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been observed frequently in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, activating mutations in β-catenin, Axin and Adenomatous Polyposis Coli only contribute to a portion of the Wnt signaling hyper-activation observed in hepatocellular carcinoma...
June 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425930/the-peculiar-glycolytic-pathway-in-hyperthermophylic-archaea-understanding-its-whims-by-experimentation-in-silico
#12
Yanfei Zhang, Theresa Kouril, Jacky L Snoep, Bettina Siebers, Matteo Barberis, Hans V Westerhoff
Mathematical models are key to systems biology where they typically describe the topology and dynamics of biological networks, listing biochemical entities and their relationships with one another. Some (hyper)thermophilic Archaea contain an enzyme, called non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN), which catalyzes the direct oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglycerate omitting adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) formation by substrate-level-phosphorylation via phosphoglycerate kinase...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379062/inhibition-of-microrna-21-by-an-antagomir-ameliorates-allergic-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma
#13
Hwa Young Lee, Hea Yon Lee, Joon Young Choi, Jung Hur, In Kyoung Kim, Young Kyoon Kim, Ji Young Kang, Sook Young Lee
AIM OF THE STUDY: MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is up-regulated during allergic airway inflammation, reflecting a Th2 immune response. We investigated the effects of an miR-21 antagomir and its mechanism of action in a mouse model of acute bronchial asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The anti-miR-21 antagomir was administered by intranasal inhalation from the day of sensitization. Changes in cell counts, Th2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) were examined...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174173/the-apc-c-e3-ligase-complex-activator-fzr1-restricts-braf-oncogenic-function
#14
Lixin Wan, Ming Chen, Juxiang Cao, Xiangpeng Dai, Qing Yin, Jinfang Zhang, Su-Jung Song, Ying Lu, Jing Liu, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Jesse M Katon, Kelsey Berry, Jacqueline Fung, Christopher Ng, Pengda Liu, Min Sup Song, Lian Xue, Roderick T Bronson, Marc W Kirschner, Rutao Cui, Pier Paolo Pandolfi, Wenyi Wei
BRAF drives tumorigenesis by coordinating the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK oncogenic signaling cascade. However, upstream pathways governing BRAF kinase activity and protein stability remain undefined. Here, we report that in primary cells with active APC(FZR1), APC(FZR1) earmarks BRAF for ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis, whereas in cancer cells with APC-free FZR1, FZR1 suppresses BRAF through disrupting BRAF dimerization. Moreover, we identified FZR1 as a direct target of ERK and CYCLIN D1/CDK4 kinases...
April 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147277/regulation-of-serine-threonine-kinase-akt-activation-by-nad-dependent-deacetylase-sirt7
#15
Jia Yu, Bo Qin, Fengying Wu, Sisi Qin, Somaira Nowsheen, Shan Shan, Jacqueline Zayas, Huadong Pei, Zhenkun Lou, Liewei Wang
The Akt pathway is a central regulator that promotes cell survival in response to extracellular signals. Depletion of SIRT7, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that is the least-studied sirtuin, is known to significantly increase Akt activity in mice through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that SIRT7 depletion in breast cancer cells results in Akt hyper-phosphorylation and increases cell survival following genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, SIRT7 specifically interacts with and deacetylates FKBP51 at residue lysines 28 and 155 (K28 and K155), resulting in enhanced interactions among FKBP51, Akt, and PHLPP, as well as Akt dephosphorylation...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121425/biosensor-based-evolution-and-elucidation-of-a-biosynthetic-pathway-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Yongfei Liu, Yinyin Zhuang, Dongqin Ding, Yiran Xu, Jibin Sun, Dawei Zhang
The successful evolution of metabolite-producing microbes requires a high-throughput screening method to obtain the desired properties within a short time. In this study, we developed a transcription-factor-driven device that combines a metabolite-responsive element and a selection module. This device was able to specifically sense intracellular l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) and convert this signal into an observable phenotype. Applying this device, we successfully improved l-Phe production by screening hyperproducing phenotypes from a ribonucleotide binding site library and a random mutagenesis library...
February 10, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065737/osmoregulatory-role-of-vasotocinergic-and-isotocinergic-systems-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#17
Juan Miguel Mancera, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Arleta Krystyna Skrzynska, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha
Gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., is an important fish species for the Mediterranean aquaculture and is considered a good model for studying the osmoregulatory process, due to its capacity to cope with great changes in environmental salinity (5-60‰). Our group studied the osmoregulatory role of different endocrine systems in this species, focusing on the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems over several years. For this purpose, the cDNAs coding for pro-vasotocin (pro-vt), pro-isotocin (pro-it), two arginine vasotocin (AVT) receptors (avtr v1a2- and v2-types) and one IT receptor (itr) were cloned...
January 5, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061745/large-scale-transcriptome-comparison-of-sunflower-genes-responsive-to-verticillium-dahliae
#18
Shuchun Guo, Yongchun Zuo, Yanfang Zhang, Chengyan Wu, Wenxia Su, Wen Jin, Haifeng Yu, Yulin An, Qianzhong Li
BACKGROUND: Sunflower Verticillium wilt (SVW) is a vascular disease caused by root infection with Verticillium dahliae (V. dahlia). It is a serious threat to the yield and quality of sunflower. However, chemical and agronomic measures for controlling this disease are not effective. The selection of more resistant genotypes is a desirable strategy to reduce contamination. A deeper knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and genetic basis underlying sunflower Verticillium wilt is necessary to accelerate breeding progress...
January 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995987/intrinsic-photosensitivity-enhances-motility-of-t-lymphocytes
#19
Thieu X Phan, Barbara Jaruga, Sandeep C Pingle, Bidhan C Bandyopadhyay, Gerard P Ahern
Sunlight has important biological effects in human skin. Ultraviolet (UV) light striking the epidermis catalyzes the synthesis of Vitamin D and triggers melanin production. Although a causative element in skin cancers, sunlight is also associated with positive health outcomes including reduced incidences of autoimmune diseases and cancers. The mechanisms, however, by which light affects immune function remain unclear. Here we describe direct photon sensing in human and mouse T lymphocytes, a cell-type highly abundant in skin...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886185/hyper-il-6-a-potent-and-efficacious-stimulator-of-rgc-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
D Fischer
Mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) normally fail to regenerate injured axons and die soon after optic nerve injury. Research over the last two decades has demonstrated that application of IL-6-like cytokines or activation of respective downstream signaling pathways promote neuroprotection and optic nerve regeneration. However, the overall beneficial effects of natural cytokines remain usually rather moderate, possibly due to intrinsic signaling pathway inhibitors, such as PTEN or SOCS3, or a limited expression of specific cytokine receptors in RGCs...
February 2017: Eye
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