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Alloimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931087/metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-renal-allograft-a-sustained-complete-remission-after-stimulated-rejection
#1
L Champion, S Culine, F Desgranchamps, K Benali, J Verine, E Daugas
We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who recovered from a diffuse metastatic renal cell carcinoma that developed from a kidney allograft. She was successfully treated by the induction of tumor rejection. Immunosuppression was discontinued, and transplant nephrectomy was deliberately delayed based on the expectation that the tumor mass would trigger the alloimmune response, which was stimulated with pegylated interferon-α-2a. Three years later, the patient remained in complete remission. Despite this severe context, the present case shows that the poor prognosis of allograft metastatic renal cell carcinoma could be dramatically reversed by taking advantage of the donor tumor origin to actively induce a specific alloimmune rejection of the tumor...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926546/the-effect-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-t-cell-alloimmunity
#2
Pamela D Winterberg, Mandy L Ford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Altered differentiation and activation of T-cell subsets occur in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the impact on graft rejection and protective immunity during transplantation are not fully understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with CKD have decreased frequency of naïve T cells, accumulation of activated, terminally differentiated memory cells, and skewed regulatory versus T helper 17 ratio. Naïve and memory T-cell subsets do not appear to improve following kidney transplantation...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914736/research-progress-of-platelet-transfusion-in-china
#3
REVIEW
Qiushi Wang, Jiangcun Yang, Lori Stevens, Deqing Wang
Platelet products have been increasingly used for more than 50 years. Platelet transfusion is effective for correcting bleeding caused by thrombocytopenia and platelet function defects. In this review, we will outline research on platelet transfusion in China including platelet biosafety, cryopreservation of platelets, the assessment of the effectiveness of platelet transfusion, the causes of platelet transfusion refractoriness including immunization against CD36, and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.
November 27, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913516/immunoregulatory-networks-in-sickle-cell-alloimmunization
#4
Karina Yazdanbakhsh
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are critical for treatment and prevention of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD), and most SCD patients will receive 1 or more transfusions by age 20. However, SCD alloimmunization remains a serious complication of transfusions that can lead to life-threatening acute and delayed transfusion reactions. Alloimmunization rates are higher in SCD patients most likely due to RBC antigenic differences between largely white donors vs mainly African-American recipients and frequency of transfusions...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913515/cellular-immune-responses-in-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization
#5
James C Zimring, Krystalyn E Hudson
In excess of 340 blood group antigens have now been described that vary between individuals. Thus, any unit of blood that is nonautologous represents a significant dose of alloantigen. Most blood group antigens are proteins, which differ by a single amino acid between donors and recipients. Approximately 1 out of every 70 individuals are transfused each year (in the United States alone), which leads to antibody responses to red blood cell (RBC) alloantigens in some transfusion recipients. When alloantibodies are formed, in many cases, RBCs expressing the antigen in question can no longer be safely transfused...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913514/understanding-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization-triggers
#6
Jeanne E Hendrickson, Christopher A Tormey
Blood group alloimmunization is "triggered" when a person lacking a particular antigen is exposed to this antigen during transfusion or pregnancy. Although exposure to an antigen is necessary for alloimmunization to occur, it is not alone sufficient. Blood group antigens are diverse in structure, function, and immunogenicity. In addition to red blood cells (RBCs), a recipient of an RBC transfusion is exposed to donor plasma, white blood cells, and platelets; the potential contribution of these elements to RBC alloimmunization remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909647/what-is-direct-allorecognition
#7
REVIEW
Dominic A Boardman, Jacinta Jacob, Lesley A Smyth, Giovanna Lombardi, Robert I Lechler
Direct allorecognition is the process by which donor-derived major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complexes, typically presented by donor-derived 'passenger' dendritic cells, are recognised directly by recipient T cells. In this review, we discuss the two principle theories which have been proposed to explain why individuals possess a high-precursor frequency of T cells with direct allospecificity and how self-restricted T cells recognise allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes. These theories, both of which are supported by functional and structural data, suggest that T cells recognising allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes focus either on the allopeptides bound to the allo-MHC molecules or the allo-MHC molecules themselves...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906827/cross-talk-between-t-and-b-cells-in-the-germinal-center-following-transplantation
#8
Jean Kwun, Miriam Manook, Eugenia Page, Christopher Burghuber, Jungjoo Hong, Stuart J Knechtle
Cross-talk between B and T cells in transplantation is increasingly recognized as being important in the alloimmune response. T cell activation of B cells occurs by a 3-stage pathway, culminating with costimulation signals. We review the distinct T cell subtypes required for B cell activation, and discuss the formation of the Germinal Center (GC) after transplantation, with particular reference to the repopulation of the GC following depletional induction, and the subsequent effect of immunosuppressive manipulation of T-B cell interactions...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898465/the-intragraft-microenvironment-as-a-central-determinant-of-chronic-rejection-or-local-immunoregulation-tolerance
#9
Johannes Wedel, Hironao Nakayama, Nora M Kochupurakkal, Josephine Koch, Michael Klagsbrun, Diane R Bielenberg, David M Briscoe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rejection is associated with persistent mononuclear cell recruitment, endothelial activation and proliferation, local tissue hypoxia and related biology that enhance effector immune responses. In contrast, the tumor microenvironment elicits signals/factors that inhibit effector T cell responses and rather promote immunoregulation locally within the tissue itself. The identification of immunoregulatory check points and/or secreted factors that are deficient within allografts is of great importance in the understanding and prevention of chronic rejection...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898462/recent-advances-in-allograft-vasculopathy
#10
Jonathan Merola, Daniel D Jane-Wit, Jordan S Pober
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite considerable advances in controlling acute rejection, the longevity of cardiac and renal allografts remains significantly limited by chronic rejection in the form of allograft vasculopathy. This review discusses recently reported mechanistic insights of allograft vasculopathy pathogenesis as well as recent clinical evaluations of new therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Although adaptive immunity is the major driver of allograft vasculopathy, natural killer cells mediate vasculopathic changes in a transplanted mouse heart following treatment with donor-specific antibody (DSA)...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893611/absence-of-mir-182-augments-cardiac-allograft-survival
#11
Liang Wei, Vandana Kaul, Xiumei Qu, Xiaoxing Xiong, Audrey H Lau, Naoharu Iwai, Olivia M Martinez, Sheri M Krams
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the posttranscriptional expression of target genes and are important regulators in immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated that the miRNA, miR-182 was significantly increased during allograft rejection. Further, the transcription factor Forkhead box (FOX) protein 1, (FOXO1) was shown to be a target of miR-182. The aim of this study is to further examine the role of miR-182 in alloimmune responses. METHODS: Transplantation of BALB/c cardiac allografts was performed in C57BL/6, miR-182, B6...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882754/-fetal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-in-pregnant-woman-with-anti-hpa-1a-antibodies
#12
K Sobíšková, J Matěcha
OBJECT: Description of the pregnancy in patient with anti-HPA-1a antibodies. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital. CASE REPORT: Report of cases of neonatal alloimune thrombocytopenia in a patient with proven anti-HPA 1a antibodies. The immunization developed during the first pregnancy, accompanied with fetal thrombocytopenia which recurred in every subsequent pregnancy with greater severity...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873324/red-blood-cell-alloimmunization-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-correlation-with-hla-and-cytokine-gene-polymorphisms
#13
Emilia Ângela Sippert, Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer, Hugo Vicentin Alves, Camila Rodrigues, Simone Cristina Olenscki Gilli, Marcelo Addas-Carvalho, Sara Teresinha Ollala Saad, Fernando Ferreira Costa, Lilian Castilho
BACKGROUND: The reason for the difference in susceptibility to red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is not clearly understood and is probably the result of multiple factors. Our hypothesis is that genetic polymorphisms are associated with RBC alloimmunization. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the possible association of susceptibility to RBC alloimmunization with polymorphisms of HLA and cytokines genes in 161 SCD patients prior exposed to RBC transfusion...
November 21, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872733/hyperhemolytic-syndrome-complicating-a-delayed-hemolytic-transfusion-reaction-due-to-anti-p1-alloimmunization-in-a-pregnant-woman-with-hbo-arab-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#14
Zoe Bezirgiannidou, Anna Christoforidou, Eftychia Kontekaki, Athanasios G Anastasiadis, Spyros I Papamichos, Helen Menexidou, Dimitrios Margaritis, Georges Martinis, Elpis Mantadakis
BACKGROUND: Hyperhemolytic Syndrome or Hyperhemolytic Transfusion Reaction (HHTR), a life-threatening subset of Delayed Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (DHTR) is characterized by destruction of both transfused and autologous erythrocytes evidenced by a fall in post transfusion hemoglobin below the pre-transfusion level. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of DHTR due to anti-P1 alloimmunization manifesting with hyperhemolysis in a 30-year-old Greek Pomak woman with thalassemia intermedia (HbO-Arab/β-thalassemia), during the11(th) week of her first gestation...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871460/placental-histological-lesions-in-fetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-21-cases
#15
Estelle Dubruc, Frédérique Lebreton, Catherine Giannoli, Muriel Rabilloud, Cyril Huissoud, Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Fabienne Allias
BACKGROUND: Alloimmunization against human platelet antigens (HPAs) can occur prenatally and induce fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The aim of this study was to identify placental histological features associated with platelet alloimmunization and their clinical significance. METHODS: This study examined 21 placentas from FNAIT-affected pregnancies and 42 age-matched control cases, all collected from pathology departments in the Rhône-Alpes region...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869421/-gestational-alloimmune-liver-disease-a-case-report
#16
Sara Laliena Aznar, Inés Martínez Redondo, María J Oliván Del Cacho, María Martínez Del Moral, Raquel Pinillos Pisón
Gestational alloimmune liver disease, previously known as neonatal hemochromatosis, is characterized by severe liver disease in neonatal period, associated with intra and extrahepatic iron accumulation. It is postulated an alloimmune origin, which has opened new opportunities in the treatment and prevention during risk pregnancies, changing the prognosis of this pathology. We report the case of a newborn that presents early liver failure, with clinical and analytical features compatible with gestational alloimmune liver disease...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867515/the-cd8-t-cell-response-during-tolerance-induction-in-liver-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Yik Chun Wong, Geoffrey W McCaughan, David G Bowen, Patrick Bertolino
Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that the liver possesses unique tolerogenic properties. Liver allografts can be spontaneously accepted across complete major histocompatibility mismatch in some animal models. In addition, some liver transplant patients can be successfully withdrawn from immunosuppressive medications, developing 'operational tolerance'. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to be involved in inducing and maintaining alloimmune tolerance associated with liver transplantation. Here, we focus on CD8 T-cell tolerance in this setting...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864153/immunogenicity-of-murine-mpeg-red-blood-cells-and-the-risk-of-anti-peg-antibodies-in-human-blood-donors
#18
Yevgeniya Le, Wendy M Toyofuku, Mark D Scott
The immunocamouflage of non-ABO blood group antigens by membrane grafted mPEG may attenuate the risk of RBC alloimmunization. However, concerns have been raised as to the immunogenic risk of PEG and PEG-RBC. To assess these risks, murine and human studies were done. Mice were exposed to soluble PEG prior to, or between, multiple transfusions (∼60 day intervals) of control or mPEG-RBC and cell survival was determined by flow cytometry. In some studies, the control and mPEG-RBC groups were reversed following one or more transfusions...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863545/porcine-treg-depletion-with-a-novel-diphtheria-toxin-based-anti-human-ccr4-immunotoxin
#19
Zhaohui Wang, Nalu Navarro-Alvarez, Jigesh A Shah, Huiping Zhang, Qi Huang, Qian Zheng, Joren C Madsen, David H Sachs, Christene A Huang, Zhirui Wang
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to play an important role in immunoregulation and have been shown to facilitate induction of transplantation tolerance. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 (CCR4) is expressed on the surface of effector Tregs involved in controlling alloimmune and autoimmune responses. Recently we have developed a novel diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin for depleting CCR4(+) cells in vivo. In this study, we have demonstrated that the anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin bound to porcine lymphocytes including CD4(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862486/characterisation-of-maternal-human-leukocyte-antigen-class-i-antibodies-in-suspected-foetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia
#20
E Refsum, A Mörtberg, J Dahl, S Meinke, M-K Auvinen, M Westgren, M Reilly, P Höglund, A Wikman
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificities and level of HLA class I antibodies in selected cases referred for suspected foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). BACKGROUND: FNAIT occurs in 1 : 1-2000 live births, whereas maternal immunisation against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I is common. Whether HLA class I antibodies alone can cause FNAIT is debatable. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 260 patient samples were referred between 2007 and 2012...
November 9, 2016: Transfusion Medicine
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