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Alloimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451309/antibodies-to-human-neutrophil-antigen-hna-3b-implicated-in-cases-of-neonatal-alloimmune-neutropenia
#1
Larissa Barbosa Lopes, Samira Ali Abbas, Elyse Moritz, Juliana Oliveira Martins, Akemi Kuroda Chiba, Dante Mário Langhi, José O Bordin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia results from maternal alloimmunization to human neutrophil antigens. The alloantibodies involved in neonatal alloimmune neutropenia are against human neutrophil antigens HNA-1a, HNA-1b, HNA-1c, HNA-1d, HNA-2, HNA-3a, HNA-4a, HNA-4b, and HNA-5a; however, to date, antibodies specific to HNA-3b have not been reported. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples from 10,000 unselected neonates were analyzed, resulting in the selection of 88 neutropenic newborns (neutrophil count <1...
February 16, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448053/biomarkers-of-operational-tolerance-following-kidney-transplantation-the-immune-tolerance-network-studies-of-spontaneously-tolerant-kidney-transplant-recipients
#2
REVIEW
Kenneth A Newell, Andrew B Adams, Laurence A Turka
Studies of kidney transplant recipients who have developed spontaneous and sustained tolerance have revealed an association with B cells. Unexpectedly tolerant individuals are characterized by increased numbers and frequencies of B cells in the blood and increased expression of genes associated with B cells in the blood and urine. Comparisons of the B cell repertoires of tolerant individuals and those receiving immunosuppression reveal that not only are the B cells more numerous but developmental differences result in a repertoire comprised of more naïve and transitional B cells in the tolerant cohort...
February 12, 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443827/a-comparison-of-hla-molecular-mismatch-methods-to-determine-hla-immunogenicity
#3
C Wiebe, V Kosmoliaptsis, D Pochinco, C Taylor, P Nickerson
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection is a major cause of premature graft loss in kidney transplantation. Multiple scoring systems are available to assess the HLA mismatch between donors and recipients at the molecular level, however, their correlation with the development of de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) has not been compared in recipients on active immunosuppression. METHODS: HLA-DRβ1/3/4/5/DQα1β1 molecular mismatch was determined using eplet analysis, amino acid mismatch, and electrostatic mismatch for 596 renal transplant recipients and correlated with HLA-DR/DQ dnDSA development...
February 13, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441590/the-prevalence-immunogenicity-and-evanescence-of-alloantibodies-to-mut-and-mur-antigens-of-gp-mur-red-blood-cells-in-a-southeast-asian-patient-cohort
#4
Veera Sekaran Nadarajan
BACKGROUND: Antibodies to Mi a , MUT, and Mur are among the most frequently identified alloantibodies in Southeast Asia. Understanding the characteristics of these antibodies in terms of induction and evanescence would aid in optimizing methods for their detection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Antibody testing results between the years 2013 and 2015 with relevant patient demographic data and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion history were retrieved. Cumulative alloimmunization incidence and evanescence to MUT and Mur were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis in relation to the number of RBC units transfused and time...
February 13, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434607/the-role-of-the-endothelium-during-antibody-mediated-rejection-from-victim-to-accomplice
#5
REVIEW
Amy Rachael Cross, Denis Glotz, Nuala Mooney
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of solid organ transplants is characterized by the activation and injury of the allograft endothelium. Histological and transcriptomic studies have associated microvascular inflammation and endothelial lesions with the severity of rejection and poor graft outcomes. The allograft endothelium forms the physical barrier between the donor organ and the recipient; this position directly exposes the endothelium to alloimmune responses. However, endothelial cells are not just victims and can actively participate in the pathogenesis of rejection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412452/screening-for-fetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-lessons-learned-from-a-norwegian-screening-program
#6
Mette Kjaer, Jens Kjeldsen-Kragh, Cathrine Fiskum, Irene Leinan, Bjørn Skogen, Anne Husebekk
An important issue on human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a screening has recently been addressed in Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavia. Winkelhorst et al. reported that the vast majority of women in the general pregnant population were positive about screening (1). Here we report that there was also a positive attitude towards screening among Norwegian HPA-1a-immunized pregnant women. Further, we report that insufficient information may have led to unnecessary anxiety in this high-risk population. This article is protected by copyright...
February 7, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410442/ischemia-augments-alloimmune-injury-through-il-6-driven-cd4-alloreactivity
#7
Mayuko Uehara, Zhabiz Solhjou, Naima Banouni, Vivek Kasinath, Ye Xiaqun, Li Dai, Osman Yilmam, Mine Yilmaz, Takaharu Ichimura, Paolo Fiorina, Paulo N Martins, Shunsuke Ohori, Indira Guleria, Omar H Maarouf, Stefan G Tullius, Martina M McGrath, Reza Abdi
Ischemia reperfusion injuries (IRI) are unavoidable in solid organ transplantation. IRI augments alloimmunity but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Herein, we examined the effect of IRI on antigen specific alloimmunity. We demonstrate that ischemia promotes alloimmune activation, leading to more severe histological features of rejection, and increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell graft infiltration, with a predominantly CD8+ IFNγ+ infiltrate. This process is dependent on the presence of alloreactive CD4+ T cells, where depletion prevented infiltration of ischemic grafts by CD8+ IFNγ+ T cells...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407322/induction-of-regulatory-cd4-cells-and-prolongation-of-fully-major-histocompatibility-complex-mismatched-murine-cardiac-allograft-by-shigyakusan
#8
E Yin, M Uchiyama, M Niimi
Shigyakusan (also known as Tsumura Japan [TJ]-35) is composed of peony, bitter orange, licorice, and Bupleuri radix is used for cholecystitis and gastritis as an anti-inflammatory agent. We investigated the effect of TJ-35 on alloimmune response in a murine heart transplantation model. CBA mice that underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (B6) heart were assigned to four groups: no treatment, TJ-35-exposed, each component-exposed, or each component missing-exposed. The four groups above each received oral administration of TJ-35, each component, or TJ-35 with each component missing from the day of transplantation until 7 days, respectively...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399805/risks-of-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization-in-transfusion-dependent-%C3%AE-thalassemia-in-oman-a-25-year-experience-of-a-university-tertiary-care-reference-center-and-a-literature-review
#9
Arwa Z Al-Riyami, Ayman Al-Muqbali, Saif Al-Sudiri, Sathiya Murthi Panchatcharam, Mathew Zacharia, Sabah Al-Mahrooqi, Saif Al-Hosni, Ali Al-Marhoobi, Shahina Daar
BACKGROUND: β-Thalassemia is a common hemoglobinopathy in the Arabian Peninsula. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a cornerstone for its management, but can create significant challenges including RBC alloimmunization. Herein, we examine alloimmunization risk factors in Omani patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia. Existing literature is summarized. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients attending our center over 25 years was performed...
February 4, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394145/the-journey-of-islet-cell-transplantation-and-future-development
#10
Anissa Gamble, Andrew R Pepper, Antonio Bruni, A M James Shapiro
Intraportal islet transplantation has proven to be efficacious in preventing severe hypoglycemia and restoring insulin independence in selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Multiple islet infusions are often required to achieve and maintain insulin independence. Many challenges remain in clinical islet transplantation, including substantial islet cell loss early and late after islet infusion. Contributions to graft loss include the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, potent host auto- and alloimmune responses, and beta cell toxicity from immunosuppressive agents...
February 2, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389360/transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem%C3%A2-cell-derived-cardiovascular-progenitors-for-severe%C3%A2-ischemic-left%C3%A2-ventricular-dysfunction
#11
Philippe Menasché, Valérie Vanneaux, Albert Hagège, Alain Bel, Bernard Cholley, Alexandre Parouchev, Isabelle Cacciapuoti, Reem Al-Daccak, Nadine Benhamouda, Hélène Blons, Onnik Agbulut, Lucie Tosca, Jean-Hugues Trouvin, Jean-Roch Fabreguettes, Valérie Bellamy, Dominique Charron, Eric Tartour, Gérard Tachdjian, Michel Desnos, Jérôme Larghero
BACKGROUND: In addition to scalability, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the unique advantage of allowing their directed differentiation toward lineage-specific cells. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the feasibility of leveraging the properties of hESCs to generate clinical-grade cardiovascular progenitor cells and assessed their safety in patients with severe ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Six patients (median age 66...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378146/anti-vel-alloimmunization-and-severe-hemolytic-disease-of-the-fetus-and-newborn
#12
Kenneth J Moise, Yisel Morales, Marsha F Bertholf, Susan N Rossmann, Yu Bai
Only rare cases of anti-Vel-associated mild-to-moderate hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn have been previously reported. No case of fetal anemia requiring prenatal therapy has been noted to date. We report such a case recently encountered at our Fetal Center. Strategies are discussed for managing pregnancy complicated with alloimmunization to an antibody to a high-prevalence antigen, including sources of red blood cells for intrauterine transfusions.
December 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377292/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient-red-blood-cell-units-are-associated-with-decreased-post-transfusion-red-blood-cell-survival-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#13
Eyal Sagiv, Ross M Fasano, Naomi L C Luban, Cassandra D Josephson, Sean R Stowell, John D Roback, Richard O Francis, Marianne E M Yee
Chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) for sickle cell disease (SCD) reduces disease morbidity by suppressing the amount of circulating hemoglobin S (HbS)-containing red blood cells (RBC). The effectiveness of CTT depends on the rate of RBC clearance. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient donor RBC may exhibit increased hemolysis, but it is unknown if transfusion of these units results in less effective transfusion outcomes in SCD. Children with SCD on CTT were followed prospectively for multiple transfusions...
January 27, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369525/biologic-mechanisms-and-clinical-consequences-of-pregnancy-alloimmunization
#14
Paige M Porrett
Alloimmunization occurs during pregnancy when tissue antigens derived from the fetus and/or placenta prime maternal immune cells to divide and differentiate. For many women, the result of pregnancy alloimmunization is the formation of anti-HLA antibody that can endure for decades and preclude transplantation by limiting donor compatibility. Pregnancy alloimmunization may also generate memory B cells that can rapidly produce anti-HLA antibody after transplantation as well as pathogenic memory T cells which pose a threat to graft survival...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367080/human-igg-lacking-effector-functions-demonstrate-lower-fcrn-binding-and-reduced-transplacental-transport
#15
Nigel M Stapleton, Sylvia S Armstrong-Fisher, Jan Terje Andersen, C Ellen van der Schoot, Charlene Porter, Kenneth R Page, Donald Falconer, Masja de Haas, Lorna M Williamson, Michael R Clark, Gestur Vidarsson, Kathryn L Armour
We have previously generated human IgG1 antibodies that were engineered for reduced binding to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγRI-III) and C1q, thereby eliminating their destructive effector functions (constant region G1Δnab). In their potential use as blocking agents, favorable binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important to preserve the long half-life typical of IgG. An ability to cross the placenta, which is also mediated, at least in part, by FcRn is desirable in some indications, such as feto-maternal alloimmune disorders...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365318/recipient-priming-to-one-rbc-alloantigen-directly-enhances-subsequent-alloimmunization-in-mice
#16
Seema R Patel, Ashley Bennett, Kathryn Girard-Pierce, Cheryl L Maier, Satheesh Chonat, Connie M Arthur, Patricia E Zerra, Amanda Mener, Sean R Stowell
Individuals that become immunized to red blood cell (RBC) alloantigens can experience an increased rate of antibody formation to additional RBC alloantigens following subsequent transfusion. Despite this, how an immune response to one RBC immunogen may impact subsequent alloimmunization to a completely different RBC alloantigen remains unknown. Our studies demonstrate that Kell blood group antigen (KEL) RBC transfusion in the presence of inflammation induced by poly (I:C) (PIC) not only enhances anti-KEL antibody production through a CD4+ T-cell-dependent process but also directly facilitates anti-HOD antibody formation following subsequent exposure to the disparate HOD (hen egg lysozyme, ovalbumin, fused to human blood group antigen Duffy b) antigen...
January 23, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362503/alloantigen-expression-on-malignant-cells-and-healthy-host-tissue-influences-graft-versus-tumor-reactions-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Stella Robert, Jörn C Albring, Karin Frebel, Corinna Opitz, Jennifer Urh, Claudia Wolf, Christine Heinrich, Wolfgang E Berdel, Matthias Stelljes
Durable remissions of hematological malignancies regularly observed following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) are due to the conditioning regimen, as well as an immunological phenomenon called graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) or graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. The development of GVL is closely linked to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the main side effect associated with aHSCT. Both, GVHD and GVL are mediated by donor T cells that are initially activated by antigen-presenting cells that present recipient-derived alloantigens in the context of either matched or mismatched MHC class I molecules...
January 23, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355136/evolution-of-technology-for-molecular-genotyping-in-blood-group-systems
#18
REVIEW
Ajit Gorakshakar, Harita Gogri, Kanjaksha Ghosh
The molecular basis of the blood group antigens was identified first in the 1980s and 1990s. Since then the importance of molecular biology in transfusion medicine has been described extensively by several investigators. Molecular genotyping of blood group antigens is one of the important aspects and is successfully making its way into transfusion medicine. Low-, medium- and high-throughput techniques have been developed for this purpose. Depending on the requirement of the centre like screening for high- or low-prevalence antigens where antisera are not available, correct typing of multiple transfused patients, screening for antigen-negative donor units to reduce the rate of alloimmunization, etc...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342175/immunocontraceptive-target-repertoire-defined-by-systematic-identification-of-sperm-membrane-alloantigens-in-a-single-species
#19
Nathaly Cormier, John J McGlone, John Leszyk, Daniel M Hardy
Sperm competence in animal fertilization requires the collective activities of numerous sperm-specific proteins that are typically alloimmunogenic in females. Consequently, sperm membrane alloantigens are potential targets for contraceptives that act by blocking the proteins' functions in gamete interactions. Here we used a targeted proteomics approach to identify the major alloantigens in swine sperm membranes and lipid rafts, and thereby systematically defined the repertoire of these sperm-specific proteins in a single species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337843/evaluation-of-a-decision-tree-for-efficient-antenatal-red-blood-cell-antibody-screening
#20
Isabelle le Ray, Brian Lee, Agneta Wikman, Marie Reilly
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloimmunization can have serious consequences. Since early detection enables careful monitoring of affected pregnancies, programs to routinely screen all pregnant women have been widely adopted. Due to the low prevalence of alloimmunization, these require large investments of resources to detect a small number of cases. METHODS: We conducted a validation study of a decision tree developed in the Netherlands for determining whether to screen for alloimmunization...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology
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