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Reactive oxygen species, lung disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057304/drosophila-as-a-model-for-human-diseases-focus-on-innate-immunity-in-barrier-epithelia
#1
P Bergman, S Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Y Engström
Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042952/uncoupling-protein-2-downregulation-by-hypoxia-through-repression-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-promotes-chemoresistance-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Mingxing Wang, Guoyin Li, Zhiwei Yang, Lei Wang, Lei Zhang, Ting Wang, Yimeng Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Yong Han, Lintao Jia
Hypoxic microenvironment is critically involved in the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to chemotherapy, the mechanisms of which remain largely unknown. Here, we found that NSCLC patients exhibited increased chemotherapeutic resistance when complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a critical cause of chronic hypoxemia. The downregulation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which is attributed to hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-mediated suppression of the transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), was involved in NSCLC chemoresistance, and predicted a poor survival rate of patients receiving routine chemotherapy...
December 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030582/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-mitochondria-initiates-excessive-superoxide-production-and-mitochondrial-depolarization-causing-decreased-mtdna-integrity
#3
Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Thomas G Biel, Dmitry Kryndushkin, V Ashutosh Rao
Mitochondrial dysregulation is closely associated with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Altered redox homeostasis has been implicated in the onset of several diseases including cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and proteins are particularly sensitive to ROS as they are in close proximity to the respiratory chain (RC). Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted redox agent, selectively damages breast cancer cells possibly through damage induced via enhanced ROS production. However, the effects of MitoQ and other triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) conjugated agents on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis remain unknown...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018477/differential-activation-of-raw-264-7-macrophages-by-size-segregated-crystalline-silica
#4
Steven E Mischler, Emanuele G Cauda, Michelangelo Di Giuseppe, Linda J McWilliams, Claudette St Croix, Ming Sun, Jonathan Franks, Luis A Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to crystalline silica is a well-established occupational hazard. Once in the lung, crystalline silica particles can result in the activation of alveolar macrophages (AM), potentially leading to silicosis, a fibrotic lung disease. Because the activation of alveolar macrophages is the beginning step in a complicated inflammatory cascade, it is necessary to define the particle characteristics resulting in this activation. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of the size of crystalline silica particles on the activation of macrophages...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998305/cytotoxicity-of-plumbagin-rapanone-and-12-other-naturally-occurring-quinones-from-kenyan-flora-towards-human-carcinoma-cells
#5
Victor Kuete, Leonidah K Omosa, Viviane R Sipowo Tala, Jacob O Midiwo, Armelle T Mbaveng, Sauda Swaleh, Oğuzhan Karaosmanoğlu, Hülya Sivas
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major public health concern globally and chemotherapy remains the principal mode of the treatment of various malignant diseases. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of 14 naturally occurring quinones including; 3 anthraquinones, 1 naphthoquinone and 10 benzoquinones against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts. The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspases activation...
December 21, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997810/glut-1-dependent-glycolysis-is-increased-during-aging-related-lung-fibrosis-and-phloretin-inhibits-lung-fibrosis
#6
Soo Jung Cho, Jong-Seok Moon, Chang-Min Lee, Augustine M K Choi, Heather W Stout-Delgado
RATIONAL: Aging is associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and neurodegeneration. Aging contributes to common processes including metabolic dysfunction, DNA damage and reactive oxygen species generation. While glycolysis has been linked to cell growth and proliferation, the mechanisms by which the activation of glycolysis by aging regulates fibrogenesis in lung remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine if glucose transport 1 (GLUT1)-induced glycolysis regulates age-dependent fibrogenesis of the lung...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965320/staphylococcus-aureus-phagocyte-nadph-oxidase-and-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#7
REVIEW
Helene Buvelot, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, Patrick Linder, Jacques Schrenzel, Karl-Heinz Krause
Dysfunction of phagocytes is a relevant risk factor for staphylococcal infection. The most common hereditary phagocyte dysfunction is chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), characterized by impaired generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to loss of function mutations within the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. Phagocytes ROS generation is fundamental to eliminate pathogens and to regulate the inflammatory response to infection. CGD is characterized by recurrent and severe bacterial and fungal infections, with Staphylococcus aureus as the most frequent pathogen, and skin and lung abscesses as the most common clinical entities...
December 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959944/bemer-electromagnetic-field-therapy-reduces-cancer-cell-radioresistance-by-enhanced-ros-formation-and-induced-dna-damage
#8
Katja Storch, Ellen Dickreuter, Anna Artati, Jerzy Adamski, Nils Cordes
Each year more than 450,000 Germans are expected to be diagnosed with cancer subsequently receiving standard multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On top, molecular-targeted agents are increasingly administered. Owing to intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapeutic approaches, both the better molecular understanding of tumor biology and the consideration of alternative and complementary therapeutic support are warranted and open up broader and novel possibilities for therapy personalization...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959438/dexmedetomidine-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#9
Chunlai Fu, Xingui Dai, You Yang, Mengxiang Lin, Yeping Cai, Shaoxi Cai
Previous studies have identified that dexmedetomidine (DEX) treatment can ameliorate the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide and ischemia-reperfusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which DEX ameliorates lung injury remain unclear. The present study investigated whether DEX, which has been reported to exert effects on oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition pores and apoptosis in other disease types, can exert protective effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced ALI by inhibiting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial‑dependent apoptosis...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959278/modulatory-potential-of-resveratrol-during-lung-inflammatory-disease
#10
José Eduardo Vargas, André Arigony Souto, Paulo Márcio Condessa Pitrez, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Bárbara Nery Porto
Neutrophils are the first cells to achieve the sites of infection or inflammation in the lungs. The massive accumulation of these cells is associated with acute and chronic lung injury. Therefore, they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many lung diseases through the release of reactive oxygen intermediates, proteolytic enzymes and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). The excessive and continuous release of NETs, fibers composed by decondensed chromatin coated with neutrophil proteins, are associated to the impairment of lung function in different pathological settings...
November 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831562/mitochondrial-transfer-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-effectively-protects-corneal-epithelial-cells-from-mitochondrial-damage
#11
Dan Jiang, Fei Gao, Yuelin Zhang, David Sai Hung Wong, Qing Li, Hung-Fat Tse, Goufeng Xu, Zhendong Yu, Qizhou Lian
Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can donate mitochondria to airway epithelial cells and rescue mitochondrial damage in lung injury. We sought to determine whether MSCs could donate mitochondria and protect against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the cornea. Co-culturing of MSCs and corneal epithelial cells (CECs) indicated that the efficiency of mitochondrial transfer from MSCs to CECs was enhanced by Rotenone (Rot)-induced oxidative stress. The efficient mitochondrial transfer was associated with increased formation of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) between MSCs and CECs, tubular connections that allowed direct intercellular communication...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815873/single-cell-analysis-of-phagocytosis-phagosome-maturation-phagolysosomal-leakage-and-cell-death-following-exposure-of-macrophages-to-silica-particles
#12
Gaurav N Joshi, Renée M Gilberti, David A Knecht
Chronic inhalation of silica in various occupational settings results in the development of silicosis, a disease characterized by lung fibrosis. Uptake of silica particles by alveolar macrophages results in cell death and this is one of the contributing factors to the development of silicosis. We have characterized the uncoated or protein-coated (non-opsonized) and Fc receptor-mediated (antibody-opsonized) routes of silica phagocytosis and toxicity. Numerous microscopy techniques and fluorescent probes are outlined in this chapter to carefully measure particle uptake, by macrophages, phagosome maturation, phagosomal reactive oxygen species generation, phagolysosomal leakage, and cell death...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815257/sirt3-blocks-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage
#13
Samik Bindu, Vinodkumar B Pillai, Abhinav Kanwal, Sadhana Samant, Gökhan M Mutlu, Eric Verdin, Nickolai Dulin, Mahesh P Gupta
Myofibroblast differentiation is a key process in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a powerful inducer of myofibroblast differentiation and is implicated in pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis. This study was undertaken to determine the role of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 in TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and lung fibrosis in vivo. Treatment of human lung fibroblasts with TGF-β1 resulted in increased expression of fibrosis markers, smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), collagen-1, and fibronectin...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793104/n-acetyl-cysteine-exhibits-potent-anti-mycobacterial-activity-in-addition-to-its-known-anti-oxidative-functions
#14
Eduardo P Amaral, Elisabete L Conceição, Diego L Costa, Michael S Rocha, Jamocyr M Marinho, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Maria Regina D'Império-Lima, Theolis Barbosa, Alan Sher, Bruno B Andrade
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is thought to induce oxidative stress. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is widely used in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases including tuberculosis due to its mucolytic and anti-oxidant activities. Here, we tested whether NAC exerts a direct antibiotic activity against mycobacteria. METHODS: Oxidative stress status in plasma was compared between pulmonary TB (PTB) patients and those with latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or healthy uninfected individuals...
October 28, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788581/environmental-tobacco-smoke-alters-metabolic-systems-in-adult-rats
#15
Dinesh K Barupal, Kent E Pinkerton, Carol Hood, Tobias Kind, Oliver Fiehn
Human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with an increased incidence of pulmonary and cardiovascular disease and possibly lung cancer. Metabolomics can reveal changes in metabolic networks in organisms under different physio-pathological conditions. Our objective was to identify spatial and temporal metabolic alterations with acute and repeated subchronic ETS exposure to understand mechanisms by which ETS exposure may cause adverse physiological and structural changes in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems...
November 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785664/genetic-phagocyte-nadph-oxidase-deficiency-enhances-nonviable-candida-albicans-induced-inflammation-in-mouse-lungs
#16
Daiki Endo, Kenta Fujimoto, Rika Hirose, Hiroko Yamanaka, Mizuki Homme, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Noriko Miura, Naohito Ohno, Yasuaki Aratani
Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutated phagocyte NADPH oxidase, resulting in reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the mechanism underlying hyperinfection in CGD is well understood, the basis for inflammatory disorders that arise in the absence of evident infection has not been fully explained. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phagocyte NADPH oxidase deficiency on lung inflammation induced by nonviable Candida albicans (nCA). Mice deficient in this enzyme (CGD mice) showed more severe neutrophilic pneumonia than nCA-treated wild-type mice, which exhibited significantly higher lung concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC)...
October 26, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779235/one-compound-of-saponins-from-disocorea-zingiberensis-protected-against-experimental-acute-pancreatitis-by-preventing-mitochondria-mediated-necrosis
#17
Rui Zhang, Li Wen, Yan Shen, Na Shi, Zhihua Xing, Qing Xia, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful inflammatory disorder of the exocrine pancreas, ranking as the most common gastrointestinal reasons for hospitalization with no specific therapy currently. Diosgenyl saponins extracted from natural products and diosgenin or its derivatives have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. However, the therapeutic effects of diosgenyl saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright in AP have not yet been determined. Five compounds were extracted and screened for taurocholate-induced necrosis in mouse pancreatic acinar cells...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759648/mechanism-and-early-intervention-research-on-ali-during-emergence-surgery-of-stanford-type-a-aad-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-double-blind-clinical-trial
#18
Yi Cheng, Mu Jin, Xiuhua Dong, Lizhong Sun, Jing Liu, Rong Wang, Yanwei Yang, Peirong Lin, Siyu Hou, Yuehua Ma, Yuefeng Wang, Xudong Pan, Jiakai Lu, Weiping Cheng
BACKGROUND: Stanford type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a severe cardiovascular disease demonstrating the characteristics of acute onset and rapid development, with high morbidity and mortality. The available evidence shows that preoperative acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Stanford type-A AAD is a frequent and important cause for a number of untoward consequences. However, there is no study assessing the incidence of preoperative ALI and its independent determinants before Standford type-A AAD surgery in Chinese adult patients...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748837/an-indolylquinoline-derivative-activates-dna-damage-response-and-apoptosis-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#19
Chun-Yen Liu, Chang-Hung Hsieh, Seung-Hun Kim, Jing-Ping Wang, Yu-Lin Ni, Chun-Li Su, Ching-Fa Yao, Kang Fang
Human liver cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. The development of resistance to therapy limits the application against the disease. To improve treatment, new effective anticancer agents are constantly pursued. Previously, we reported that an indolylquinoline, 3-((7-ethyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-methyl)-2-methylquinoline (EMMQ), is effective in suppressing the growth of human lung cancer by impairing mitochondria functions. The present study revealed that EMMQ inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells, but not in normal cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717867/mkk3-influences-mitophagy-and-is-involved-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-inflammation
#20
Praveen Mannam, Navin Rauniyar, TuKiet T Lam, Ruiyan Luo, Patty J Lee, Anup Srivastava
Cigarette smoking is the primary risk factor for COPD which is characterized by excessive inflammation and airflow obstruction of the lung. While inflammation is causally related to initiation and progression of COPD, the mitochondrial mechanisms that underlie the associated inflammatory responses are poorly understood. In this context, we have studied the role played by Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 3 (MKK3), a dual-specificity protein kinase, in cigarette smoke induced-inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction...
December 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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