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Ultrasound contrast agent in vascular diseases

Damjana Kljucevsek, Dubravka Vidmar, Darja Urlep, Rok Dezman
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become an established non-invasive, patient-friendly imaging technique which improves the characterization of lesions. In addition, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) provides valuable information concerning perfusion of examined organs. This review addresses current applications of CEUS in children, focused on DCE-US of the bowel wall in patients with Crohn disease, which enables realtime assessment of the bowel wall vascularity with semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of disease activity and response to medical treatment...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
K M Meiburger, S Y Nam, E Chung, L J Suggs, S Y Emelianov, F Molinari
Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jean-Michel Correas, Dany Anglicheau, Dominique Joly, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Mickael Tanter, Olivier Hélénon
In recent years, several novel ultrasound (US)-based techniques have emerged for kidney diagnostic imaging, including tissue stiffness assessment with elastography, Ultrasensitive Doppler techniques, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to assess renal microvascularization. Renal elastography has become available with the development of noninvasive quantitative techniques, following the rapidly growing field of liver fibrosis diagnosis. With the increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, noninvasive diagnosis of renal fibrosis can be of critical value...
December 2016: Kidney International
Heather I Gale, Michael S Gee, Sjirk J Westra, Katherine Nimkin
Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Claudia Sciallero, Emanuele Daglio, Andrea Trucco
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with targeted microbubble contrast agents is an emerging technique for imaging biological processes at the molecular level. The accumulation of targeted microbubbles at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers increases the backscattered signal for noninvasive evaluations of diseases. The aim of this preliminary study was to combine molecular imaging with an in vivo contrast agent quantification to support the early diagnosis of the pathology and to enhance the assessment of neoplastic tissues...
July 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Elizabeth A Kuczynski, Melissa Yin, Avinoam Bar-Zion, Christina R Lee, Henriett Butz, Shan Man, Frances Daley, Peter B Vermeulen, George M Yousef, F Stuart Foster, Andrew R Reynolds, Robert S Kerbel
BACKGROUND: The anti-angiogenic Sorafenib is the only approved systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, acquired resistance limits its efficacy. An emerging theory to explain intrinsic resistance to other anti-angiogenic drugs is 'vessel co-option,' ie, the ability of tumors to hijack the existing vasculature in organs such as the lungs or liver, thus limiting the need for sprouting angiogenesis. Vessel co-option has not been evaluated as a potential mechanism for acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic agents...
August 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Hangyu Lin, Junfang Chen, Chuanpin Chen
Microbubbles are used as ultrasound contrast agents, which enhance ultrasound imaging techniques. In addition, microbubbles currently show promise in disease therapeutics. Microfluidic devices have increased the ability to produce microbubbles with precise size, and high monodispersity compared to microbubbles created using traditional methods. This paper will review several variations in microfluidic device structures used to produce microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agents. Microfluidic device structures include T-junction, and axisymmetric and asymmetric flow-focusing...
September 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Gaia Rizzo, Bernd Raffeiner, Alessandro Coran, Luca Ciprian, Ugo Fiocco, Costantino Botsios, Roberto Stramare, Enrico Grisan
Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are the leading causes of disability and constitute a frequent medical disorder, leading to inability to work, high comorbidity, and increased mortality. The standard for diagnosing and differentiating arthritis is based on clinical examination, laboratory exams, and imaging findings, such as synovitis, bone edema, or joint erosions. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) examination of the small joints is emerging as a sensitive tool for assessing vascularization and disease activity...
July 2015: Journal of Medical Imaging
A Okur, M Kantarci, L Karaca, S Yildiz, R Sade, B Pirimoglu, M Keles, A Avci, E Çankaya, P Schmitt
AIM: To assess the efficiency of a novel quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) technique for non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of haemodialysis fistulas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: QISS MRA and colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) images were obtained from 22 haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A radiologist with extensive experience in vascular imaging initially assessed the fistulas using CDU. Two observers analysed each QISS MRA data set in terms of image quality, using a five-point scale ranging from 0 (non-diagnostic) to 4 (excellent), and lumen diameters of all segments were measured...
March 2016: Clinical Radiology
Martin Stenzel
UNLABELLED: Compared to adult patients, ultrasonography in children and adolescents is much more common, due to lack of ionizing radiation, and its wide availability. With the introduction of contrast-media for use in ultrasonography, one major drawback of the method could be overcome. In Europe, SonoVue(®) is the only widely available agent, which due to improved stability makes it possible to image normal and diseased tissue perfusion and vascularization with high accuracy. Inability to hold the breath and voluntary body movement of the patient is less of an obstacle compared to color Doppler techniques and makes the method very attractive for use in children, which, depending on age, may not be very cooperative...
June 2013: Journal of Ultrasonography
Kerstin Schütte, Christian Schulz, Peter Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) significantly contributes to the global burden of cancer. Liver cancer is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death, with HCC representing more than 90% of primary liver cancers. During the last decade, much progress has been made with respect to the definition of patient populations at risk who may benefit from surveillance strategies, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. SUMMARY: New locoregional and systemic therapies have significantly increased the survival of patients with HCC...
June 2014: Gastrointestinal Tumors
Laura W Goff, Roger B Cohen, Jordan D Berlin, Filippo G de Braud, Andrej Lyshchik, Cristina Noberasco, Francesco Bertolini, Marina Carpentieri, Corrado Gallo Stampino, Antonello Abbattista, Erjan Wang, Hossein Borghaei
PURPOSE: Objectives of this dose-finding study were to determine the MTD and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of the first-in-class anti-activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) monoclonal antibody PF-03446962, and assess safety and antitumor activity in patients with advanced solid tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This open-label, multicenter study was based on a 3+3 design. PF-03446962 was administered biweekly by intravenous infusion, at doses ranging from 0.5 to 15 mg/kg...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Claudia Errico, Juliette Pierre, Sophie Pezet, Yann Desailly, Zsolt Lenkei, Olivier Couture, Mickael Tanter
Non-invasive imaging deep into organs at microscopic scales remains an open quest in biomedical imaging. Although optical microscopy is still limited to surface imaging owing to optical wave diffusion and fast decorrelation in tissue, revolutionary approaches such as fluorescence photo-activated localization microscopy led to a striking increase in resolution by more than an order of magnitude in the last decade. In contrast with optics, ultrasonic waves propagate deep into organs without losing their coherence and are much less affected by in vivo decorrelation processes...
November 26, 2015: Nature
Arend F L Schinkel, Mathias Kaspar, Daniel Staub
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is increasingly being used to evaluate patients with known or suspected atherosclerosis. The administration of a microbubble contrast agent in conjunction with ultrasound results in an improved image quality and provides information that cannot be assessed with standard B-mode ultrasound. CEUS is a high-resolution, noninvasive imaging modality, which is safe and may benefit patients with coronary, carotid, or aortic atherosclerosis. CEUS allows a reliable assessment of endocardial borders, left ventricular function, intracardiac thrombus and myocardial perfusion...
January 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Lourdes Paula R Resontoc, Hui-Kim Yap
Neonatal renal vascular thrombosis is rare but has devastating sequelae. The renal vein is more commonly affected than the renal artery. Most neonates with renal vein thrombosis present with at least one of the three cardinal signs, namely, abdominal mass, macroscopic hematuria and thrombocytopenia, while unilateral renal artery thrombosis presents with transient hypertension. Contrast angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis but because of exposure to radiation and contrast agents, Doppler ultrasound scan is widely used instead...
June 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Manasi Dahibawkar, Mark A Forsberg, Aditi Gupta, Samantha Jaffe, Kelly Dulin, John R Eisenbrey, Valgerdur G Halldorsdottir, Anya I Forsberg, Jaydev K Dave, Andrew Marshall, Priscilla Machado, Traci B Fox, Ji-Bin Liu, Flemming Forsberg
This project compared quantifiable measures of tumor vascularity obtained from contrast-enhanced high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) subharmonic ultrasound imaging (SHI) to 3 immunohistochemical markers of angiogenesis in a murine breast cancer model (since angiogenesis is an important marker of malignancy and the target of many novel cancer treatments). Nineteen athymic, nude, female rats were implanted with 5×10(6) breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) in the mammary fat pad. The contrast agent Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA) was injected in a tail vein (dose: 180μl/kg) and LF pulse-inversion SHI was performed with a modified Sonix RP scanner (Analogic Ultrasound, Richmond, BC, Canada) using a L9-4 linear array (transmitting/receiving at 8/4MHz in SHI mode) followed by HF imaging with a Vevo 2100 scanner (Visualsonics, Toronto, ON, Canada) using a MS250 linear array transmitting and receiving at 24MHz...
September 2015: Ultrasonics
Kenneth Hoyt, Jason M Warram, Dezhi Wang, Sithira Ratnayaka, Amie Traylor, Anupam Agarwal
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular ultrasound (US) imaging for monitoring the early inflammatory effects following acute kidney injury. PROCEDURES: A population of rats underwent 30 min of renal ischemia (acute kidney injury, N = 6) or sham injury (N = 4) using established surgical methods. Animals were divided and molecular US imaging was performed during the bolus injection of a targeted microbubble (MB) contrast agent to either P-selectin or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1)...
December 2015: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Janet M Denbeigh, Brian A Nixon, Mira C Puri, F Stuart Foster
Ultrasound contrast-enhanced imaging can convey essential quantitative information regarding tissue vascularity and perfusion and, in targeted applications, facilitate the detection and measure of vascular biomarkers at the molecular level. Within the mouse embryo, this noninvasive technique may be used to uncover basic mechanisms underlying vascular development in the early mouse circulatory system and in genetic models of cardiovascular disease. The mouse embryo also presents as an excellent model for studying the adhesion of microbubbles to angiogenic targets (including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) or αvβ3) and for assessing the quantitative nature of molecular ultrasound...
March 4, 2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lotfi Abou-Elkacem, Sunitha V Bachawal, Jürgen K Willmann
Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells...
September 2015: European Journal of Radiology
Carlos Nicolau, Iban Aldecoa, Laura Bunesch, Carme Mallofre, Carmen Sebastia
The behavior of dynamic enhancement using imaging modalities such as enhanced computed tomography, enhanced magnetic resonance, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound is one of the most important features of imaging characterization of kidney diseases. The enhancement pattern depends on the macrovasculature and microvasculature and is correlated with specific pathologic features. This review focuses on the enhancement pattern of different renal conditions including inflammatory, vascular, and oncologic diseases, with emphasis on the pathophysiological bases of altered perfusion...
July 2015: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
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