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Marco Mattonai, Erika Ribechini
Reactive pyrolysis is a technique that provides mechanistic information by performing pyrolysis of the substrate in a sealed glass capsule at elevated temperature and pressure for relatively long time. This technique has already shown great potential for the analysis of biomass, favouring the formation of only the most thermostable compounds. In this work, both fast and reactive pyrolysis with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (Py-GC/MS) are used to study fructose, inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Heliantus tuberosus)...
August 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wafa Hassen, Mohamed Neifar, Hanene Cherif, Afef Najjari, Habib Chouchane, Rim C Driouich, Asma Salah, Fatma Naili, Amor Mosbah, Yasmine Souissi, Noura Raddadi, Hadda I Ouzari, Fabio Fava, Ameur Cherif
A number of Pseudomonas strains function as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation, avoiding the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Here, we present a new metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas rhizophila S211, isolated from a pesticide contaminated artichoke field that shows biofertilization, biocontrol and bioremediation potentialities. The S211 genome was sequenced, annotated and key genomic elements related to plant growth promotion and biosurfactant (BS) synthesis were elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yunes Panahi, Parisa Kianpour, Reza Mohtashami, Stephen L Atkin, Alexandra E Butler, Ramezan Jafari, Roghayeh Badeli, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is potentially treatable, though there are few therapeutic agents available. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown potential as a hepatoprotective agent. This study sought to determine if ALE had therapeutic utility in patients with established NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial, 100 subjects with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD were randomized to either ALE 600 mg daily or placebo for a 2-month period...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Emilia Okragla, Milena Chraniuk, Lidia Wolska
Herbs can be used preventatively, to aid treatment and to ease the symptoms of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Traditional medicine uses herbal infusions such as: lingonberry leaf (Vitis idaeae folium), birch leaf (Betulaefolium) wild thyme extract (Serpylli herba), dwarf everlast flower (Helichrysi inflorescentia), goldenrod (Virgauneae herba, also called Solidaginis herba), restharrow root (Ononidis radix), agrimony (Agrimoniae herba), rowanberry (Sorbi aucupariae fructus), black elderberry (Sambuci fructus), and juniper berry (Juniperifrictus)...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Kun Yan, Shijie Zhao, Mingxing Cui, Guangxuan Han, Pei Wen
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important energy crop for utilizing coastal marginal land. This study was to investigate waterlogging tolerance of Jerusalem artichoke through photosynthetic diagnose with emphasis on photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) performance. Potted plants were subjected to severe (liquid level 5 cm above vermiculite surface) and moderate (liquid level 5 cm below vermiculite surface) waterlogging for 9 days. Large decreased photosynthetic rate suggested photosynthesis vulnerability upon waterlogging...
February 17, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Samarthya Bhagia, Jorge F S Ferreira, Ninad Kothari, Angelica Nunez, Xuan Liu, Nildo da Silva Dias, Donald L Suarez, Rajeev Kumar, Charles E Wyman
Currently, major biofuel crops are also food crops that demand fertile soils and good-quality water. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, Asteraceae) produces high tonnage of tubers that are rich in sugars, mainly in the form of inulin. In this study, plants of the cultivar 'White Fuseau' grown under five salinity levels were evaluated for tuber yield. Results indicated that this cultivar is moderately salt-tolerant if the goal is tuber production. Hydraulic pressings of the tubers produced juice that contained 15% (wet weight) or 55% (dry weight) free sugars, with 70% of these in the form of inulin and the rest as fructose, sucrose, and glucose...
February 24, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Ángela Rojas, Paloma Gallego, Antonio Gil-Gómez, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Lourdes Rojas, Rosario Maldonado, Rocío Gallego, Marta García-Valdecasas, José A Del Campo, Juan D Bautista, Manuel Romero-Gómez
Background & aims. G-allele of PNPLA3 (rs738409) favours triglycerides accumulation and steatosis. In this study, we examined the effect of quercetin and natural extracts from mushroom and artichoke on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Huh7.5 cells were exposed to oleic acid (OA) and treated with quercetin and extracts to observe the lipid accumulation, the intracellular-TG concentration and the LD size. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα-γ) and cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) gene expression levels were analysed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Eun Young Ro, Geun Su Kim, Do Young Kwon, Young Min Park, Sang Woo Cho, Sang Yun Lee, Ik Hyun Yeo, Ki Sun Yoon
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of cultured sugar/vinegar (CSV) blend and nisin to control the risk of Listeria monocytogenes in ready to cook (RTC) ravioli. Ravioli dough was prepared with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1% CSV blend and 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% nisin. Inoculated spinach or artichoke raviolis with 2.0 ± 0.5 log cfu/g of L. monocytogenes were packed aerobically or using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and then stored at 4, 10, 17, and 24 °C for 60 days. Growth kinetic parameters of the observed data fit well to the Baranyi equation...
February 2018: Journal of Food Safety
Rui Luo, Xiaoyang Song, Ziwei Li, Aiqin Zhang, Xiufeng Yan, Qiuying Pang
In addition to their role as reserve carbohydrates, fructans have been recognized as compounds that are protective against adverse environments. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the content and the degree of polymerization (DP) of fructan in sprouting tubers of Jerusalem artichoke under salt stress. Fructan was extracted from tubers at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after planting in sandy loam soil irrigated with NaCl solution. Fructan accumulation and polymerization and the expression of genes encoding enzymes for fructan synthesis and degradation were evaluated...
January 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Natasa Bogavac-Stanojevic, Jelena Kotur Stevuljevic, Darko Cerne, Janja Zupan, Janja Marc, Zorica Vujic, Milkica Crevar-Sakac, Miron Sopic, Jelena Munjas, Miroslav Radenkovic, Zorana Jelic-Ivanovic
CONTEXT: Polyphenols and flavonoids in artichoke leaf tincture (ALT) protect cells against oxidative damage. OBJECTIVES: We examined ALT effects on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and lipid profiles in rat plasma and gene expression in rat aorta [haemeoxygenase-1 (HO1), haemeoxygenase-2 (HO2), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)]. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 6/group): The control group (CG) was fed with standard pellet chow for 11 weeks; the AD group was fed for a similar period of time with pellet chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 3% sunflower oil and 1% sodium cholate...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Shiqi Lv, Bin Yang, Yixuan Kou, Jun Zeng, Ruixiong Wang, Yumeng Xiao, Fencan Li, Ying Lu, Yuwen Mu, Changming Zhao
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg2+) contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction) and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth) exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress than LZJ047 (the highest tuber yield and total sugar content)...
2018: PeerJ
Fangluan Gao, Jianguo Shen, Furong Liao, Wei Cai, Shuangqing Lin, Hongkai Yang, Shouling Chen
The complete sequence of a narcissus virus isolated from the Netherlands (Narv-NL) was determined to be 8172 nucleotides in length with an open reading frame encoding for 2624 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Narv-NL is clustered with high confidence among representative members from the genus Macluravirus, including artichoke latent virus (ArLV) and Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (CYNMV). Sequence analyses indicated Narv-NL shares 67%-69% nucleotide and 51%-68% amino acid sequence identity with ArLV and CYNMV either in the complete ORF or the coat protein (CP) gene, whereas it had 81%-99 % nucleotide and 80%-99 % amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding CP sequences of narcissus latent virus (NLV) isolates, suggesting that Narv-NL is a member of NLV...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Virology
Irene A Rubel, Carolina Iraporda, Rocio Novosad, Fernanda A Cabrera, Diego B Genovese, Guillermo D Manrique
In this study the operational extraction variables to obtain higher yields of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT), as well as the optimal conditions to obtain a stable and dispersible powdered product by either spray or freeze drying, were studied. With this purpose, the powder yield, moisture content, water activity and flowability or products obtained by different experimental conditions were analyzed. Inulin rich carbohydrates (IRC) extraction was performed from lyophilized and ground tubers employing distilled hot water as solvent...
January 2018: Food Research International
Francisco J San José, Montserrat Collado-Fernández, Rafael López
The artichoke by-products from the canning industry are mainly used for silage, being minimally revaluated. The ways of extraction of by-products of artichoke into fiber-rich powders modify their industrial applications in biscuits, as the sensory evaluation may change compared with the reference fiber (Pea fiber, P) used with commercial biscuit. In this sensory study biscuits enriched with fiber-rich powders of artichoke (W, Ca) are compared with biscuits with the same percentage of the reference fiber (P) and control biscuits without fiber (B)...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Arthitaya Kawee-Ai, Nuntinee Ritthibut, Apisit Manassa, Churairat Moukamnerd, Thunnop Laokuldilok, Suthat Surawang, Sutee Wangtueai, Yuthana Phimolsiripol, Joe M Regenstein, Phisit Seesuriyachan
Prebiotic substances are extracted from various plant materials or enzymatic hydrolysis of different substrates. The production of fructo-oligosaccharide and inulo-oligosaccharide was carried out by applying two substrates, sucrose and inulin; oligosaccharide yields were maximized using central composite design to evaluate that the parameters influencing oligosaccharide production. Inulin from Jerusalem artichoke (5-15% w/v), sucrose (50-70% w/v), and inulinase from Aspergillus niger (2-7 U/g) were used as variable parameters for the optimization...
January 22, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Antonio Colantuono, Rosalia Ferracane, Paola Vitaglione
In this study, an artichoke stem powder (ASP) was used at three concentrations (3%, 6% and 9%) in the formulation of new breads. The bioaccessibility of polyphenols and cynaropicrin from the ASP-enriched breads was evaluated in vitro by using a digestion model combined to high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. The overall total antioxidant capacity of the bioaccessible and unsolubilized fractions obtained during the intestinal steps and the potential ability to modulate α-glucosidase activity were tested...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fiorella Caputo, Rosario Barranco, Alessandro Bonsignore, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco Ventura
A bezoar is a mass of undigested, or partially digested, material forming in the lumen of the gastroenteric tract, causing occlusive or subocclusive events. The most frequent types of bezoars are those composed of vegetable fibers, also called phytobezoars, which, by virtue of their high content in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, remain undigested in the stomach and intestines and, from there, can migrate and occlude the narrowest portions of the bowel. The areas that are most frequently affected by occlusive phenomena related to the presence of bezoars are the stomach and the small intestine, although colic localizations are extremely rare...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Raquel Muelas, Paula Monllor, Gema Romero, Estrella Sayas-Barberá, Casilda Navarro, José Ramón Díaz, Esther Sendra
Traditional farming practices include the use of local agricultural by-products in the diet of ruminants. Artichoke harvesting and transformation yield high amounts of by-products that, if properly used, may reduce farming costs and the environmental impact of farming. The present study tests the inclusion of silages from artichoke by-products (plant and outer bracts) in the diet of dairy goats (0%, 12.5% and 25% inclusion) on the technological and sensory properties of milk during a five-month study. Milk composition, color, stability, coagulation and fermentation properties remained unaffected by diet changes...
December 18, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Fatih Erci, Rabia Cakir-Koc, Ibrahim Isildak
Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were green synthesized at room temperature using different concentrations of the Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata (Zahter) aqueous leaf extracts for the first time. With the synthesis of AgNPs using the leaf extract of Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) and Mentha piperita (Peppermint), the biological activities of the nanoparticles synthesized using leaf extract of three economically significant plants have been studied comparatively. Nanoparticles were characterized by different spectroscopic and microscopic analysis...
December 17, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Jung-Hoon Bae, Hyun-Jin Kim, Mi-Jin Kim, Bong Hyun Sung, Jae-Heung Jeon, Hyun-Soon Kim, Yong-Su Jin, Dae-Hyuk Kweon, Jung-Hoon Sohn
An efficient production system for optically pure l- and d-lactic acid (LA) from Jerusalem artichoke tuber powder (JAP) was developed by metabolic engineering of Kluyveromyces marxianus. To construct LA-producing strains, the ethanol fermentation pathway of K. marxianus was redirected to LA production by disruption of KmPDC1 and expression of l- and d-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) genes derived from Lactobacillus plantarum under the control of the K. marxianus translation elongation factor 1α promoter. To further increase the LA titer, the l-LA and d-LA consumption pathway of host strains was blocked by deletion of the oxidative LDH genes KmCYB2 and KmDLD1...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
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