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Imma Pagano, Anna Lisa Piccinelli, Rita Celano, Luca Campone, Patrizia Gazzerro, Mariateresa Russo, Luca Rastrelli
Artichoke by-products are a suitable source of health-promoting ingredients for the production of dietary supplements and food additives. A pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) was developed to recover caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and flavone glycosides (FLs) from agro-industrial artichoke by-products. The main factors influencing PHWE efficiency and CQA isomerization (temperature, numbers of cycles, modifier and extraction time) were carefully studied and optimized by response surface design. The proposed PHWE procedure provides an exhaustive extraction of CQAs and FLs (recoveries: 93-105 and 90-105%) from artichoke external bracts and leaves of different cultivars (p > 0...
May 18, 2018: Electrophoresis
Kinga Topolska, Radosław Piotr Radzki, Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Adam Florkiewicz, Teresa Leszczyńska, Ewa Cieślik
This study was designed to determine the effect of feeding female rats with low-calcium diet containing one of three fructan sources (Jerusalem artichoke, yacon, Beneo Orafti Synergy1), on selected bone parameters. Growing Wistar rats were fed modified AIN-93 G diet enriched in fructan sources (8%), added alone or as a strawberry sorbet ingredient. Two of eight groups were a validation model, where the positive control group was fed with recommended calcium dose in the diet (RCD), and negative one - with low calcium diet (LCD)...
May 10, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Burcu Öztürk, Meltem Serdaroğlu
Today incorporation of natural ingredients as inorganic phosphate replacers has come into prominence as a novel research topic due to health concerns about phosphates. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality of emulsified chicken meatballs produced with Jerusalem artichoke powder (JAP), either alone or in combination with sodium carbonate (SC) as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) replacers. The results showed that naturally dried JAP showed favorable technological properties in terms of water-oil binding and gelling...
February 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Valentina di Rienzo, Giovanni Bubici, Cinzia Montemurro, Fabrizio Cillo
In tomato, resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is conferred by the dominant gene, designated Sw-5. Virulent Sw-5 resistance breaking (SRB) mutants of TSWV have been reported on Sw-5 tomato cultivars. Two different PCR-based allelic discrimination techniques, namely Custom TaqMan™ SNP Genotyping and high-resolution melting (HRM) assays, were developed and compared for their ability to distinguish between avirulent (Sw-5 non-infecting, SNI) and SRB biotypes. TaqMan assays proved to be more sensitive (threshold of detection in a range of 50-70 TSWV RNA copies) and more reliable than HRM, assigning 25 TSWV isolates to their correct genotype with an accuracy of 100%...
2018: PloS One
Annalisa Lucera, Cristina Costa, Valeria Marinelli, Maria Antonietta Saccotelli, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Amalia Conte
In this work, spreadable cheese was enriched with flours from by-products (red and white grape pomace, tomato peel, broccoli, corn bran, and artichokes) as sources of fibres and antioxidant compounds. The physicochemical and the sensory properties of all the cheese samples were analysed. Results revealed that total phenolic content, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of samples containing grape pomace significantly increased, followed by broccoli, artichoke, corn bran, and tomato peel by-products, compared to the control cheese...
April 25, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Xingang Zhou, Zhilin Wang, Huiting Jia, Li Li, Fengzhi Wu
Soil microbial communities have profound effects on the growth, nutrition and health of plants in agroecosystems. Understanding soil microbial dynamics in cropping systems can assist in determining how agricultural practices influence soil processes mediated by microorganisms. In this study, soil bacterial communities were monitored in a continuously monocropped Jerusalem artichoke (JA) system, in which JA was successively monocropped for 3 years in a wheat field. Soil bacterial community compositions were estimated by amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Niloufar Roshan, Thomas V Riley, Katherine A Hammer
AIMS: To investigate the effect of natural products on the spore cycle of C. difficile in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-two natural products were investigated using four C. difficile strains. Effects on sporulation, determined using microscopy and a conventional spore recovery assay, showed that fresh onion bulb extract (6.3% v v-1 ) and coconut oil (8% v v-1 ) inhibited sporulation in all four isolates by 66-86% and 51-88%, respectively, compared to untreated controls...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
S P Mudau, P A Steenkamp, L A Piater, M De Palma, M Tucci, N E Madala, I A Dubery
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are phenolic compounds biosynthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway, with hydroxycinnamoyl quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) as the key enzyme. Variation of CGAs has been noted in different plants, with globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) producing high amounts and a diverse spectrum of CGAs in its leaves. In the current study, the effect of overexpression of the hqt1 transgene from globe artichoke in tobacco was evaluated at the metabolome level. Here, metabolomic approaches based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, together with chemometric models such as principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis, were employed to evaluate altered metabolic changes due to hqt1 overexpression...
April 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Carlos Sabater, Nieves Corzo, Agustín Olano, Antonia Montilla
The aim of this study was to optimise pectin extraction from artichoke by-products with Celluclast® 1.5L using an experimental design analysed by response-surface methodology (RSM). The variables optimised were artichoke by-product powder concentration (2-7%, X1 ), enzyme dose (2.2-13.3 U g-1 , X2 ) and extraction time (6-24 h, X3 ). The variables studied were galacturonic acid (GalA) (R2 93.9) and pectic neutral sugars (R2 92.8) content and pectin yield (R2 88.6). In the optimum extraction conditions (X1  = 6...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Alberto Martín-Sanz, Sandra Rueda, Ana B García-Carneros, Sara González-Fernández, Pedro Miranda-Fuentes, Sandra Castuera-Santacruz, Leire Molinero-Ruiz
Verticillium wilt and leaf mottle of sunflower, caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae ( Vd ) has become a major constraint to sunflower oil production in temperate European countries. Information about Vd from sunflower is very scarce despite genetics, molecular traits and pathogenic abilities of fungal strains affecting many other crops being widely known. Understanding and characterizing the diversity of Vd populations in those countries where sunflowers are frequent and severely affected by the fungus are essential for efficient breeding for resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vincenzo Lattanzio, Sofia Caretto, Vito Linsalata, Giovanni Colella, Giovanni Mita
Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency...
March 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Marco Mattonai, Erika Ribechini
Reactive pyrolysis is a technique that provides mechanistic information by performing pyrolysis of the substrate in a sealed glass capsule at elevated temperature and pressure for relatively long time. This technique has already shown great potential for the analysis of biomass, favouring the formation of only the most thermostable compounds. In this work, both fast and reactive pyrolysis with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (Py-GC/MS) are used to study fructose, inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Heliantus tuberosus)...
August 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wafa Hassen, Mohamed Neifar, Hanene Cherif, Afef Najjari, Habib Chouchane, Rim C Driouich, Asma Salah, Fatma Naili, Amor Mosbah, Yasmine Souissi, Noura Raddadi, Hadda I Ouzari, Fabio Fava, Ameur Cherif
A number of Pseudomonas strains function as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation, avoiding the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Here, we present a new metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas rhizophila S211, isolated from a pesticide contaminated artichoke field that shows biofertilization, biocontrol and bioremediation potentialities. The S211 genome was sequenced, annotated and key genomic elements related to plant growth promotion and biosurfactant (BS) synthesis were elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yunes Panahi, Parisa Kianpour, Reza Mohtashami, Stephen L Atkin, Alexandra E Butler, Ramezan Jafari, Roghayeh Badeli, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is potentially treatable, though there are few therapeutic agents available. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown potential as a hepatoprotective agent. This study sought to determine if ALE had therapeutic utility in patients with established NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial, 100 subjects with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD were randomized to either ALE 600 mg daily or placebo for a 2-month period...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Emilia Okragla, Milena Chraniuk, Lidia Wolska
Herbs can be used preventatively, to aid treatment and to ease the symptoms of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Traditional medicine uses herbal infusions such as: lingonberry leaf (Vitis idaeae folium), birch leaf (Betulaefolium) wild thyme extract (Serpylli herba), dwarf everlast flower (Helichrysi inflorescentia), goldenrod (Virgauneae herba, also called Solidaginis herba), restharrow root (Ononidis radix), agrimony (Agrimoniae herba), rowanberry (Sorbi aucupariae fructus), black elderberry (Sambuci fructus), and juniper berry (Juniperifrictus)...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Kun Yan, Shijie Zhao, Mingxing Cui, Guangxuan Han, Pei Wen
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important energy crop for utilizing coastal marginal land. This study was to investigate waterlogging tolerance of Jerusalem artichoke through photosynthetic diagnose with emphasis on photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) performance. Potted plants were subjected to severe (liquid level 5 cm above vermiculite surface) and moderate (liquid level 5 cm below vermiculite surface) waterlogging for 9 days. Large decreased photosynthetic rate suggested photosynthesis vulnerability upon waterlogging...
April 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Samarthya Bhagia, Jorge F S Ferreira, Ninad Kothari, Angelica Nunez, Xuan Liu, Nildo da Silva Dias, Donald L Suarez, Rajeev Kumar, Charles E Wyman
Currently, major biofuel crops are also food crops that demand fertile soils and good-quality water. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, Asteraceae) produces high tonnage of tubers that are rich in sugars, mainly in the form of inulin. In this study, plants of the cultivar "White Fuseau" grown under five salinity levels were evaluated for tuber yield. Results indicated that this cultivar is moderately salt-tolerant if the goal is tuber production. Hydraulic pressings of the tubers produced juice that contained 15% (wet weight) or 55% (dry weight) free sugars, with 70% of these in the form of inulin and the rest as fructose, sucrose, and glucose...
June 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Ángela Rojas, Paloma Gallego, Antonio Gil-Gómez, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Lourdes Rojas, Rosario Maldonado, Rocío Gallego, Marta García-Valdecasas, José A Del Campo, Juan D Bautista, Manuel Romero-Gómez
Background & aims. G-allele of PNPLA3 (rs738409) favours triglycerides accumulation and steatosis. In this study, we examined the effect of quercetin and natural extracts from mushroom and artichoke on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Huh7.5 cells were exposed to oleic acid (OA) and treated with quercetin and extracts to observe the lipid accumulation, the intracellular-TG concentration and the LD size. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα-γ) and cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) gene expression levels were analysed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Eun Young Ro, Geun Su Kim, Do Young Kwon, Young Min Park, Sang Woo Cho, Sang Yun Lee, Ik Hyun Yeo, Ki Sun Yoon
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of cultured sugar/vinegar (CSV) blend and nisin to control the risk of Listeria monocytogenes in ready to cook (RTC) ravioli. Ravioli dough was prepared with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1% CSV blend and 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% nisin. Inoculated spinach or artichoke raviolis with 2.0 ± 0.5 log cfu/g of L. monocytogenes were packed aerobically or using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and then stored at 4, 10, 17, and 24 °C for 60 days. Growth kinetic parameters of the observed data fit well to the Baranyi equation...
February 2018: Journal of Food Safety
Rui Luo, Xiaoyang Song, Ziwei Li, Aiqin Zhang, Xiufeng Yan, Qiuying Pang
In addition to their role as reserve carbohydrates, fructans have been recognized as compounds that are protective against adverse environments. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the content and the degree of polymerization (DP) of fructan in sprouting tubers of Jerusalem artichoke under salt stress. Fructan was extracted from tubers at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after planting in sandy loam soil irrigated with NaCl solution. Fructan accumulation and polymerization and the expression of genes encoding enzymes for fructan synthesis and degradation were evaluated...
April 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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