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Angelo Sisto, Diomira Luongo, Lucia Treppiccione, Palmira De Bellis, Donato Di Venere, Paola Lavermicocca, Mauro Rossi
The most recent trend in research on probiotic bacteria aims at the exploitation of bioactive bacterial compounds that are responsible for health-promoting effects and suitable for medical applications. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to ascertain if the immunomodulatory effects of L. paracasei strains on dendritic cells (DCs) were caused by bacterial metabolites released in the culture medium. For that reason, bacterial strains were grown in two media generally used for the culture of DCs, and the effects of culture filtrates on the maturation of DCs and cytokine production were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
V G Radchenko, P V Seliverstov, S S Ledentsova, A V Man'yakov
AIM: To determine the incidence of biliary sludge (BS) and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Chophytol in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and BS in the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Clinical laboratory examination was made in 72 patients with NASH in the presence of MS. BS was identified in 52 (72.2%) examinees who were divided in two (study and control) groups. The efficacy of Chophytol of plant origin, prepared from the purified extract of fresh artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf juice, which was used at a dose of 3 tablets thrice daily for a month, was evaluated...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Pallab Kumar Borah, Sourav Chakraborty, Anupam N Jha, Sanchaita Rajkhowa, Raj Kumar Duary
ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is an attractive target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We aimed to identify selective inhibitors of ADAM17 against matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-16) which have substantial structural similarity. Target proteins were docked with 29 anti-inflammatory natural molecule ligands and a known selective inhibitor IK682. The ligands were screened based on Lipinski rules, interaction with the ADAM17 active site cavity, and then ranked using the proportional odds model multinomial logistic regression...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Andrea Moglia, Alberto Acquadro, Kaouthar Eljounaidi, Anna M Milani, Cecilia Cagliero, Patrizia Rubiolo, Andrea Genre, Katarina Cankar, Jules Beekwilder, Cinzia Comino
Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eleni Kollia, Panagiota Markaki, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Charalampos Proestos
Extracts of different parts (heads, bracts and stems) of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) and Cynara scolymus L. (globe artichoke), obtained by two different extraction techniques (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and classical extraction (CE)) were examined and compared for their total phenolic content (TPC) and their antioxidant activity. Moreover, infusions of the plant's parts were also analysed and compared to aforementioned samples. Results showed that cardoon's heads extract (obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction) displayed the highest TPC values (1...
August 11, 2016: Natural Product Research
Sofía Guillén, Jorge Mir-Bel, Rosa Oria, María L Salvador
Colour, pigments, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were investigated in artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots cooked under different conditions. Domestic induction hobs with temperature control were used to evaluate the effect of boiling, sous-vide cooking and water immersion cooking at temperatures below 100°C on the properties of each vegetable. Sous-vide cooking preserved chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenolic content and antioxidant activity to a greater extent than boiling for all of the vegetables tested and retained colour better, as determined by a(∗)...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ezio Portis, Flavio Portis, Luisa Valente, Andrea Moglia, Lorenzo Barchi, Sergio Lanteri, Alberto Acquadro
The recently acquired genome sequence of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) has been used to catalog the genome's content of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. More than 177,000 perfect SSRs were revealed, equivalent to an overall density across the genome of 244.5 SSRs/Mbp, but some 224,000 imperfect SSRs were also identified. About 21% of these SSRs were complex (two stretches of repeats separated by <100 nt). Some 73% of the SSRs were composed of dinucleotide motifs. The SSRs were categorized for the numbers of repeats present, their overall length and were allocated to their linkage group...
2016: PloS One
Kai Li, Jin-Cheng Qin, Chen-Guang Liu, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a potential energy crop for biorefinery due to its unique agronomic traits such as resistance to environmental stresses and high biomass yield in marginal lands. Although JA tubers have been explored for inulin extraction and biofuels production, there is little concern on its stalk (JAS). In this article, the pretreatment of JAS by alkaline hydrogen peroxide was optimized using the response surface methodology to improve sugars yield and reduce chemicals usage. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the structures of the pretreated JAS to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Chokchai Kittiwongwattana, Chitti Thawai
A bacterium designated as strain roo10T was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Cells are Gram-stain-negative and non-flagellated rods. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was a member of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas, and its close relatives included Pseudoxanthomonas kalamensis JA40T (97.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudoxanthomonas sangjuensis 5GH38-5T (97.7 %) and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis TR6-08T (97.1 %). Growth of strain roo10T occurred at pH ranging from 7 to 9...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Evy Paulsen
Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal and based on statements from patients rather than scientific data. However, a few clinical reports on accidental sensitization and exposure and oral challenge prove the existence of this kind of reaction, most convincingly for strong contact allergens such as costunolide in bay leaves, and less so for weak allergens such as those of lettuce...
August 29, 2016: Contact Dermatitis
Sirma Yegin
Statistical optimization of the factors affecting xylanase production by Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL Y-2311-1 on globe artichoke stem was performed for the first time. The optimization strategies used resulted in almost 6-fold enhancement of xylanase production (66.48 U/ml). Biochemical and thermal characterization of the crude xylanase preparation was performed in order to elucidate its feasibility for different industrial applications. The optimum conditions for xylanase activity were: pH 4.0 and 30-50°C...
August 18, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Alicia Garcia-Alvarez, Raimon Mila-Villarroel, Lourdes Ribas-Barba, Bernadette Egan, Mihaela Badea, Franco M Maggi, Maija Salmenhaara, Patrizia Restani, Lluis Serra-Majem
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing worldwide and weight-control strategies, including the consumption of plant food supplements (PFS), are proliferating. This article identifies the herbal ingredients in PFS consumed for weight control and by overweight/obese dieters in six European countries, and explores the relationship between their consumption and their self-reported BMI. METHODS: Data used were a subset from the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, a retrospective survey of 2359 PFS consumers...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Sihem Dabbou, Samia Dabbou, Guido Flamini, Gaetano Pandino, Laura Gasco, Ahmed Noureddine Helal
The phytochemical composition in two Tunisian globe artichoke cultivars (bracts, leaves, and floral stems) was evaluated in the plant byproducts. The results indicated that the bracts contain the highest levels of total phenols, o-diphenols, and flavonoids, whereas tannins seem to be more abundant in the leaves. Bracts from the 'Violet d'Hyères' cultivar possessed more total phenols (160.8 mg/g DW), flavonoids (64.9 mg/g DW), and anthocyanins (15.3 μg/g DW) than the 'Blanc d'Oran' bracts (134.5 mg/g DW, 51...
July 23, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Luigi Lucini, Daniela Borgognone, Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Jamila Bernardi, Giuseppe Colla
There is a growing interest among consumers and researchers in the globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hegi] leaf extract due to its nutraceutical and therapeutic properties. The application of an abiotic stress such as salinity can activate the stress-signaling pathways, thus enhancing the content of valuable phytochemicals. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic changes in artichokes by probing the leaf metabolome of artichoke plants grown in a floating system and exposed to a relatively mild (30 mM) potassium chloride (KCl) salt stress...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lingling Li, Tianyun Shao, Hui Yang, Manxia Chen, Xiumei Gao, Xiaohua Long, Hongbo Shao, Zhaopu Liu, Zed Rengel
The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA3 content and GA3/ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios...
July 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Bruna de Falco, Guido Incerti, Rosa Pepe, Mariana Amato, Virginia Lanzotti
INTRODUCTION: Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. Fiori) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) are sources of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES: To apply a NMR metabolomic fingerprinting approach to Cynara cardunculus heads to obtain simultaneous identification and quantitation of the major classes of organic compounds. METHODOLOGY: The edible part of 14 Globe artichoke populations, belonging to the Romaneschi varietal group, were extracted to obtain apolar and polar organic extracts...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Teruaki Masutani, Yuka Tsuda Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kojima, Makoto Tsuboi, Akira Hara, Masayuki Niwa
AIMS: The molecular mechanism of osteoarthritis (OA) has never been understood clearly, but it has been suggested that imbalance of degradation and synthesis in cartilage contribute to the underlying mechanisms of OA. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness in the cartilage metabolism of the artichoke extract that includes the compound cynaropicrin. MAIN METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of the artichoke extract or cynaropicrin in the cartilage metabolism factors and NF-κB signaling activity stimulated by inflammatory cytokine in chondrogenic cell lines, OUMS-27 and SW1353, using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting...
August 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Alessandro Colletti, Federica Fogacci, Marilisa Bove, Martina Rosticci, Claudio Borghi
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest for combined nutraceuticals that can act on several points of lipid and glucose metabolism with preventive purposes. However, the simple assemblage of nutraceuticals with potentially additive mechanism of action need to be clinically tested. METHODS: To assess the effects of a combination of nutraceuticals based on artichoke, red yeast rice, banaba, and coenzyme Q10, we performed a double bind, cross-over designed trial versus placebo in 30 adults with LDL cholesterol suboptimal in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease...
June 23, 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Tianyun Shao, Lingling Li, Yawen Wu, Manxia Chen, Xiaohua Long, Hongbo Shao, Zhaopu Liu, Zed Rengel
Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Li Niu, Chen Manxia, Gao Xiumei, Long Xiaohua, Shao Hongbo, Liu Zhaopu, Rengel Zed
Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK)...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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