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Mariangela Rondanelli, Attilio Giacosa, Paolo Morazzoni, Davide Guido, Mario Grassi, Gabriella Morandi, Chiara Bologna, Antonella Riva, Pietro Allegrini, Simone Perna
Background. High HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) values are negatively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. This review analyses the effect of the supplementation with various Mediterranean diet products (artichoke, bergamot, and olive oil) and Asian diet products (red yeast rice) on the HDL-C value in dyslipidemic subjects. Methods. A systematic review has been done involving all the English written studies published from the 1st of January 1958 to the 31st of March 2016. Results. The results of this systematic review indicate that the dietary supplementation with red yeast rice, bergamot, artichoke, and virgin olive oil has promising effects on the increase of HDL-C serum levels...
2016: BioMed Research International
Ambrogina Albergamo, Archimede Rotondo, Andrea Salvo, Vito Pellizzeri, Daniel G Bua, Antonella Maggio, Nicola Cicero, Giacomo Dugo
Globe artichoke has been long considered a nutraceutical food for its valuable content of bioactive compounds. However, beside a well-known polyphenol profile, poor information is available about its metabolite and mineral composition. The aim of this study was to investigate edible parts of Sicilian artichokes, 'Spinoso di Menfi' and 'Violetto di Niscemi', by (1)H NMR and ICP-MS for elucidating these compositional aspects. Although bracts and hearts of both artichokes shared a very similar metabolite pattern, 'Spinoso di Menfi' showed a higher number of metabolites, such as amino acids and polyphenols, than 'Violetto di Niscemi'...
November 17, 2016: Natural Product Research
Debora Giorgi, Gianmarco Pandozy, Anna Farina, Valentina Grosso, Sergio Lucretti, Andrea Gennaro, Paola Crinò, Francesco Saccardo
Traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. So far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. In this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Linnaeus, 1753 var...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
Sae-Byuk Lee, Won-Seok Choi, Hyun-Jung Jo, Soo-Hwan Yeo, Heui-Dong Park
Wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8) and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum S6 and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774) were studied using air-blast drying instead of the conventional drying methods (such as freeze and spray drying). Skim milk-a widely used protective agent-was used and in all strains, the highest viabilities following air-blast drying were obtained using 10% skim milk. Four excipients (wheat flour, nuruk, artichoke powder, and lactomil) were evaluated as protective agents for yeast strains during air-blast drying...
December 2016: AMB Express
T Mornkham, P P Wangsomnuk, X C Mo, F O Francisco, L Z Gao, H Kurzweil
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is a perennial tuberous plant and a traditional inulin-rich crop in Thailand. It has become the most important source of inulin and has great potential for use in chemical and food industries. In this study, expressed sequence tag (EST)-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from 40,362 Jerusalem artichoke ESTs retrieved from the NCBI database. Among 23,691 non-redundant identified ESTs, 1949 SSR motifs harboring 2 to 6 nucleotides with varied repeat motifs were discovered from 1676 assembled sequences...
October 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Imma Pagano, Anna Lisa Piccinelli, Rita Celano, Luca Campone, Patrizia Gazzerro, Enrica De Falco, Luca Rastrelli
Artichoke by-products, produced from agricultural procedures and the processing industry, represent a huge amount of discarded material. In this research, the main artichoke by-products, bracts and leaves, were characterized in terms of their bioactive constituents (phenolic compounds and inulin) and cellular antioxidant potential to estimate their nutraceutical potential. The ultrahigh-performance-ultraviolet detection-high resolution mass spectroscopy (UHPLC-UV-HRMS) profiles of both by-products show that 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid are the most abundant bioactive compounds, and the content of flavone glycosides can be used to discriminate between bracts and leaves...
November 3, 2016: Food & Function
Youssef Rouphael, Jamila Bernardi, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Letizia Bernardo, David Kane, Giuseppe Colla, Luigi Lucini
Leaves of globe artichoke are food industry by-products gaining interest due to their therapeutic and nutraceutical potential. The total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols content, as well as radical scavenging capacity and reducing antioxidant power were determined in leaves of nineteen artichoke cultivars. An untargeted analysis based on high-resolution mass spectrometry was then carried out to profile phenolic compounds and sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). The phenolic profile of leaf extracts from different cultivars was widely diverse and included flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, tyrosols and lignans...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Angelo Sisto, Diomira Luongo, Lucia Treppiccione, Palmira De Bellis, Donato Di Venere, Paola Lavermicocca, Mauro Rossi
The most recent trend in research on probiotic bacteria aims at the exploitation of bioactive bacterial compounds that are responsible for health-promoting effects and suitable for medical applications. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to ascertain if the immunomodulatory effects of L. paracasei strains on dendritic cells (DCs) were caused by bacterial metabolites released in the culture medium. For that reason, bacterial strains were grown in two media generally used for the culture of DCs, and the effects of culture filtrates on the maturation of DCs and cytokine production were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
V G Radchenko, P V Seliverstov, S S Ledentsova, A V Man'yakov
AIM: To determine the incidence of biliary sludge (BS) and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Chophytol in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and BS in the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Clinical laboratory examination was made in 72 patients with NASH in the presence of MS. BS was identified in 52 (72.2%) examinees who were divided in two (study and control) groups. The efficacy of Chophytol of plant origin, prepared from the purified extract of fresh artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf juice, which was used at a dose of 3 tablets thrice daily for a month, was evaluated...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Pallab Kumar Borah, Sourav Chakraborty, Anupam N Jha, Sanchaita Rajkhowa, Raj Kumar Duary
ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is an attractive target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We aimed to identify selective inhibitors of ADAM17 against matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-16) which have substantial structural similarity. Target proteins were docked with 29 anti-inflammatory natural molecule ligands and a known selective inhibitor IK682. The ligands were screened based on Lipinski rules, interaction with the ADAM17 active site cavity, and then ranked using the proportional odds model multinomial logistic regression...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Andrea Moglia, Alberto Acquadro, Kaouthar Eljounaidi, Anna M Milani, Cecilia Cagliero, Patrizia Rubiolo, Andrea Genre, Katarina Cankar, Jules Beekwilder, Cinzia Comino
Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eleni Kollia, Panagiota Markaki, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Charalampos Proestos
Extracts of different parts (heads, bracts and stems) of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) and Cynara scolymus L. (globe artichoke), obtained by two different extraction techniques (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and classical extraction (CE)) were examined and compared for their total phenolic content (TPC) and their antioxidant activity. Moreover, infusions of the plant's parts were also analysed and compared to aforementioned samples. Results showed that cardoon's heads extract (obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction) displayed the highest TPC values (1...
August 11, 2016: Natural Product Research
Sofía Guillén, Jorge Mir-Bel, Rosa Oria, María L Salvador
Colour, pigments, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were investigated in artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots cooked under different conditions. Domestic induction hobs with temperature control were used to evaluate the effect of boiling, sous-vide cooking and water immersion cooking at temperatures below 100°C on the properties of each vegetable. Sous-vide cooking preserved chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenolic content and antioxidant activity to a greater extent than boiling for all of the vegetables tested and retained colour better, as determined by a(∗)...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ezio Portis, Flavio Portis, Luisa Valente, Andrea Moglia, Lorenzo Barchi, Sergio Lanteri, Alberto Acquadro
The recently acquired genome sequence of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) has been used to catalog the genome's content of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. More than 177,000 perfect SSRs were revealed, equivalent to an overall density across the genome of 244.5 SSRs/Mbp, but some 224,000 imperfect SSRs were also identified. About 21% of these SSRs were complex (two stretches of repeats separated by <100 nt). Some 73% of the SSRs were composed of dinucleotide motifs. The SSRs were categorized for the numbers of repeats present, their overall length and were allocated to their linkage group...
2016: PloS One
Kai Li, Jin-Cheng Qin, Chen-Guang Liu, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a potential energy crop for biorefinery due to its unique agronomic traits such as resistance to environmental stresses and high biomass yield in marginal lands. Although JA tubers have been explored for inulin extraction and biofuels production, there is little concern on its stalk (JAS). In this article, the pretreatment of JAS by alkaline hydrogen peroxide was optimized using the response surface methodology to improve sugars yield and reduce chemicals usage. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the structures of the pretreated JAS to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Chokchai Kittiwongwattana, Chitti Thawai
A bacterium designated as strain roo10T was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Cells are Gram-stain-negative and non-flagellated rods. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was a member of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas, and its close relatives included Pseudoxanthomonas kalamensis JA40T (97.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudoxanthomonas sangjuensis 5GH38-5T (97.7 %) and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis TR6-08T (97.1 %). Growth of strain roo10T occurred at pH ranging from 7 to 9...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Evy Paulsen
Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal and based on statements from patients rather than scientific data. However, a few clinical reports on accidental sensitization and exposure and oral challenge prove the existence of this kind of reaction, most convincingly for strong contact allergens such as costunolide in bay leaves, and less so for weak allergens such as those of lettuce...
August 29, 2016: Contact Dermatitis
Sirma Yegin
Statistical optimization of the factors affecting xylanase production by Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL Y-2311-1 on globe artichoke stem was performed for the first time. The optimization strategies used resulted in almost 6-fold enhancement of xylanase production (66.48 U/ml). Biochemical and thermal characterization of the crude xylanase preparation was performed in order to elucidate its feasibility for different industrial applications. The optimum conditions for xylanase activity were: pH 4.0 and 30-50°C...
August 18, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Alicia Garcia-Alvarez, Raimon Mila-Villarroel, Lourdes Ribas-Barba, Bernadette Egan, Mihaela Badea, Franco M Maggi, Maija Salmenhaara, Patrizia Restani, Lluis Serra-Majem
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing worldwide and weight-control strategies, including the consumption of plant food supplements (PFS), are proliferating. This article identifies the herbal ingredients in PFS consumed for weight control and by overweight/obese dieters in six European countries, and explores the relationship between their consumption and their self-reported BMI. METHODS: Data used were a subset from the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, a retrospective survey of 2359 PFS consumers...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Sihem Dabbou, Samia Dabbou, Guido Flamini, Gaetano Pandino, Laura Gasco, Ahmed Noureddine Helal
The phytochemical composition in two Tunisian globe artichoke cultivars (bracts, leaves, and floral stems) was evaluated in the plant byproducts. The results indicated that the bracts contain the highest levels of total phenols, o-diphenols, and flavonoids, whereas tannins seem to be more abundant in the leaves. Bracts from the 'Violet d'Hyères' cultivar possessed more total phenols (160.8 mg/g DW), flavonoids (64.9 mg/g DW), and anthocyanins (15.3 μg/g DW) than the 'Blanc d'Oran' bracts (134.5 mg/g DW, 51...
November 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
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