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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801602/fermentative-hydrogen-production-from-jerusalem-artichoke-by-clostridium-tyrobutyricum-expressing-exo-inulinase-gene
#1
Ling Jiang, Qian Wu, Qing Xu, Liying Zhu, He Huang
Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC25755 has been reported as being able to produce significant quantities of hydrogen. In this study, the exo-inulinase encoding gene cloned from Paenibacillus polymyxa SC-2 was into the expression plasmid pSY6 and expressed in the cells of C. tyrobutyricum. The engineered C. tyrobutyricum strain efficiently fermented the inulin-type carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without any pretreatment being necessary for the production of hydrogen. A comparatively high hydrogen yield (3...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763698/reducing-effect-of-artichoke-extract-on-heterocyclic-aromatic-amine-formation-in-beef-and-chicken-breast-meat
#2
Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Mevlude Kizil
The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different levels of artichoke extract (0, 0.5, and 1.0%) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in beef and chicken breast meat cooked by either pan-frying or oven-roasting. All meat samples were cooked at three different temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) and the levels of 12 HAAs (IQ, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman, norharman, AαC, MeAαC, and Trp-P-2) were assessed. The total HAA content in beef and chicken breast ranged from not detectable to 49...
July 25, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746368/the-genome-wide-identification-and-transcriptional-levels-of-dna-methyltransferases-and-demethylases-in-globe-artichoke
#3
Silvia Gianoglio, Andrea Moglia, Alberto Acquadro, Cinzia Comino, Ezio Portis
Changes to the cytosine methylation status of DNA, driven by the activity of C5 methyltransferases (C5-MTases) and demethylases, exert an important influence over development, transposon movement, gene expression and imprinting. Three groups of C5-MTase enzymes have been identified in plants, namely MET (methyltransferase 1), CMT (chromomethyltransferases) and DRM (domains rearranged methyltransferases). Here the repertoire of genes encoding C5-MTase and demethylase by the globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731563/improving-fructose-utilization-and-butanol-production-by-clostridium-acetobutylicum-via-extracellular-redox-potential-regulation-and-intracellular-metabolite-analysis
#4
Li-Jie Chen, You-Duo Wu, Chuang Xue, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) can grow well in marginal lands with high biomass yield, and thus is a potential energy crop for biorefinery. The major biomass of JA is from tubers, which contain inulin that can be easily hydrolyzed into a mixture of fructose and glucose, but fructose utilization for producing butanol as an advanced biofuel is poor compared to glucose-based ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In this article, the impact of extracellular redox potential (ORP) on the process was studied using a mixture of fructose and glucose to simulate the hydrolysate of JA tubers...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722756/effects-of-alternative-cropping-systems-on-globe-artichoke-qualitative-traits
#5
Emanuela Spanu, Paola A Deligios, Emanuela Azara, Giovanna Delogu, Luigi Ledda
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, globe artichoke cultivation in the Mediterranean basin is based on monoculture and on use of high amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. This raises issues regarding its compatibility with sustainable agriculture. We studied the effect of one typical conventional (CONV) and two alternative cropping systems [globe artichoke in sequence with French bean (NCV1), or in biannual rotation (NCV2) with cauliflower and with a leguminous cover crop in inter-row spaces] on yield, polyphenol and mineral content of globe artichoke heads over two consecutive growing seasons...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717205/genome-reconstruction-in-cynara-cardunculus-taxa-gains-access-to-chromosome-scale-dna-variation
#6
Alberto Acquadro, Lorenzo Barchi, Ezio Portis, Giulio Mangino, Danila Valentino, Giovanni Mauromicale, Sergio Lanteri
The genome sequence of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus, 2n = 2x = 34) is now available for use. A survey of C. cardunculus genetic resources is essential for understanding the evolution of the species, carrying out genetic studies and for application of breeding strategies. We report on the resequencing analyses (~35×) of four globe artichoke genotypes, representative of the core varietal types, as well as a genotype of the related taxa cultivated cardoon. The genomes were reconstructed at a chromosomal scale and structurally/functionally annotated...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647180/helianthus-tuberosus-jerusalem-artichoke-tubers-improve-glucose-tolerance-and-hepatic-lipid-profile-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Naoto Okada, Shinya Kobayashi, Kouta Moriyama, Kohsuke Miyataka, Shinji Abe, Chiemi Sato, Kazuyoshi Kawazoe
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of feeding Helianthus tuberosus (HT) tubers on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: A normal HFD or HFD including 10 w/w% HT tubers (HFD + HT) was fed to F334/Jcl rats. After 10 weeks, organ weights, glucose tolerance, and lipid profile were analyzed. RESULTS: The body weight, liver weight, and epidermal fat content in the HFD group were higher than those of the normal group, and similar to those of the HFD + HT group...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627061/glycaemic-and-insulinaemic-responses-of-adult-healthy-warm-blooded-mares-following-feeding-with-jerusalem-artichoke-meal
#8
M Glatter, M Bochnia, F Goetz, J Gottschalk, G Koeller, N Mielenz, D Hillegeist, J M Greef, A Einspanier, A Zeyner
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the supplementation of a pre-biotic compound [Jerusalem artichoke meal (JAM)] on the glycaemic and insulinaemic response in healthy, non-obese warm-blooded horses. Six adult mares [mean body weight (bwt) 529 ± 38.7 kg; body condition score 5.1 ± 0.49/9] were used. In two equal meals per day, the horses received crushed oat grains (1 g starch/kg bwt per day) and meadow hay (2 kg/100 kg bwt per day) which together were likely to meet the energy recommendation for light work (GfE, )...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624998/efficient-conversion-of-fructose-based-biomass-into-lipids-with-trichosporon-fermentans-under-phosphate-limited-conditions
#9
Ruiqi Bao, Xiangying Wu, Sasa Liu, Tongzhou Xie, Chenxu Yu, Xinping Lin
Limiting nitrogen supply has been routinely used as the master regulator to direct lipid biosynthesis. However, this strategy does not work with nitrogen-rich substrates, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA), a fructose-based biomass, while it is difficult to obtain a high carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) molar ratio. In this study, an alternative strategy to promote lipid accumulation by the oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans CICC 1368 was developed by limiting phosphorous supply, and this strategy was implemented with JA hydrolysate as substrate...
June 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616072/the-advanced-strategy-for-enhancing-biobutanol-production-and-high-efficient-product-recovery-with-reduced-wastewater-generation
#10
Chuang Xue, Xiaotong Zhang, Jufang Wang, Min Xiao, Lijie Chen, Fengwu Bai
BACKGROUND: Butanol as an important chemical and potential fuel could be produced via ABE fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass. The use of food-related feedstocks such as maize and sugar cane may not be a sustainable solution to world's energy needs. Recently, Jerusalem artichoke tubers containing inulin have been used as feedstock for butanol production, but this bioprocess is not commercially feasible due to the great value of inulin as functional food. Till now, there is a gap on the utilization of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) as feedstock for microbial butanol production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609140/lipid-lowering-activity-of-artichoke-extracts-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Stephen L Atkin, Arrigo F G Cicero
Artichoke is a component of the Mediterranean diet. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine if artichoke extract supplementation affected human lipid parameters. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases up to March 28, 2017, to identify RCTs investigating the impact of artichoke extracts on plasma lipid levels. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with weighed mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as summary statistics...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570688/genetic-diversity-and-accession-structure-in-european-cynara-cardunculus-collections
#12
Mario A Pagnotta, Juan A Fernández, Gabriella Sonnante, Catalina Egea-Gilabert
Understanding the distribution of genetic variations and accession structures is an important factor for managing genetic resources, but also for using proper germplasm in association map analyses and breeding programs. The globe artichoke is the fourth most important horticultural crop in Europe. Here, we report the results of a molecular analysis of a collection including globe artichoke and leafy cardoon germplasm present in the Italian, French and Spanish gene banks. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess the diversity present in European collections, (ii) determine the population structure, (iii) measure the genetic distance between accessions; (iv) cluster the accessions; (v) properly distinguish accessions present in the different national collections carrying the same name; and (vi) understand the diversity distribution in relation to the gene bank and the geographic origin of the germplasm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554523/improved-ethanol-production-at-high-temperature-by-consolidated-bioprocessing-using-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain-engineered-with-artificial-zinc-finger-protein
#13
M Mahfuza Khatun, Xinshui Yu, Akihiko Kondo, Fengwu Bai, Xinqing Zhao
In this work, the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNII/cocδBEC3 was transformed by an artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library to improve its thermal tolerance, and the strain MNII-AZFP with superior growth at 42°C was selected. Improved degradation of acid swollen cellulose by 45.9% led to an increase in ethanol production, when compared to the control strain. Moreover, the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) by MNII-AZFP was shortened by 12h at 42°C with a concomitant improvement in ethanol production...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552793/artichoke-leaf-extract-protects-liver-of-schistosoma-mansoni-infected-mice-through-modulation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-recruitment
#14
Shaimaa Ahmed Sharaf El-Deen, Reham Mustafa Brakat, Asmaa Shams El Dein Mohamed
Schistosomiasis is the second most common human parasitic disease worldwide. It is responsible for 300000 deaths per year. Liver fibrosis is the main pathology of schistosomiasis and its complications are the major cause of death in infected cases. Unfortunately, the therapeutic dose of praziquantel (PZQ) - the main drug treatment - doesn't markedly affect fibrosis. In the present study, antiparasitic and hepatoprotective properties of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) were tested on mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S...
July 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551211/phenolic-composition-antioxidant-activity-and-mineral-profile-in-two-seed-propagated-artichoke-cultivars-as-affected-by-microbial-inoculants-and-planting-time
#15
Youssef Rouphael, Giuseppe Colla, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Stefania De Pascale
The aim of this study was to assess the mineral composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and target polyphenols of two-seed propagated artichoke cultivars 'Romolo' and 'Istar' in relation to planting time (September and October), and seed coating with a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma atroviride (coated and uncoated seeds during the second planting time). 'Romolo' was found to be richest in K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Planting artichoke in October suppressed the antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS) compared to the first planting period...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539965/chemicals-compositions-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-cynara-scolymus-leaves-extracts-and-analysis-of-major-bioactive-polyphenols-by-hplc
#16
Maryem Ben Salem, Hanen Affes, Khaled Athmouni, Kamilia Ksouda, Raouia Dhouibi, Zouheir Sahnoun, Serria Hammami, Khaled Mounir Zeghal
Objective. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) was one of the plant remedies for primary health care. The present study was focused on the determination of chemical composition, antioxidant activities, and anti-inflammatory activity and on analyzing its major bioactive polyphenols by HPLC. Methods. Artichoke Leaves Extracts (ALE) were analyzed for proximate analysis and phytochemical and antioxidant activity by several methods such as DDPH, ABTS, FRAP, and beta-carotene bleaching test. The carrageenan (Carr) model induced paw oedema in order to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532150/synephrine-as-a-specific-marker-for-orange-consumption
#17
Matthias Bader, Tatjana Lang, Roman Lang, Thomas Hofmann
To validate the suitability of synephrine, known to be a highly abundant alkaloid in oranges, as a dietary biomarker for orange consumption, a highly sensitive and robust stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) as well as an ECHO method, using the analyte itself as a pseudointernal standard injected into the analysis run to provide an "echo peak" of the analyte, was developed to quantitate synephrine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in citrus juices and human urine before and after the ingestion of orange juice...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521229/development-of-jerusalem-artichoke-resource-for-efficient-one-step-fermentation-of-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-using-a-novel-strain-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-nx-2s
#18
Yibin Qiu, Yuanyuan Sha, Yatao Zhang, Zongqi Xu, Sha Li, Peng Lei, Zheng Xu, Xiaohai Feng, Hong Xu
This study aimed to develop non-food fermentation for the cost-effective production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) using a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S. The new isolate assimilated inulin more efficiently than other carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without hydrolytic treatment. To investigate the effect of inulin on γ-PGA production, the transcript levels of γ-PGA synthetase genes (pgsB, pgsC, pgsA), regulatory genes (comA, degQ, degS), and the glutamic acid biosynthesis gene (glnA) were analyzed; inulin addition upregulated these key genes...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492621/leaf-parts-from-greek-artichoke-genotypes-as-a-good-source-of-bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidants
#19
Spyridon A Petropoulos, Carla Pereira, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Globe artichoke is an important vegetable in the Mediterranean diet. However, the marketable part of the plant constitutes a small portion of its total crop biomass and large amounts of waste are produced during its cultivation. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition and the antioxidant activity of leaf parts [blades (SLB), petioles and midribs (SPM)] from various Greek artichoke genotypes were evaluated. The results showed significant variation in antioxidant activities and bioactive compound contents between the studied genotypes, with the leaf blades of most of the genotypes having a high content of flavonoids (mainly luteolin glycoside derivatives), which ranged between 49 and 78% of total phenolic compounds (TPC)...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476701/nephroprotective-potential-of-artichoke-leaves-extract-against-gentamicin-in-rats-antioxidant-mechanisms
#20
Hala Ah Khattab, Maha Am Wazzan, Maha A Al-Ahdab
Nephrotoxicity represents a major health problem. This study aims to determine nephroprotective of artichoke leaves extract (ALE) against gentamicin (GM) injection in male rats. Rats (n=30) were divided into; negative control, nephrotoxic (GM) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with GM (100 mg/kg b.wt/d for 10 days), and groups administered orally with ALE (200, 400 or 600 mg/kg b.wt/d) and injected with GM. The results revealed that, GM injection induced marked nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant increase in kidney functions, albumin and potassium (K+), with significant decrease in serum levels of total protein and sodium (Na(+)) as compared with negative control group...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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