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Cynara Oliveira Possamai, Ana Carolina Loss, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Aloisio Falqueto, Cinthia Furst
The authors recognized a mistake in Abstract and in the Discussion section.
April 30, 2018: Parasitology Research
Carla Malaquias Almeida, Isaura Simões
The use of crude aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus flowers as coagulants in the production of high-quality sheep and goat cheeses-as are the cases of several Portuguese and Spanish cheese varieties with Protected Designation of Origin status-has been maintained since ancient times. The unique rheological attributes and sensory properties characteristic of these cheeses have always suggested that this plant coagulant (and, therefore, its isolated milk-clotting proteases) could be used as alternative rennet in the dairy industry, particularly suited for the production of sheep and goat cheeses...
April 26, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Spyridon A Petropoulos, Carla Pereira, Nikolaos Tzortzakis, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
In the present study, the nutritional value of the edible parts (immature capitula) of cardoon plants was evaluated, while further analyses were carried out in order to assess antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds composition of the various plant parts and seed oils. Cardoon capitula (heads) were a rich source of carbohydrates, with the main detected free sugar being sucrose, as well as of macro- and micro-minerals (K, Ca, Mg, and Fe). Heads were also abundant in saturated fatty acids (palmitic, behenic, linoleic, stearic, caproic, and oleic acid), whereas seed oils in unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
S P Mudau, P A Steenkamp, L A Piater, M De Palma, M Tucci, N E Madala, I A Dubery
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are phenolic compounds biosynthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway, with hydroxycinnamoyl quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) as the key enzyme. Variation of CGAs has been noted in different plants, with globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) producing high amounts and a diverse spectrum of CGAs in its leaves. In the current study, the effect of overexpression of the hqt1 transgene from globe artichoke in tobacco was evaluated at the metabolome level. Here, metabolomic approaches based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, together with chemometric models such as principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis, were employed to evaluate altered metabolic changes due to hqt1 overexpression...
April 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Carlos Sabater, Nieves Corzo, Agustín Olano, Antonia Montilla
The aim of this study was to optimise pectin extraction from artichoke by-products with Celluclast® 1.5L using an experimental design analysed by response-surface methodology (RSM). The variables optimised were artichoke by-product powder concentration (2-7%, X1 ), enzyme dose (2.2-13.3 U g-1 , X2 ) and extraction time (6-24 h, X3 ). The variables studied were galacturonic acid (GalA) (R2 93.9) and pectic neutral sugars (R2 92.8) content and pectin yield (R2 88.6). In the optimum extraction conditions (X1  = 6...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vincenzo Lattanzio, Sofia Caretto, Vito Linsalata, Giovanni Colella, Giovanni Mita
Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency...
March 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Cynara Oliveira Possamai, Ana Carolina Loss, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Aloisio Falqueto, Cinthia Furst
Free-living amoeba of the genus Acanthamoeba can eventually act as parasites, causing infections in humans. Some physiological characteristics of Acanthamoeba have been related to the grade of pathogenicity, allowing inferences about the pathogenic potential. The main goal of this study was to characterize isolates of Acanthamoeba obtained in Brazil and evaluate properties associated with their pathogenicity. A total of 39 isolates obtained from keratitis cases (n = 16) and environmental sources (n = 23) were classified into morphological groups and genotyped by sequencing the 18S rDNA fragments ASA...
May 2018: Parasitology Research
Dian-Jun Xiang, Li-Li Man, Chun-Lan Zhang, Peng-Liu, Zhi-Gang Li, Gen-Chang Zheng
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are closely related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In the present study, we identified a novel Em-like gene from lettuce, termed LsEm1, which could be classified into group 1 LEA proteins, and shared high homology with Cynara cardunculus Em protein. The LsEm1 protein contained three different 20-mer conserved elements (C-element, N-element, and M-element) in the C-termini, N-termini, and middle-region, respectively. The LsEm1 mRNAs were accumulated in all examined tissues during the flowering and mature stages, with a little accumulation in the roots and leaves during the seedling stage...
February 7, 2018: Protoplasma
Natasa Bogavac-Stanojevic, Jelena Kotur Stevuljevic, Darko Cerne, Janja Zupan, Janja Marc, Zorica Vujic, Milkica Crevar-Sakac, Miron Sopic, Jelena Munjas, Miroslav Radenkovic, Zorana Jelic-Ivanovic
CONTEXT: Polyphenols and flavonoids in artichoke leaf tincture (ALT) protect cells against oxidative damage. OBJECTIVES: We examined ALT effects on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and lipid profiles in rat plasma and gene expression in rat aorta [haemeoxygenase-1 (HO1), haemeoxygenase-2 (HO2), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)]. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 6/group): The control group (CG) was fed with standard pellet chow for 11 weeks; the AD group was fed for a similar period of time with pellet chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 3% sunflower oil and 1% sodium cholate...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Francisco J San José, Montserrat Collado-Fernández, Rafael López
The artichoke by-products from the canning industry are mainly used for silage, being minimally revaluated. The ways of extraction of by-products of artichoke into fiber-rich powders modify their industrial applications in biscuits, as the sensory evaluation may change compared with the reference fiber (Pea fiber, P) used with commercial biscuit. In this sensory study biscuits enriched with fiber-rich powders of artichoke (W, Ca) are compared with biscuits with the same percentage of the reference fiber (P) and control biscuits without fiber (B)...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Cynara C T Romero, Jasper P Vermeulen, Anton Vels, Axel Himmelbach, Martin Mascher, Rients E Niks
Resistance factors against non-adapted powdery mildews were mapped in barley. Some QTLs seem effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others also play a role in defense against the adapted form. The durability and effectiveness of nonhost resistance suggests promising practical applications for crop breeding, relying upon elucidation of key aspects of this type of resistance. We investigated which genetic factors determine the nonhost status of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to powdery mildews (Blumeria graminis)...
May 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Geir Bjørklund, Maryam Dadar, Natália Martins, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Bey Hing Goh, Kateryna Smetanina, Roman Lysiuk
Several studies have reported that nature-derived antioxidants may prevent free radicals over-production and therefore control the onset and prevent the exacerbation of different kinds of diseases caused by oxidative stress and redox-derived stressors, including ageing, fundamentally by suppressing the oxidative byproducts-mediated degradation. Naturally derived antioxidants exert their anti-ageing action via a panoply of signalling systems, many of which engaging reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species scavenging, with the Nrf2/Keap1-ARE system and improving the many survival genes and functions (such as the pathway mTOR/Foxo/SIRT1) able to slow cellular senescence...
January 25, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Amal Ben Amira, Christophe Blecker, Aurore Richel, Anthony Argüelles Arias, Patrick Fickers, Frédéric Francis, Souhail Besbes, Hamadi Attia
The selection of an appropriate Cynara cardunculus flowers batch is a preliminary step to produce rennet with better clotting properties. For this reason, we proposed to study the influence of the ripening stage and the lyophilization of cardoon flowers on their chemical composition, enzymatic activities of extracts, and technological properties of cheese curds. Results of flowers composition have shown that lyophilized flowers harvested at the middle of ripening stage (A) could be employed to produce mainly proteins or milk-clotting proteases...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fatih Erci, Rabia Cakir-Koc, Ibrahim Isildak
Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were green synthesized at room temperature using different concentrations of the Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata (Zahter) aqueous leaf extracts for the first time. With the synthesis of AgNPs using the leaf extract of Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) and Mentha piperita (Peppermint), the biological activities of the nanoparticles synthesized using leaf extract of three economically significant plants have been studied comparatively. Nanoparticles were characterized by different spectroscopic and microscopic analysis...
December 17, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ana Margarida Ferro, Patrícia Ramos, Ângela Guerra, Paula Parreira, Teresa Brás, Olinda Guerreiro, Eliana Jerónimo, Carmen Capel, Juan Capel, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Maria F Duarte, Rafael Lozano, M Margarida Oliveira, Sónia Gonçalves
Cynara cardunculus: L. represents a natural source of terpenic compounds, with the predominant molecule being cynaropicrin. Cynaropicrin is gaining interest since it has been correlated to anti-hyperlipidaemia, antispasmodic and cytotoxicity activity against leukocyte cancer cells. The objective of this work was to screen a collection of C. cardunculus, from different origins, for new allelic variants in germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene involved in the cynaropicrin biosynthesis and correlate them with improved cynaropicrin content and biological activities...
April 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Abdullah Glil Alkushi
Context: Cynara cardunculus or artichoke thistle belongs to the sunflower family and has a variety of cultivable forms. Historically, it was cultivated as a vegetable, but more recently, it is being used in cheese and biofuel preparation. Artichoke leaf extracts are also known for its medicinal purposes, particularly in reducing the elevated cholesterol levels in blood. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is also associated with other complications such as impaired renal function and diabetes mellitus...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Teresa Röhrig, Olga Pacjuk, Silvia Hernández-Huguet, Johanna Körner, Katharina Scherer, Elke Richling
Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts ( Arbutus unedo , Camellia sinensis , Cynara scolymus , Zingiber officinale ) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay...
November 4, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Emanuelle L P de Faria, Rafael S do Carmo, Ana Filipa M Cláudio, Carmen S R Freire, Mara G Freire, Armando J D Silvestre
In recent years a high demand for natural ingredients with nutraceutical properties has been witnessed, for which the development of more environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient extraction solvents and methods play a primary role. In this perspective, in this work, the application of deep eutectic solvents (DES), composed of quaternary ammonium salts and organic acids, as alternative solvents for the extraction of cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. leaves was studied. After selecting the most promising DES, their aqueous solutions were investigated, allowing to obtain a maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 6...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Júnia Raquel Dutra Ferreira, Milena Magalhães Aleluia, Camylla Vilas Boas Figueiredo, Larissa Castro de Lima Vieira, Rayra Pereira Santiago, Caroline Conceição da Guarda, Cynara Gomes Barbosa, Ricardo Riccio Oliveira, Elisângela Vitória Adorno, Marilda de Souza Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with an unfavorable impact on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diverse populations of normal weight and obese women. The present study aimed to evaluate the cardiometabolic and inflammatory profiles of women in northeastern Brazil with respect to COC use and obesity. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to verify cardiovascular parameters, including blood pressure (BP), fasting serum glucose, lipid, and inflammatory profile, in a population of women aged 15-45 years, considering obesity and COC use...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Alejandra Martínez-Esplá, Daniel Valero, Domingo Martínez-Romero, Salvador Castillo, María José Giménez, Maria Emma García-Pastor, María Serrano, Pedro Javier Zapata
The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment as an elicitor of artichoke plants [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] on the yield and quality attributes of artichokes, especially those related to individual phenolic content and antioxidant activity, at two harvest dates and along storage were analyzed in this research. Plants treated gave a higher yield of artichokes in comparison to control plants, with 0.55 kg more per plant. MeJa treatment also increased artichoke quality and phenolic content in the edible fraction at harvest and during storage at 2 °C for 28 days as a result of the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acids and luteolin derivatives...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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