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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717205/genome-reconstruction-in-cynara-cardunculus-taxa-gains-access-to-chromosome-scale-dna-variation
#1
Alberto Acquadro, Lorenzo Barchi, Ezio Portis, Giulio Mangino, Danila Valentino, Giovanni Mauromicale, Sergio Lanteri
The genome sequence of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus, 2n = 2x = 34) is now available for use. A survey of C. cardunculus genetic resources is essential for understanding the evolution of the species, carrying out genetic studies and for application of breeding strategies. We report on the resequencing analyses (~35×) of four globe artichoke genotypes, representative of the core varietal types, as well as a genotype of the related taxa cultivated cardoon. The genomes were reconstructed at a chromosomal scale and structurally/functionally annotated...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708985/ultrastructural-protein-and-photosynthetic-alterations-induced-by-pb-and-cd-in-cynara-cardunculus-l-and-its-potential-for-phytoremediation
#2
C Arena, F Figlioli, M C Sorrentino, L G Izzo, F Capozzi, S Giordano, V Spagnuolo
The effects of cadmium and lead were investigated in Cynara cardunculus L. Plant uptake by root and shoot, changes in cell ultrastructure and photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic key protein levels, as well as regulation of stress-induced Hsp70 were examined. Cynara cardunculus accumulated Cd and Pb in their tissue, with a different trend for the two metals. The prompt translocation of Cd to the shoot may justify the ultrastructural injuries, especially observed in chloroplasts. However, Cd- treated plants did not show any decline in photochemistry; it is likely that Cd in shoot tissue triggers defense mechanisms, increasing the level of proteins involved in photosynthesis (i...
July 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629341/protective-effects-of-cynara-scolymus-leaves-extract-on-metabolic-disorders-and-oxidative-stress-in-alloxan-diabetic-rats
#3
Maryem Ben Salem, Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Raouia Dhouibi, Kamilia Ksouda, Slim Charfi, Mahdi Yaich, Serria Hammami, Zouheir Sahnoun, Khaled Mounir Zeghal, Kamel Jamoussi, Hanen Affes
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with hyperglycemia, inflammatory disorders and abnormal lipid profiles, currently the extracts from leaves of cynara scolymus has been discovered to treat metabolic disorders and has been stated by multitudinous scientists according to a good source of polyphenols compounds. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of the ethanol leaves extract of C. scolymus in alloxan induced stress oxidant, hepatic-kidney dysfunction and histological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas of different experimental groups of rats...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589738/hemoglobin-variant-profiles-among-brazilian-quilombola-communities
#4
Rayra P Santiago, Rodrigo M Oliveira, Leonardo F Soares, Camylla V B Figueiredo, Denise Oliveira Silva, Ana F Hurtado-Guerrero, Luciana M Fiuza, Caroline C Guarda, Elisângela V Adorno, Cynara G Barbosa, Marilda S Gonçalves
Brazilian Quilombolas are communities composed of African-derived populations that have their territories guaranteed by the Brazilian Constitution. The present study investigated the hemoglobin (Hb) variants among these population groups. This study was conducted in a total of 2843 individuals of Brazilian Quilombola communities of the Bahia, Pará, and Piauí states. All the participants had their Hb profiles evaluated. The Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) variant was described in all the studied localities. However, the individuals in Bahia State had the highest frequency of the Hb C (HBB: c...
March 2017: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570688/genetic-diversity-and-accession-structure-in-european-cynara-cardunculus-collections
#5
Mario A Pagnotta, Juan A Fernández, Gabriella Sonnante, Catalina Egea-Gilabert
Understanding the distribution of genetic variations and accession structures is an important factor for managing genetic resources, but also for using proper germplasm in association map analyses and breeding programs. The globe artichoke is the fourth most important horticultural crop in Europe. Here, we report the results of a molecular analysis of a collection including globe artichoke and leafy cardoon germplasm present in the Italian, French and Spanish gene banks. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess the diversity present in European collections, (ii) determine the population structure, (iii) measure the genetic distance between accessions; (iv) cluster the accessions; (v) properly distinguish accessions present in the different national collections carrying the same name; and (vi) understand the diversity distribution in relation to the gene bank and the geographic origin of the germplasm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539965/chemicals-compositions-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-cynara-scolymus-leaves-extracts-and-analysis-of-major-bioactive-polyphenols-by-hplc
#6
Maryem Ben Salem, Hanen Affes, Khaled Athmouni, Kamilia Ksouda, Raouia Dhouibi, Zouheir Sahnoun, Serria Hammami, Khaled Mounir Zeghal
Objective. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) was one of the plant remedies for primary health care. The present study was focused on the determination of chemical composition, antioxidant activities, and anti-inflammatory activity and on analyzing its major bioactive polyphenols by HPLC. Methods. Artichoke Leaves Extracts (ALE) were analyzed for proximate analysis and phytochemical and antioxidant activity by several methods such as DDPH, ABTS, FRAP, and beta-carotene bleaching test. The carrageenan (Carr) model induced paw oedema in order to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407920/preharvest-application-of-oxalic-acid-improves-quality-and-phytochemical-content-of-artichoke-cynara-scolymus-l-at-harvest-and-during-storage
#7
Alejandra Martínez-Esplá, María Emma García-Pastor, Pedro Javier Zapata, Fabián Guillén, María Serrano, Daniel Valero, Amadeo Gironés-Vilaplana
In this study the effect of oxalic acid (OA) treatment of artichoke plants (Cynara scolymus L.) on head artichoke development and on artichokes quality parameters (weight loss, firmness, and color), respiration rate, antioxidant activity and phenolics (measured by Folin Ciocalteu and HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) at harvest and during storage for 21days at 2°C was evaluated. OA treatment increased the percentage of the first class artichokes although no significant effect was found in artichoke developmental process...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359206/influence-of-vegetable-coagulant-and-ripening-time-on-the-lipolytic-and-sensory-profile-of-cheeses-made-with-raw-goat-milk-from-canary-breeds
#8
Arturo A Rincón, Verónica Pino, María R Fresno, Ana I Jiménez-Abizanda, Sergio Álvarez, Juan H Ayala, Ana M Afonso
Free fatty acids and sensory profiles were obtained for cheeses made with raw goat milk and vegetable coagulant, derived from the cardoon flower ( Cynara cardunculus), at different ripening times (7 and 20 days). A solid-liquid phase extraction method followed by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography was used. Profiles were also obtained with cheeses made with commercial coagulant, traditional kid rennet paste, and mixture coagulant (vegetable coagulant-kid rennet). The use of vegetable coagulant and vegetable coagulant-kid rennet is common in traditional Protected Designation of Origin cheeses such as " Queso Flor de Guía" and " Queso Media Flor de Guía" (Spain)...
April 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357802/studies-on-the-protective-effect-of-the-artichoke-cynara-scolymus-leaf-extract-against-cadmium-toxicity-induced-oxidative-stress-hepatorenal-damage-and-immunosuppressive-and-hematological-disorders-in-rats
#9
Mohamed El-Boshy, Ahmad Ashshi, Mazen Gaith, Naeem Qusty, Thalat Bokhary, Nagwa AlTaweel, Mohamed Abdelhady
Our objective was to explore the protective effect of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) against cadmium (Cd) toxicity-induced oxidative organ damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups of eight animals each. The first group was assigned as a control. Groups 2-4 were orally administered with ALE (300 mg/kg bw), Cd (CdCl2, 100 mg/L drinking water), and ALE plus Cd, respectively, daily for 4 weeks. After treatment with Cd, the liver and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly compared with the control rats...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323047/biochemical-and-chemical-characterization-of-cynara-cardunculus-l-extract-and-its-potential-use-as-co-adjuvant-therapy-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#10
Antonio Russo, Mariarita Perri, Erika Cione, Maria Luisa Di Gioia, Monica Nardi, Maria Cristina Caroleo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ancient mediterranean diet was characterized by consuming the spontaneous forms of Cynara Cardunculus L. (CCL), commonly called artichoke. Cultivated and/or spontaneous forms of CC studies have demonstrated that methanol extract of CCL flower and/or cynaropicrin showed remarkable anti-proliferative activity in vitro models of leukocyte cancer cell. AIM OF THE STUDY: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is associated with a reciprocal translocation of the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22 generating the BCR/ABL fusion gene, translated in the p210(BCR/ABL) oncoprotein kinase...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301568/toxicity-of-spinosad-to-temephos-resistant-aedes-aegypti-populations-in-brazil
#11
Luciana Dos Santos Dias, Maria de Lourdes da Graça Macoris, Maria Teresa Macoris Andrighetti, Vanessa Camargo Garbeloto Otrera, Adriana Dos Santos Dias, Luiz Guilherme Soares da Rocha Bauzer, Cynara de Melo Rodovalho, Ademir Jesus Martins, José Bento Pereira Lima
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of different arboviruses and represents a major public health problem. Several Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti have developed resistance to temephos, the most used organophosphate larvicide. New tools which are less harmful to the environment and safer for humans are becoming increasingly important to control this insect vector. Spinosad, an aerobic fermentation product of a soil actinobacteria, has a favorable environmental profile. It presents selective insecticide properties, a mechanism of action that differs from those of many synthetic chemical insecticides...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288419/the-potential-of-native-species-as-bioenergy-crops-on-trace-element-contaminated-mediterranean-lands
#12
María T Domínguez, María M Montiel-Rozas, Paula Madejón, Manuel J Diaz, Engracia Madejón
The establishment of energy crops could be an option for the management of degraded and contaminated lands, where they would not compete with food production for land use. Here, we aimed to explore the potential of certain native Mediterranean species for the revegetation of contaminated lands for energy production purposes. A field survey was conducted in a trace-element (TE) contaminated area from SW Spain, where the patterns of biomass production, TE accumulation and the calorific value of some thistle species were analyzed along a soil contamination gradient...
March 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274427/determination-of-pesticide-residues-in-globe-artichoke-leaves-and-fruits-by-gc-ms-and-lc-ms-ms-using-the-same-quechers-procedure
#13
Ignacio Machado, Natalia Gérez, Mariela Pistón, Horacio Heinzen, María Verónica Cesio
Aiming to select the most suitable sample preparation for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L.), a modified QuEChERS, a matrix solid phase dispersion and a dispersive ethyl acetate extraction were compared. Trueness and precision were determined at 0.2mgkg(-1) for the three methods. The modified QuEChERS showed the best performance. The scope of the method was enlarged to 35 GC and 63 LC amenable pesticides, its overall performance was evaluated and validated to artichoke leaves and fruits according to DG-SANTE Guidelines...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251314/molecular-diagnosis-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-evaluation-in-rat-model-and-application-in-suspected-human-cases
#14
Adriana Oliveira Costa, Cinthia Furst, Lucas Oliveira Rocha, Cecília Cirelli, Carolina Neris Cardoso, Fagner Salmazo Neiva, Cynara Oliveira Possamai, Daniel de Assis Santos, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a progressive corneal infection that demands rapid and sensitive techniques for diagnosis to avoid risk of visual impairment. We evaluated two DNA extraction techniques and a semi-nested-PCR (snPCR) targeting the 18S rRNA gene to detect Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites. The most effective protocol was evaluated in samples of corneal scrapings and biopsies from an AK rat model and applied to diagnosis of human cases of AK. DNA extraction performed with a commercial kit based on DNA binding to magnetic beads was more efficient than a method based on alkaline lysis, allowing the detection of one trophozoite and one cyst of Acanthamoeba in samples prepared from cultures...
April 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212860/comparative-structure-function-characterization-of-the-saposin-like-domains-from-potato-barley-cardoon-and-arabidopsis-aspartic-proteases
#15
Brian C Bryksa, Douglas A Grahame, Rickey Y Yada
The present study characterized the aspartic protease saposin-like domains of four plant species, Solanum tuberosum (potato), Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon; artichoke thistle) and Arabidopsis thaliana, in terms of bilayer disruption and fusion, and structure pH-dependence. Comparison of the recombinant saposin-like domains revealed that each induced leakage of bilayer vesicles composed of a simple phospholipid mixture with relative rates Arabidopsis>barley>cardoon>potato...
February 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212611/impact-of-novel-snps-identified-in-cynara-cardunculus-genes-on-functionality-of-proteins-regulating-phenylpropanoid-pathway-and-their-association-with-biological-activities
#16
Ana Margarida Ferro, Patrícia Ramos, Olinda Guerreiro, Eliana Jerónimo, Inês Pires, Carmen Capel, Juan Capel, Rafael Lozano, Maria F Duarte, M Margarida Oliveira, Sónia Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Cynara cardunculus L. offers a natural source of phenolic compounds with the predominant molecule being chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid is gaining interest due to its involvement in various biological properties such as, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic activities. RESULTS: In this work we screened a Cynara cardunculus collection for new allelic variants in key genes involved in the chlorogenic acid biosynthesis pathway...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193423/effect-of-extraction-ph-on-techno-functional-properties-of-crude-extracts-from-wild-cardoon-cynara-cardunculus-l-flowers
#17
Amal Ben Amira, Ines Makhlouf, Raul Flaviu Petrut, Frédéric Francis, Julien Bauwens, Hamadi Attia, Souhail Besbes, Christophe Blecker
In the present paper, techno-functional properties of rennet derived from C. cardunculus, prepared at various pH (from 3 to 6), were investigated. It was found that the extract prepared at pH 3 had the best milk-clotting properties (MCA/PA ratio). It presented also the highest enzyme content, determined by densitometry analysis on 1D and 2D gels electrophoresis. Formation of milk gels produced by the extracts and chymosin was monitored using dynamic rheology and turbiscan. It can be assumed that by lowering rennet pH, milk pH decreases, causing a significant increase of curd firmness and both elastic (G') and viscous (G″) moduli...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147701/genotoxic-and-chemopreventive-assessment-of-cynara-scolymus-l-aqueous-extract-in-a-human-derived-liver-cell-line
#18
Regiane Pereira da Silva, Laura Vicedo Jacociunas, Raíne Fogliati de Carli, Bianca Regina Ribas de Abreu, Mauricio Lehmann, Juliana da Silva, Alexandre de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Cynara scolymus L., popularly known as artichoke, is consumed as food and used as tea infusions for pharmacological purposes to treat liver dysfunctions and other conditions. Scientific data on the safety and protective effect of artichoke in human-derived liver cells is missing. This study investigated the genotoxic and modulatory effect of a liophilized extract suspended in water of C. scolymus L. leaves. Four extract concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL) were evaluated using the comet assay on human hepatocyte cultures, HepG2 cells...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103294/community-based-entomological-surveillance-reveals-urban-foci-of-chagas-disease-vectors-in-sobral-state-of-cear%C3%A3-northeastern-brazil
#19
Cynara Carvalho Parente, Fernando S M Bezerra, Plutarco I Parente, Raimundo V Dias-Neto, Samanta C C Xavier, Alberto N Ramos, Filipe A Carvalho-Costa, Marli M Lima
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to explore the potential risk of vector-borne Chagas disease in urban districts in northeastern Brazil, by analyzing the spatiotemporal distributions and natural infection rates with Trypanosoma cruzi of triatomine species captured in recent years. The main motivation of this work was an acute human case of Chagas disease reported in 2008 in the municipality of Sobral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from community-based entomological surveillance carried out from 2010 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101252/identification-of-proteins-from-wild-cardoon-flowers-cynara-cardunculus-l-by-a-proteomic-approach
#20
Amal Ben Amira, Julien Bauwens, Edwin De Pauw, Souhail Besbes, Hamadi Attia, Frédéric Francis, Christophe Blecker
Proteomic approach was applied to identify total proteins, particularly the enzymatic content, from wild cardoon flowers. As the selection of an appropriate sample preparation method is the key for getting reliable results, two different extraction/precipitation methods (trichloroacetic acid and phenol/ammonium acetate) were tested on fresh and lyophilized flowers. After two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) separations, a better protein pattern was obtained after phenol extraction from lyophilized flowers...
January 2017: Journal of Chemical Biology
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