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V G Radchenko, P V Seliverstov, S S Ledentsova, A V Man'yakov
AIM: To determine the incidence of biliary sludge (BS) and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Chophytol in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and BS in the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Clinical laboratory examination was made in 72 patients with NASH in the presence of MS. BS was identified in 52 (72.2%) examinees who were divided in two (study and control) groups. The efficacy of Chophytol of plant origin, prepared from the purified extract of fresh artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf juice, which was used at a dose of 3 tablets thrice daily for a month, was evaluated...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Pallab Kumar Borah, Sourav Chakraborty, Anupam N Jha, Sanchaita Rajkhowa, Raj Kumar Duary
ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is an attractive target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We aimed to identify selective inhibitors of ADAM17 against matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-16) which have substantial structural similarity. Target proteins were docked with 29 anti-inflammatory natural molecule ligands and a known selective inhibitor IK682. The ligands were screened based on Lipinski rules, interaction with the ADAM17 active site cavity, and then ranked using the proportional odds model multinomial logistic regression...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Andrea Moglia, Alberto Acquadro, Kaouthar Eljounaidi, Anna M Milani, Cecilia Cagliero, Patrizia Rubiolo, Andrea Genre, Katarina Cankar, Jules Beekwilder, Cinzia Comino
Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Márcia B Silva, Ana L M Amor, Leonardo N Santos, Alana A Galvão, Aida Y Oviedo V, Eduardo S Silva, Cynara Gomes Barbosa, Philip J Cooper, Camila A Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Ribeiro, Neuza Maria Alcântara-Neves
In the present article, we provide shortly, data on risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp. infection and investigate possible associations between this infection with atopy and asthma in school children of a small town and its semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil. The data set are composed by demographic, social and home environment variables. The detection of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and specific IgE to aeroallergens was determined by ELISA and ImmunocAP/Phadiatrope systems, respectively. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Risk factors for Toxocara spp...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Samah M El Sohafy, Aly M Metwally, Abdalla A Omar, Masouda E Amer, Mohamed M Radwan, Maged S Abdel-Kader, Sayed A El Toumy, Mahmoud A ElSohly
The ethanol extract of Cynara cornigera L. was fractionated and the fractions were subjected to hepatoprotective assays using Wistar albino rats at a dose of 500 and 250mg/kg. The liver injury was induced in rats using carbon tetrachloride. Biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin were estimated as reflections of the liver condition, with silymarin as a positive control. Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic separation of the hepatoprotective fractions led to the isolation of a new sesqui-lignan namely cornigerin (1), along with eight known compounds: apigenin (2), luteolin (3), β-sitosterol glycoside (4), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), apigenin-7-O-rutinoside (7), cynarin 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8), and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (9)...
September 28, 2016: Fitoterapia
Eleni Kollia, Panagiota Markaki, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Charalampos Proestos
Extracts of different parts (heads, bracts and stems) of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) and Cynara scolymus L. (globe artichoke), obtained by two different extraction techniques (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and classical extraction (CE)) were examined and compared for their total phenolic content (TPC) and their antioxidant activity. Moreover, infusions of the plant's parts were also analysed and compared to aforementioned samples. Results showed that cardoon's heads extract (obtained by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction) displayed the highest TPC values (1...
August 11, 2016: Natural Product Research
Carola Biancalani, Matteo Cerboneschi, Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni, Margherita Campo, Arianna Scardigli, Annalisa Romani, Stefania Tegli
Protection of plants against bacterial diseases still mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides, which in Europe correspond essentially to copper-based compounds. However, recently plant diseases control is oriented towards a rational use of molecules and extracts, generally with natural origin, with lower intrinsic toxicity and a reduced negative environmental impact. In this work, polyphenolic extracts from vegetable no food/feed residues of typical Mediterranean crops, as Olea europaea, Cynara scolymus, and Vitis vinifera were obtained and their inhibitory activity on the Type Three Secretion System (TTSS) and the Quorum Sensing (QS) of the Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv...
2016: PloS One
Ezio Portis, Flavio Portis, Luisa Valente, Andrea Moglia, Lorenzo Barchi, Sergio Lanteri, Alberto Acquadro
The recently acquired genome sequence of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) has been used to catalog the genome's content of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. More than 177,000 perfect SSRs were revealed, equivalent to an overall density across the genome of 244.5 SSRs/Mbp, but some 224,000 imperfect SSRs were also identified. About 21% of these SSRs were complex (two stretches of repeats separated by <100 nt). Some 73% of the SSRs were composed of dinucleotide motifs. The SSRs were categorized for the numbers of repeats present, their overall length and were allocated to their linkage group...
2016: PloS One
Jacqueline M Moline, Mary Ann McLaughlin, Simonette T Sawit, Cynara Maceda, Lori B Croft, Martin E Goldman, Mario J Garcia, Rupa L Iyengar, Mark Woodward
BACKGROUND: Law enforcement officers (LEOs) experience high rates of cardiovascular events compared with the general US population. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Data regarding MetS among LEOs are limited. METHODS: We sought to determine the prevalence of MetS and its associated risk factors as well as gender differences among LEOs who participated in the World Trade Center (WTC) Law Enforcement Cardiovascular Screening (LECS) Program from 2008 to 2010...
September 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Carlos Rial, Benito F García, Rosa M Varela, Ascensión Torres, José M G Molinillo, Francisco A Macías
The work described herein is a continuation of a previous study centered on the bioprospect of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) leaf extracts through the isolation of secondary metabolites with phytotoxic activity. Chromatographic fractionations of the ethyl acetate extract and spectroscopic analysis showed that the majority of the components were sesquiterpene lactones. Of these compounds, aguerin B, grosheimin, and cynaropicrin were very active on etiolated wheat coleoptile, standard target species, and weed growth...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Daniela Borgognone, Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Luigi Lucini, Giuseppe Colla
Leaf extracts of cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) are an important source of phenols. Soilless culture represents an important and alternative tool to traditional agriculture, since it allows a precise control of plant nutrition and the maximization of yield and quality of the product. Reducing N supply, while keeping quantity as high as possible is desirable for environmental and health-related reasons, especially that N deficiency can lead to improved concentrations of secondary plant metabolites...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Luigi Lucini, Daniela Borgognone, Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Jamila Bernardi, Giuseppe Colla
There is a growing interest among consumers and researchers in the globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hegi] leaf extract due to its nutraceutical and therapeutic properties. The application of an abiotic stress such as salinity can activate the stress-signaling pathways, thus enhancing the content of valuable phytochemicals. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic changes in artichokes by probing the leaf metabolome of artichoke plants grown in a floating system and exposed to a relatively mild (30 mM) potassium chloride (KCl) salt stress...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bruna de Falco, Guido Incerti, Rosa Pepe, Mariana Amato, Virginia Lanzotti
INTRODUCTION: Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. Fiori) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) are sources of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES: To apply a NMR metabolomic fingerprinting approach to Cynara cardunculus heads to obtain simultaneous identification and quantitation of the major classes of organic compounds. METHODOLOGY: The edible part of 14 Globe artichoke populations, belonging to the Romaneschi varietal group, were extracted to obtain apolar and polar organic extracts...
September 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Mahmoud Fahmi Elsebai, Khaled Abass, Jukka Hakkola, Ahmed Rezk Atawia, Mohamed A Farag
Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its subsequent complications are a major cause of mortality worldwide. The water extract of the wild Egyptian artichoke (WEA) (Cynara cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lam.) Fiori) leaves is a freely available herbal product that is used for treatment of HCV-infection complications such as jaundice and ascites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether WEA exhibits activity against HCV, identify bioactive chemicals in its extract and to tentatively examine the potential inhibitory interactions of WEA with human drug-metabolizing enzymes...
July 13, 2016: Food & Function
Vajiheh Rangboo, Mostafa Noroozi, Roza Zavoshy, Seyed Amirmansoor Rezadoost, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl
Background. Based on recent basic and clinical investigations, the extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf has been revealed to be used for hepatoprotective and cholesterol reducing purposes. We aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of artichoke on biochemical and liver biomarkers in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 60 consecutive patients suffering NASH were randomly assigned to receive Cynara scolymus extract (as 6 tablets per day consisting of 2700 mg extract of the herb) as the intervention group or placebo as the control group for two months...
2016: International Journal of Hepatology
Maroua Boubaker, Abdelfatteh El Omri, Christophe Blecker, Nabiha Bouzouita
The potential of fibre concentrate from artichoke stem by-product in bakery application was investigated. The elaboration of fibre concentrate was characterized by an extraction yield of 48.5%. The chemical composition showed high total dietary fibre (85 g/100 g d.m) and low lipid contents (0.5 g/100 g d.m). The fibre concentrate showed good water holding capacity (8.17 g/g) and high oil holding capacity (16.17 g/g). The effect of fibre concentrate incorporation to wheat dough, at level of 2%, on the rheological properties and physical characteristics of bread was also evaluated...
June 8, 2016: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Lucas A Meirelles, Quinn S McFrederick, Andre Rodrigues, Joana D Mantovani, Cynara de Melo Rodovalho, Henrique Ferreira, Maurício Bacci, Ulrich G Mueller
Microbiome surveys provide clues for the functional roles of symbiotic microbial communities and their hosts. In this study, we elucidated bacterial microbiomes associated with the vertically-transmitted fungal inocula (pellets) used by foundress queens of the leaf-cutting ant Atta texana as starter-cultures for new gardens. As reference microbiomes, we also surveyed bacterial microbiomes of foundress queens, gardens, and brood of incipient nests. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Propionibacterium, and Corynebacterium were consistently present in high abundance in microbiomes...
June 6, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Anika Kuczmannová, Andrea Balažová, Eva Račanská, Miroslava Kameníková, Silvia Fialová, Jaroslav Majerník, Milan Nagy, Peter Gál, Pavel Mučaji
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently diagnosed at a time when patients already suffer from several cardiovascular complications. Our previously published data (Molecules 201520 (11): 20538-50) on the anti-oxidative properties of Agrimonia eupatoria L. (AE) and Cynara cardunculus L. (CC) prompted us to extend the available evidence on their possible protective activities on selected DM-related parameters in a streptozotocin-induced DM rat model and in a series of in vitro experiments. Male rats were divided into four groups: control group, untreated diabetic group, AE and CC treated diabetic groups...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Márcia B Silva, Ana L M Amor, Leonardo N Santos, Alana A Galvão, Aida V Oviedo Vera, Eduardo S Silva, Cynara Gomes Barbosa, Marilda S Gonçalves, Philip J Cooper, Camila A Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Ribeiro, Neuza Maria Alcântara-Neves
Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, are roundworms that live in the intestines of dogs and cats, respectively, and are predominantly agents of human toxocariasis. Studies have suggested that Toxocara spp. seroprevalence increases levels of total and aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE), asthma prevalence and asthma morbidity. Nevertheless, other work reported a negative association between Toxocara spp. seropositivity with skin hypersensititity and a positive association with sIgE. The objective of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp...
April 11, 2016: Acta Tropica
Emine Colak, Mehmet Cengiz Ustuner, Neslihan Tekin, Ertugrul Colak, Dilek Burukoglu, Irfan Degirmenci, Hasan Veysi Gunes
Cynara scolymus is a pharmacologically important medicinal plant containing phenolic acids and flavonoids. Experimental studies indicate antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of C. scolymus but there have been no studies about therapeutic effects of liver diseases yet. In the present study, hepatocurative effects of C. scolymus leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats were investigated by serum hepatic enzyme levels, oxidative stress indicator (malondialdehyde-MDA), endogenous antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, p53, caspase 3 and histopathology...
2016: SpringerPlus
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