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Juliana Naldoni, Antônio A M Maia, Lincoln L Correa, Marcia R M da Silva, Edson A Adriano
Myxozoans are a diverse group of parasitic cnidarians, with some species recognized as serious pathogens to their hosts. The present study describes 2 new myxobolid species (Myxobolus figueirae sp. nov. and Henneguya santarenensis sp. nov.) infecting skin and gill filaments of the Amazonian pimelodid fish Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, based on ultrastructural, histology and phylogenetic analysis. The fish were caught in the Amazon River, Pará, Brazil. The plasmodial development of M. figueirae sp. nov. was in the dermis and those of H...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Yinjuan Wang, Marion Tissot, Gwenaël Rolin, Patrice Muret, Sophie Robin, Jean-Yves Berthon, Li He, Philippe Humbert, Céline Viennet
Primary melanocytes in culture are useful models for studying epidermal pigmentation and efficacy of melanogenic compounds, or developing advanced therapy medicinal products. Cell extraction is an inevitable and critical step in the establishment of cell cultures. Many enzymatic methods for extracting and growing cells derived from human skin, such as melanocytes, are described in literature. They are usually based on two enzymatic steps, Trypsin in combination with Dispase, in order to separate dermis from epidermis and subsequently to provide a suspension of epidermal cells...
March 21, 2018: Cytotechnology
Shravan Shanbhag, Amol Amonkar
Merkel cell carcinoma is a primary neuroendocrine tumour of the skin arising from the dermis and extending into the subcutis, occurring commonly in sun-exposed areas of the head and neck of the elderly. Clinically, non-specific erythematous or violaceous firm nodules or small plaques which may be surrounded by small adjacent satellite tumours are seen. Diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma is difficult by light microscopy alone and need of ancillary techniques like electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry may be necessary...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Chien-Liang Fang, Yiwei Wang, Kevin H-Y Tsai, Hsin-I Chang
The dermis of human skin contains large numbers of fibroblasts that are responsible for the production of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supporting skin integrity, elasticity and wound healing. Previously, an in vivo study demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts siting in the lower dermis are capable to convert into skin adipose layer and hence fibroblast lipogenesis may vary the structure and elasticity of dermis. In the present study, Hs68 human dermal fibroblasts were utilized as an in vitro model to study the lipogenesis via using adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Matthew Collin
The maintenance of macrophage populations, role of environmental cues in shaping their physiology, and the response of resident cells to perturbation are critical factors in tissue homeostasis with implications for many pathological scenarios. Pigment-containing cells of the dermis are the latest to come under the scrutiny of a mouse-induced depletion model.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Je Yeon Byeon, Hwan Jun Choi, Ji Hye Lee
Dermoid cysts are benign developmental anomalies that occurred as a result of the sequestration of the skin along the lines of embryonic closure. Those occurring in the cervicofacial region are uncommon, accounting for about 7% of all dermoids and its presence in postauricular region is further exceptionally rare. A healthy 19-year-old Asian boy presented with a unilateral postauricular cyst that had been present since childhood without any symptom. The computed tomography scan revealed an encapsulated tumor with no intracranial extension...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Madeleine S Durkee, Landon D Nash, Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Duncan J Maitland, Kristen C Maitland
The rapid development of new optical imaging techniques is dependent on the availability of low-cost, customizable, and easily reproducible standards. By replicating the imaging environment, costly animal experiments to validate a technique may be circumvented. Predicting and optimizing the performance of in vivo and ex vivo imaging techniques requires testing on samples that are optically similar to tissues of interest. Tissue-mimicking optical phantoms provide a standard for evaluation, characterization, or calibration of an optical system...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marieke Hogervorst, Marion Rietveld, Frank de Gruijl, Abdoelwaheb El Ghalbzouri
BACKGROUND: Tumour stroma consists of a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts and related mesenchymal cells, collectively dubbed cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These CAFs are key players in cancer invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). As we have shown earlier, papillary and reticular fibroblasts (Pfs and Rfs, respectively) have distinct effects on epidermal and dermal homeostasis, but their role in cancer invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains to be determined...
March 19, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Warren R Heymann
A 75-year-old man had been monitoring his glucose using a blood glucose monitoring system at the same body site for at least 20 years (>7300 needlesticks). The asymptomatic skin lesion had been present for many years. He used the same site because it hurt less than the fingers and bled well. His medical history was remarkable for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and a pacemaker. His medications included glipizide, metformin, carvedilol, furosemide, lisinopril, amlodipine, clopidogrel, and aspirin...
2018: Skinmed
Valérie Haydont, Bruno A Bernard, Nicolas O Fortunel
Ageing is today a major societal concern that is intrinsically associated with the increase of life expectancy. Outside the context of severe degenerative diseases that affect the elderly populations, normal visible signs of ageing, notably skin sagging and wrinkles, influence the social and individual perception of peoples. Accordingly, there is a strong demand for researches on skin ageing. Deciphering the cellular and molecular processes of skin evolution through ageing is thus an active scientific domain, at the frontier of tissue developmental and ageing biology...
March 13, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Kevin C Lee, Scott M Peters, Yen Chen Kevin Ko, Timothy C Kunkle, Michael A Perrino, Angela J Yoon, Elizabeth M Philipone
Lipoid proteinosis (LP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the deposition of amorphous hyaline material in the dermis and submucosal connective tissue. Here, we present a case of LP with significant oral, dermatologic, and neurologic manifestations occurring in a 10 year-old female of Asian descent. In addition to the more typical oral findings of restricted tongue movement and labial and buccal mucosal involvement, this case highlights an unusual pattern of gingival enlargement infrequently reported in the literature...
February 14, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Stephanie Donaldson, Theresa Canavan, Peter G Pavlidakey, Wendy C Cantrell, Boni E Elewski
Local adverse reactions to vaccination are typically mild and often quickly resolve. Vaccine adjuvants such as aluminum salts in combination with improper vaccination technique may result in severe local adverse reactions. As far as we know, there is only one prior case of frankly necrotic rapidly progressing vaccine site necrosis, which occurred in a pediatric patient.1 To our knowledge, this is the first adult case of vaccine site necrosis to be reported. The presumed etiology has been aluminum salt adjuvants and improper vaccination technique...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
H Yoshida, A Komiya, R Ohtsuki, A Kusaka-Kikushima, S Sakai, K Kawabata, M Kobayashi, S Nakamura, A Nagaoka, T Sayo, Y Okada, Y Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan (HA) is an important constituent of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the skin, and HA degradation mediated by HYBID (KIAA1199) is suggested to be implicated in facial skin wrinkling in Japanese women. Ethnic difference in skin wrinkle formation is known between Caucasian and Japanese women, but no information is available for the relations of HA and HYBID expression levels with skin wrinkling in Caucasian women. METHODS: The skin surface roughness at the eye corner of the Caucasian female subjects was measured, and the skin specimens biopsied from the same areas were subjected to microarray gene analysis, HA staining, and immunohistochemistry for HYBID...
March 14, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Mary Clark, Jessica Kim, Neelou Etesami, Jacqueline Shimamoto, Ryan V Whalen, Gary Martin, Cheryl Y M Okumura
The resurgence of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in the past two decades has been a rising major public health concern. Due to a large number of GAS infections occurring in the skin, mast cells (MCs), innate immune cells known to localize to the dermis, could play an important role in controlling infection. MCs can exert their antimicrobial activities either early during infection, by degranulation and release of antimicrobial proteases and the cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide LL-37, or by forming antibacterial MC extracellular traps (MCETs) in later stages of infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Karan Lal, Travis J Morrell, Michael Cunningham, Patrick OʼDonnell, Nikki A Levin, Kristine M Cornejo
Cutaneous mixed tumor (chondroid syringoma) is the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands, comprised of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. Malignant transformation is exceptionally rare, with only a few cases reported. We report a case of a malignant cutaneous mixed tumor in an 86-year-old white man who presented with a pink indurated plaque on his left scapula. He had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancers, a stage IB malignant melanoma of a lower extremity and Gleason 4 + 3 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy, external beam irradiation, and bicalutamide...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
P Fallahi, R Foddis, G Elia, F Ragusa, A Patrizio, G Guglielmi, G Frenzilli, S Benvenga, A Cristaudo, A Antonelli, S M Ferrari
Vanadium is a soft, silvery‑grey metal with a number of different oxidation states. The most common commercial form of vanadium is vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). All vanadium compounds are considered toxic. An increase in skin rashes has been observed in certain vanadium workers, including the development of atopic dermatitis. However, to the best of our knowledge, no prior in vivo or in vitro studies have evaluated the effect of vanadium exposure in human dermal fibroblasts. The present study evaluated the effect of V2O5 on proliferation and chemokine secretion in dermal fibroblasts...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Wei Liu, Qi Zhao, Luyang Lv, Suo Yan, Qin Song, Tian Chen, Qian Yao
Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) is primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids, implying its potential application as a transdermal enhancer. In this study, the function of PSO in prompting the percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was examined and compared with isopropyl palmitate (IP). IP of 10% enhanced the cumulative permeation amount of resveratrol by 50% but did not influence the permeation velocity. Though 2.5% and 5.0% IP accelerated the penetration process of resveratrol, they had no discernable impact on total permeation amount...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Klaus Fritz, Carmen Salavastru, Magdalina Gyurova
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates noninvasive cellulite treatments based on simultaneous application of monopolar radiofrequency (RF) and targeted pressure energy to evaluate efficacy and safety and to see whether simultaneous application has any benefits in noninvasive cellulite treatments. METHODS: Thirty women with cellulite (fibrous/adipose/aqueous types) received 4 gluteofemoral treatments (~24 minutes; ~1000 cm2 ) using a simultaneous application of RF and targeted pressure energy...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Michael Gold, Anneke Andriessen, Alexandros Bader, Red Alinsod, Elizabeth Shane French, Nathan Guerette, Yegor Kolodchenko, Michael Krychman, Susan Murrmann, Julene Samuels
INTRODUCTION: The use of energy-based devices for the treatment of vaginal laxity, orgasmic dysfunction, and stress incontinence, such as minimally ablative fractional laser and radiofrequency, is gaining momentum. This review aims to answer clinical questions on the application of energy-based devices for feminine genital rejuvenation. METHODS: The target group includes physicians involved in esthetic medicine and feminine genital rejuvenation. A literature review was conducted on technologies in use for feminine rejuvenation to explore their safety, efficacy, tolerability, patient satisfaction, and clinical usability...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
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