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Yukiko Matsuo, Daisuke Shinoda, Aina Nakamaru, Kuni Kamohara, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yoshihiro Mimaki
Phytochemical examination of Convallaria majalis (Liliaceae) whole plants yielded 15 steroidal glycosides ( 1 - 15 ), including nine new compounds ( 4 - 6 , 10 - 15 ) with a lycotetrose unit. The structures of the new compounds were determined using two-dimensional Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses and chemical methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells, A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells, and HSC-4 and HSC-2 human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eun Gul Chung, Sangjin Ryu
<i>Vorticella convallaria</i> is a sessile protozoan of which the spasmoneme contracts on a millisecond timescale. Because this contraction is induced and powered by the binding of calcium ions (Ca<sup>2+</sup>), the spasmoneme showcases Ca<sup>2+</sup>-powered cellular motility. Because the isometric tension of <i>V. convallaria</i> increases linearly with its stalk length, it is hypothesized that the contractility of <i>V. convallaria</i> during unhindered contraction depends on the stalk length...
September 1, 2017: Physical Biology
Jiazhong Zhou, Sangjin Ryu, David Admiraal
Vorticella convallaria is a protozoan attached to a substrate by a stalk which can contract in less than 10 ms, translating the zooid toward the substrate with a maximum Reynolds number of ∼1. Following contraction, the stalk slowly relaxes, moving the zooid away from the substrate, which results in creeping flow. Although Vorticella has long been believed to contract to evade danger, it has been suggested that its stalk may contract to enhance food transport near the substrate. To elucidate how Vorticella utilizes its contraction-relaxation cycle, we investigated water flow caused by the cycle, using a computational fluid dynamics model validated with an experimental scale model and particle tracking velocimetry...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Yi-Di Li, Ying Chen, Li Wang, Lin Yao, Xu-Ming Pan, Duu-Jong Lee
This study for the first time confirmed that eight dominating protozoan species, Cryptomonas erosa, Euglena axyuris, Euglena caudate, Euglena gasterosteus, Euglena acus, Vorticella campanula, Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis lacustris, were the pollution tolerant species at chemical oxygen demand 54-104mg/L. These species cannot be used as indicator for clean water quality as commonly believed. The protozoa can be actively participating in the energy transfer chain between nano-planktonic and higher plants in polluted wetlands...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Alper Gokbulut, Fatma Sezer Senol
Plants have been always a fruitful source of active metabolites against many human disorders, where cardiovascular (CV) diseases have been one of the major health problems all over the world. There are some clinically proved medicinal plants with cardioprotective effects such as Crataegus monogyna and C. oxyacantha (hawthorn) from Rosaceae. On the other hand, cardiac glycosides, present in a number of plant species, are wellknown for their cardiotonic activity. However, we encountered such a fact that very less number of studies are available on the source plants; e...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Barbara Szabó, Enikő Vincze, Bálint Czúcz
The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species (Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1...
September 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Haeng-Eun Lee, Jeong-Seok Nam, Ji-Ae Shin, In-Sun Hong, In-Hyoung Yang, Myung-Jo You, Sung-Dae Cho
BACKGROUND: Various chemotherapeutic agents have been used largely for the treatment of salivary gland cancer. However, results are disappointing, and these agents can cause some serious side effects. Therefore, recent studies have focused on the possible roles of natural products to overcome these limitations. METHODS: Salivary gland cancer cells treated with or without Convallaria keiskei (MECK) for 24 hours. Apoptotic changes were evaluated by live/dead assay, immunoblotting, and expression levels of caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma-2 family member...
April 2016: Head & Neck
E Iannilli, A Sorokowska, Z Zhigang, A Hähner, J Warr, T Hummel
Tastes and odors influence the perception of a meal. Especially food aromas can act as potent signals to modulate our eating behavior with strong dependency on the reward produced by food. In this investigation we aimed to study the electrophysiological response to food- and non-food-related odors in healthy volunteers. Analyses revealed specific scalp potential maps for the two conditions; in particular the source of the map in the "food" condition seemed to be associated with the processing of rewards; the specific map in the "non-food" condition reflects odor characteristics excluding the reward...
March 19, 2015: Neuroscience
H W Yoo, M E van Royen, W A van Cappellen, A B Houtsmuller, M Verhaegen, G Schitter
Mismatch between the refractive indexes of immersion media and glass coverslips introduces spherical aberrations in microscopes especially for high numerical aperture objectives. This contribution demonstrates an automated adjustment of the coverslip correction collar in scanning confocal microscopy to compensate for spherical aberrations due to coverslip thickness mismatch. With a motorized coverslip correction collar, the adjustment procedure consists of xz image scans, image processing, correction quality evaluation, the mismatch estimation, and eventually the optimal adjustment of the correction collar...
December 2014: Review of Scientific Instruments
Steffen Dörrich, Christoph Mahler, Reinhold Tacke, Philip Kraft
5-Methyl-4-methylidene-6-(trimethylsilyl)hexanal (1b), a sila analog of the acyclic lily-of-the-valley odorant 5,7,7-trimethyl-4-methylideneoctanal (1a), and the Si-containing derivatives 2-6 were prepared in multistep syntheses, starting from Cl3 SiH and Cl2 SiMe2 , respectively. Compounds 1b, 2-6, and their new precursors were characterized by elemental analyses (C, H, N) and NMR spectroscopic studies ((1) H, (13) C, (15) N, and (29) Si). To gain more information about the structureodor correlation in the family of lily-of-the-valley or 'muguet' odorants, C/Si analogs 1a/1b and derivatives 2-6 were evaluated for their olfactory properties...
November 2014: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Ute Risse-Buhl, Katja Felsmann, Michael Mutz
Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment...
August 2014: European Journal of Protistology
Kerry J Welsh, Richard Sheng Poe Huang, Jeffrey K Actor, Amitava Dasgupta
OBJECTIVES: To explore the luminescent oxygen channeling technology-based digoxin immunoassay (LOCI digoxin assay) for rapid detection of lily of the valley extract and convallatoxin. The potential in vitro binding of convallatoxin with Digibind was also evaluated. METHODS: Aliquots of a drug-free serum pool and a digoxin serum pool were supplemented with lily of the valley extract or convallatoxin, and then apparent digoxin concentrations were measured using the LOCI digoxin assay...
September 2014: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
S L Fink, T E Robey, A F Tarabar, M E Hodsdon
CONTEXT: Cardiac glycosides of plant origin are implicated in toxic ingestions that may result in hospitalization and are potentially lethal. The utility of commonly available digoxin serum assays for detecting foxglove and oleander ingestion has been demonstrated, but no studies have evaluated the structurally similar convallatoxin found in Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley) for rapid laboratory screening, nor has digoxin immune Fab been tested as an antidote for this ingestion...
August 2014: Clinical Toxicology
Fumio Ikagami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2014: Chūdoku Kenkyū: Chūdoku Kenkyūkai Jun Kikanshi, the Japanese Journal of Toxicology
Bo Hu, Rong Qi, Min Yang
The indicator values of microfauna functional groups and species for treatment performance were systematically evaluated based on the continuous monitoring of the entire microfauna communities including both protozoa and metazoa over a period of 14 months, in two parallel full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems in a plant in Beijing, China. A total of 57 species of ciliates, 14 species (units) of amoebae, 14 species (units) of flagellates and 4 classes of small metazoa were identified, with Arcella hemisphaerica, Vorticella striata, Vorticella convallaria, Epistylis plicatilis and small flagellates (e...
July 1, 2013: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
D D-U Li, S Poland, S Coelho, D Tyndall, W Zhang, J Richardson, R K Henderson, S M Ameer-Beg
We have developed a fast hardware friendly bi-exponential fluorescence lifetime algorithm suitable for 2D CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays. The performance of the proposed algorithm against other techniques is demonstrated on the data from a plant specimen (Convallaria) by using 0.13µm CMOS SPAD arrays mounted on a multi-beam multi-photon microscopy system.
2013: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sun Young Kim, Joong Ki Choi, John R Dolan, Hyoung Chul Shin, SangHoon Lee, Eun Jin Yang
We characterized six tintinnid ciliates from Antarctic waters using molecular markers and morphological traits: Amphorellopsis quinquealata, Codonellopsis gaussi, Cymatocylis convallaria, Cy. calyciformis, Cy. drygalskii, and Laackmanniella prolongata. The 100% similarity in SSU-ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2-partial LSU rDNA sequences among Cy. convallaria, Cy. calyciformis, and Cy. drygalskii is supportive of synonymy. Codonellopsis gaussi and L. prolongata also showed high levels of similarity in SSU rDNA (99.83%) and the D2 domain of LSU rDNA (95...
September 2013: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Cristina Cortinovis, Francesca Caloni
This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp...
August 2013: Veterinary Journal
Katrien Vandepitte, Tim De Meyer, Hans Jacquemyn, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Olivier Honnay
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The combination of clonality and a mating system promoting outcrossing is considered advantageous because outcrossing avoids the fitness costs of selfing within clones (geitonogamy) while clonality assures local persistence and increases floral display. The spatial spread of genetically identical plants (ramets) may, however, also decrease paternal diversity (the number of sires fertilizing a given dam) and fertility, particularly towards the centre of large clumped clones...
April 2013: Annals of Botany
Adrian P Mancuso, Matthew R Groves, Oleg E Polozhentsev, Garth J Williams, Ian McNulty, Claude Antony, Rachel Santarella-Mellwig, Aleksander V Soldatov, Victor Lamzin, Andrew G Peele, Keith A Nugent, Ivan A Vartanyants
We have applied Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging (FCDI) to image an intact pollen grain from Convallaria majalis. This approach allows us to resolve internal structures without the requirement to chemically treat or slice the sample into thin sections. Coherent X-ray diffraction data from this pollen grain-composed of a hologram and higher resolution scattering information-was collected at a photon energy of 1820 eV and reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. A comparison with images recorded using transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that, while the resolution of these images is limited by the available flux and mechanical stability, we observed structures internal to the pollen grain-the intine/exine separations and pore dimensions-finer than 60 nm...
November 19, 2012: Optics Express
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