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Marta Marmiroli, Francesca Mussi, Davide Imperiale, Nelson Marmiroli
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is an important contaminant of many arable soils worldwide, while silicon, one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust, interacts with As in the context of plant metabolism. As toxicity results largely from its stimulation of reactive oxygen species, and it is believed that Si can mitigate this process through reduction of the level of oxidative stress. Experiments targeting the proteomic impact of exposure to As and Si have to date largely focused on analyses of root, shoot and seed of a range of mainly non-solanaceous species, thus it remains unclear whether oxidative stress is the most important manifestation of As toxicity in Solanum lycopersicum fruit which during ripening go through drastic physiological and molecular readjustments...
November 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Maximilian Pfau, Moritz Lindner, Julia S Steinberg, Sarah Thiele, Christian K Brinkmann, Monika Fleckenstein, Frank G Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyse the retest reliability of visual field indices and to describe patterns of visual field deficits in mesopic and dark-adapted two-colour fundus-controlled perimetry (FCP) in macular diseases. METHODS: Seventy-seven eyes (30 eyes with macular diseases and 47 normal eyes) underwent duplicate mesopic and dark-adapted two-colour FCP (Scotopic Macular Integrity Assessment, CenterVue). Non-weighted (mean defect, loss variance), variability-weighted (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation (PSD)) and graphical (cumulative defect (Bebie) curves) indices were computed...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ingemar Fredriksson, Rolf B Saager, Anthony J Durkin, Tomas Strömberg
A fiber-optic probe-based instrument, designed for assessment of parameters related to microcirculation, red blood cell tissue fraction (fRBC), oxygen saturation (SO2), and speed resolved perfusion, has been evaluated using state-of-the-art tissue phantoms. The probe integrates diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) at two source-detector separations and laser Doppler flowmetry, using an inverse Monte Carlo method for identifying the parameters of a multilayered tissue model. Here, we characterize the accuracy of the DRS aspect of the instrument using (1) liquid blood phantoms containing yeast and (2) epidermis-dermis mimicking solid-layered phantoms fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane, titanium oxide, hemoglobin, and coffee...
November 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Kemal Kazan, Donald Gardiner
Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Rachel Roberts, Robert W Jackson, Tim H Mauchline, Penny R Hirsch, Liz J Shaw, Thomas F Döring, Hannah E Jones
Rhizobia play important roles in agriculture owing to their ability to fix nitrogen through a symbiosis with legumes. The specificity of rhizobia-legume associations means that underused legume species may depend on seed inoculation with their rhizobial partners. For black medic (Medicago lupulina) and lucerne (Medicago sativa) little is known about the natural prevalence of their rhizobial partner Ensifer meliloti in UK soils, so that the need for inoculating them is unclear. We analysed the site-dependence of rhizobial seed inoculation effects on the subsequent ability of rhizobial communities to form symbioses with four legume species (Medicago lupulina, M...
November 2017: Applied Soil Ecology: a Section of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
C Umamaheswari, A Lakshmanan, N S Nagarajan
The present study reports, novel and greener method for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using 5,7-dihydroxy-6-metoxy-3('),4(')methylenedioxyisoflavone (Dalspinin), isolated from the roots of Dalbergia coromandeliana was carried out for the first time. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Priyanka Mishra, Amit Kumar, Gokul Sivaraman, Ashutosh K Shukla, Ravikumar Kaliamoorthy, Adrian Slater, Sundaresan Velusamy
The steno-endemic species of genus Decalepis are highly threatened by destructive wild harvesting. The medicinally important fleshy tuberous roots of Decalepis hamiltonii are traded as substitute, to meet the international market demand of Hemidesmus indicus. In addition, the tuberous roots of all three species of Decalepis possess similar exudates and texture, which challenges the ability of conventional techniques alone to perform accurate species authentication. This study was undertaken to generate DNA barcodes that could be utilized in monitoring and curtailing the illegal trade of these endangered species...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Miao-Chun Fan, Li-Jun Nan, Ya-Min Zhu, Wei-Min Chen, Ge-Hong Wei, Yan-Bing Lin
A novel endophytic bacterium, designated strain HZ7(T), was isolated from the root nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in a lead-zinc mine in Mianxian County, Shaanxi Province, China. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, methyl-red-negative, catalase-positive, positive for chitosan-degrading activity and did not produce H2S. Strain HZ7(T) grew at 4-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), at pH 5-9 (optimum pH 7-8) and with 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. The quinone type was ubiquinone 8 (UQ-8). The major fatty acids were identified as C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c)...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Lambert Paris, Isabelle Marc, Benoit Charlot, Michel Dumas, Jean Valmier, Fabrice Bardin
This work focuses on the optical stimulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons through infrared laser light stimulation. We show that a few millisecond laser pulse at 1875 nm induces a membrane depolarization, which was observed by the patch-clamp technique. This stimulation led to action potentials firing on a minority of neurons beyond an energy threshold. A depolarization without action potential was observed for the majority of DRG neurons, even beyond the action potential energy threshold. The use of ruthenium red, a thermal channel blocker, stops the action potential generation, but has no effects on membrane depolarization...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Ki-Shuk Shim, Bohyoung Lee, Jin Yeul Ma
BACKGROUND: Rumex crispus root has traditionally been used in Asian medicine for the treatment of hemorrhage and dermatolosis. The aim of this study was to explore the pharmaceutical effects of water extract of Rumex crispus (WERC) on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. We also studied the effect of WERC on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone destruction mice model. METHODS: High performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to identify three compounds (emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion) of WERC...
October 26, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
J Judith Vijaya, N Jayaprakash, K Kombaiah, K Kaviyarasu, L John Kennedy, R Jothi Ramalingam, Hamad A Al-Lohedan, Mansoor-Ali V M, M Maaza
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an extract of dried Zingiber officinale (ginger) root as a reducing and capping agent in the presence of microwave irradiation was herein reported for the first time. The formation of symmetrical spheres is confirmed from the UV-Visible spectrum of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy confirms the formation of the Ag NPs. X-ray diffraction analysis was utilized to calculate the crystallite size of Ag NPs and the value was found to be 10nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the morphology and size of the synthesized samples...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Rodrigo Rodrigues Amaral, Eduardo Nunes, Maria Eugênia Alvarez-Leite, José Cláudio Faria Amorim, Martinho Campolina Rebello Horta, Maria Ilma de Sousa Cortês, Frank Ferreira Silveira, Stephen Cohen
The study was to assess the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on root canals contaminated by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). PDT was performed with 0.005% methylene blue dye and with a low-intensity red emission laser. Microbiological samples were collected before, immediately and 72 hours after instrumentation. Although PDT performed with the chosen light parameters promoted additional microbial reduction, this therapy did not achieve a statistically significant reduction of E. faecalis.
March 2017: Journal of the California Dental Association
Yan Sun, Tao Luo, Ya Shen, Markus Haapasalo, Ling Zou, Jun Liu
The present study investigated the effect of iRoot Fast Set root repair material (iRoot FS) on the proliferation, migration and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). The hDPSCs were treated with eluates of iRoot FS at concentrations of 0.2 and 2 mg/mL, referred to as FS0.2 and FS2, respectively, and Biodentine (BD; Septodont, Saint Maur des Faussés, France) eluates at the corresponding concentrations as positive controls. A CCK8 assay was performed to determine cell proliferation. Wound healing and transwell assays were conducted to examine cell migration...
2017: PloS One
Lin Chen, Haiying Yang, Chenchen Yu, Mei Yuan, Hua Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix Angelica dahuricae (RAD), the roots of Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been used for centuries to treat headaches, toothaches, nose congestion, abscesses, furunculoses, and acne. This herb is also one of frequently reported TCMs showing the herb-drug interaction potential. Furanocoumarins are main bioactive components of RAD. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is designed to characterize the tissue distribution profiles of furanocoumarins after oral administration of RAD extract in rats and to explore the mechanism underlying the high hepatic exposure of the major furanocoumarins...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sifau A Adejumo, Sarita Tiwari, Vilas Shinde, Bijaya Ketan Sarangi
Activities at root-soil interface determine the solubility and uptake of metals by plants. Metal accumulation in plant species (Imperata cylindrical, Cynodon dactylon, Eleucine indica, Gomphrena celosoides, Sporobolus pyramidalis, Chromolaena odorata and Rhynchospora corymbosa) growing on Pb contaminated site as influenced by variations in physico-chemical characteristics, dissolved organic matter (DOM), Pb fractionation and different functional groups (using Fourier Transmittance Infra-red) of rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils was assessed...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Iain A Pretty
The early detection of root caries is essential for the implementation of appropriate preventive therapeutic regimes. Subsequent monitoring of lesions is required to determine the outcomes of such therapies. While much research activity has been seen in the detection and monitoring of enamel caries, this has not been seen in root caries - despite the possibilities for shorter clinical trials due to the more rapid remineralization and arrest of such lesions. The main stay of both clinical practice and research has been the use of visual tactile criteria including, hardness, texture, the presence or absence of cavitation, and color...
2017: Monographs in Oral Science
Bo Kou, Wei Liu, Xu Xu, Yang Yang, Qiuyue Yi, Fengwei Guo, Jianpeng Li, Jinsong Zhou, Qingshan Kou
Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots of Stephania tetrandra is a traditional Chinese medicine and exerts anticancer capacity in various types of cancers. Previous studies have shown that tetrandrine induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells via activation of the caspase cascade. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been reported. Autophagy is a cellular process involved in the degradation of broken proteins and aging organelles to maintain homeostasis. Recent studies indicate that autophagy is implicated in cancer therapy...
September 21, 2017: Oncology Reports
Ting Jiang, Kun Ren, Qian Chen, Heng Li, Rong Yao, Hu Hu, Yun-Cheng Lv, Guo-Jun Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have demonstrated that leonurine, a unique alkaloid compound of Herba leonuri, can exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on the development of atherosclerosis (AS). This study was designed to investigate the effects of leonurine on cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells and development of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE-/- mice, and further determine the potential mechanisms. METHODS: Human THP-1 cells were fully differentiated into foam cells by the pre-treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and oxidized density lipoproteins (ox-LDL)...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Lauren P Kane, Jennifer N Langan, Michael J Adkesson, Sathya K Chinnadurai, Benjamin N Nevitt, Randi Drees
CASE DESCRIPTION 2 female red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) were evaluated because of sudden-onset mandibular swelling, ptyalism, and hyporexia. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a mandibular swelling with a fluctuant center in both wallabies. Hematologic analysis revealed leukocytosis with a mature neutrophilia and monocytosis in one wallaby (case 1) and a slight neutrophilia, hyperglobulinemia, and high serum alanine aminotransferase activity in the other (case 2). Cytologic examination of the swelling revealed a uniform population of gram-negative rods in case 1 and neutrophilic inflammation in case 2...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Thomas E Rams, Abdulaziz Y Alwaqyan
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the reproducibility of a red diode laser device, and its capability to detect dental calculus in vitro on human tooth root surfaces. MATERIAL AND METHODS: On each of 50 extracted teeth, a calculus-positive and calculus-free root surface was evaluated by two independent examiners with a low-power indium gallium arsenide phosphide diode laser (DIAGNOdent) fitted with a periodontal probe-like sapphire tip and emitting visible red light at 655 nm wavelength...
October 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
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