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Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor Drug class

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307553/the-role-of-glucagon-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Sofie Hædersdal, Asger Lund, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
Type 2 diabetes is a disease involving both inadequate insulin levels and increased glucagon levels. While glucagon and insulin work together to achieve optimal plasma glucose concentrations in healthy individuals, the usual regulatory balance between these 2 critical pancreatic hormones is awry in patients with diabetes. Although clinical discussion often focuses on the role of insulin, glucagon is equally important in understanding type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, an awareness of the role of glucagon is essential to appreciate differences in the mechanisms of action of various classes of glucose-lowering therapies...
January 4, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277321/network-meta-analysis-of-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-new-antidiabetic-drugs
#2
Yue Fei, Man-Fung Tsoi, Cyrus Rustam Kumana, Tommy Tsang Cheung, Bernard Man Yung Cheung
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) directly comparing cardiovascular outcomes of new antidiabetic drugs are lacking. We used network meta-analysis to compare new antidiabetic drug classes with respect to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane database, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to 30 December 2016 for RCTs involving SGLT-2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in diabetic patients that reported MACE and deaths...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246708/prescription-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-with-renal-impairment-a-uk-primary-care-experience
#3
Dionysis Spanopoulos, Brendan Barrett, Michael Busse, Toni Roman, Chris Poole
Members of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor drug class are indicated for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and all, except linagliptin, require dose adjustment in renal impairment. A cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink was conducted to explore compliance with the renal adjustment requirements of the Summaries of Product Characteristics. Approximately one third of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with creatinine clearance <50 mL/min who were at risk of inappropriate prescribing, were initiated on a DPP-4 inhibitor at a higher dose than the specified in their respective Summary of Product Characteristics...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241374/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-empagliflozin-plus-linagliptin-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
Christos V Rizos, Theodosios D Filippatos, Moses S Elisaf
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a growing epidemic and therefore efficient treatment strategies that target its management are needed. The treatment of diabetic patients often requires the combination of antidiabetic drug classes. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) block glucose reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) improve glucose metabolism by blocking the enzyme that degrades incretins leading to increased insulin secretion. Areas covered: The aim of the review is to present the available data on pharmacokinetic properties/pharmacodynamics, metabolic and cardiovascular effects of empagliflozin plus linagliptin combination...
December 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223646/exploring-the-effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-on-the-kidney-from-the-bench-to-clinical-trials
#5
REVIEW
Giuseppe Coppolino, Christian Leporini, Laura Rivoli, Francesco Ursini, Eugenio Donato di Paola, Valeria Cernaro, Franco Arturi, Davide Bolignano, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro, Michele Andreucci
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a relatively new class of non-insulin glucose-lowering agents, belonging to the incretin family, which are able to improve glycemic control with a favorable safety profile, since they are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia, no weight gain, and good tolerability in patients with chronic renal failure. Some experimental and clinical studies suggest that these drugs may exert significant pleiotropic effects, in particular on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but data from clinical trials are still controversial...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210642/antidiabetics-structural-diversity-of-molecules-with-a-common-aim
#6
Jelena B Popovic-Dordevic, Ivana I Jevtic, Tatjana P Stanojkovic
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is an endocrine disease of global proportions which is currently affecting 1 in 12 adults in the world, with still increasing prevalence. World Health Organization (WHO) declared this worldwide health problem, as an epidemic disease, to be the only non-infectious disease with such categorization. People with DMT2 are at increased risk of various complications and have shorter life expectancy. The main classes of oral antidiabetic drugs accessible today for DMT2 vary in their chemical composition, modes of action, safety profiles and tolerability...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200879/cost-consequence-analysis-of-sitagliptin-versus-sulfonylureas-as-add-on-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-patients-in-italy
#7
Valentina Lorenzoni, Fabio Baccetti, Stefano Genovese, Enrico Torre, Giuseppe Turchetti
Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease related to a significant impact in both epidemiologic and economic terms. In Italy, around 3.6 million people are affected by diabetes and this number is expected to increase significantly in the next few years. As recommended by current national and international guidelines, metformin (Met) is prescribed as first-line pharmacological treatment, and many pharmacological alternatives are available for patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109299/long-term-trends-in-antidiabetes-drug-usage-in-the-u-s-real-world-evidence-in-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Olga Montvida, Jonathan Shaw, John J Atherton, Frances Stringer, Sanjoy K Paul
OJBECTIVE: To explore temporal trends in antidiabetes drug (ADD) prescribing and intensification patterns, along with glycemic levels and comorbidities, and possible benefits of novel ADDs in delaying the need for insulin initiation in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes aged 18-80 years, who initiated any ADD, were selected (n = 1,023,340) from the U.S. Centricity Electronic Medical Records. Those who initiated second-line ADD after first-line metformin were identified (subcohort 1, n = 357,482); the third-line therapy choices were further explored...
November 6, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071110/real-world-weight-change-among-patients-treated-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-and-sulfonylureas-for-type-2-diabetes-and-the-influence-of-medication-adherence
#9
G S Carls, R Tan, J Y Zhu, E Tuttle, J Yee, S V Edelman, W H Polonsky
AIMS: The study aims to examine real-world weight change and the role of medication adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated one of three drug classes: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4) and sulfonylureas (SUs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of patients initiating one of the three drug classes was selected from a large US database of integrated electronic medical record and administrative claims...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923269/dpp-4-inhibition-protects-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-from-hypoxia-induced-vascular-barrier-impairment
#10
Naoko Hashimoto, Kento Ikuma, Yui Konno, Masanori Hirose, Hiroyuki Tadokoro, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Yoshio Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Takano
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are relatively new class of anti-diabetic drugs. Some protective effects of DPP-4 on cardiovascular disease have been described independently from glucose-lowering effect. However, the detailed mechanisms by which DPP-4 inhibitors exert on endothelial cells remain elusive. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of DPP-4 inhibitor on endothelial barrier function. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and exposed to hypoxia in the presence or absence of Diprotin A, a DPP-4 inhibitor...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878934/postauthorization-safety-study-of-the-dpp-4-inhibitor-saxagliptin-a-large-scale-multinational-family-of-cohort-studies-of-five-outcomes
#11
Vincent Lo Re, Dena M Carbonari, M Elle Saine, Craig W Newcomb, Jason A Roy, Qing Liu, Qufei Wu, Serena Cardillo, Kevin Haynes, Stephen E Kimmel, Peter P Reese, David J Margolis, Andrea J Apter, K Rajender Reddy, Sean Hennessy, Harshvinder Bhullar, Arlene M Gallagher, Daina B Esposito, Brian L Strom
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of serious adverse events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiating saxagliptin compared with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in classes other than dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cohort studies using 2009-2014 data from two UK medical record data sources (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, The Health Improvement Network) and two USA claims-based data sources (HealthCore Integrated Research Database, Medicare)...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811850/effect-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-with-low-sglt2-sglt1-selectivity-on-circulating-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
REVIEW
Kohzo Takebayashi, Toshihiko Inukai
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic control by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose filtered through the renal glomerulus. Use of drugs in this class has increased because of their effect of decreasing body weight and a low risk for hypoglycemia, in addition to a relatively strong glucose-lowering effect. SGLT2 inhibitors such as canagliflozin and sotagliflozin (a SGLT1/SGLT2 dual inhibitor) also have a mild or moderate intestinal and renal SGLT1 inhibitory effect because of their relatively weak selectivity for SGLT2 over SGLT1...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794822/overview-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Kelvin Lingjet Tran, Young In Park, Shalin Pandya, Navin John Muliyil, Brandon David Jensen, Kovin Huynh, Quang T Nguyen
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 29.1 million people or 9.3% of the US population have diabetes, which contributes to considerable medical and financial burden. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment leading to hyperglycemia. The presence of insulin resistance is strongly correlated with obesity. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the available glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and their role in the management of patients with diabetes, to help guide the selection of the most suitable agent for the individualized treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes...
June 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756774/heart-failure-hospitalization-risk-associated-with-use-of-two-classes-of-oral-antidiabetic-medications-an-observational-real-world-analysis
#14
Santosh Gautam, Abiy Agiro, John Barron, Thomas Power, Harry Weisman, Jeff White
BACKGROUND: Newer oral antidiabetic drug classes are expanding treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, concerns remain. The objective was to assess relative risk of heart failure hospitalization of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors in T2DM patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study used a national commercially insured claims database. Adults (>18 years) with T2DM newly starting SGLT2 or DPP4 medication between April 2013 and December 2014 were included...
July 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743778/fracture-risk-associated-with-common-medications-used-in-treating-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Daniel Wolverton, Melissa M Blair
PURPOSE: Published data on the risk of bone fractures associated with medications used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus are summarized. SUMMARY: A systematic literature search identified 108 publications on controlled trials and 6 meta-analyses addressing the potential for fractures with the use of 7 commonly used antidiabetic classes: thiazolidinediones (TZDs), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, biguanides, insulin, and sulfonylureas...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726152/cardiovascular-outcome-trial-update-in-diabetes-new-evidence-remaining-questions
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca Herbst, Wilburn Bolton, Afreen Shariff, Jennifer B Green
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seven trials of new agents to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been performed to assess cardiovascular (CV) safety. A significant amount of information regarding the effects of drugs in three classes is available, with new data from multiple other trials expected shortly. This article provides a summary of recently completed trials. RECENT FINDINGS: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors studied thus far do not alter the risk of major adverse CV events (MACE)...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686724/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-gemigliptin-protects-against-vascular-calcification-in-an-experimental-chronic-kidney-disease-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Soon-Youn Choi, Hye-Myung Ryu, Eun-Joo Oh, Ji-Young Choi, Jang-Hee Cho, Chan-Duck Kim, Yong-Lim Kim, Sun-Hee Park
Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, a class of antidiabetic drugs, have various pleiotropic effects, it remains undetermined whether gemigliptin has a beneficial effect on vascular calcification. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of gemigliptin on vascular calcification in a rat model of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease and in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Gemigliptin attenuated calcification of abdominal aorta and expression of RUNX2 in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661561/comparative-safety-of-pioglitazone-versus-clinically-meaningful-treatment-alternatives-on-the-risk-of-bladder-cancer-in-older-us-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Elizabeth M Garry, John B Buse, Jennifer L Lund, Virginia Pate, Til Stürmer
AIMS: Compare bladder cancer incidence between patients initiating pioglitazone and patients initiating dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors [DPP-4 s] or sulfonylureas. METHODS: We identified Medicare beneficiaries aged >65 initiating pioglitazone (N = 38,700), DPP-4 s (N = 82,552), or sulfonylureas (N = 126,104) 2007-2014 after at least 6 months without prescriptions for these drug classes. Patients were followed from second prescription until bladder cancer outcome (2 claims within 60 days) using a 6-month induction/latency period, censoring for treatment change, death, or end of 2014...
June 29, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637887/mitigating-cardiovascular-risk-in-type-2-diabetes-with-antidiabetes-drugs-a-review-of-principal-cardiovascular-outcome-results-of-empa-reg-outcome-leader-and-sustain-6-trials
#19
REVIEW
Sanjay Kaul
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a diabetes guidance in 2008 mandating that all new antidiabetes drugs rule out excess cardiovascular (CV) risk, defined as an upper bound of the two-sided 95% CI for major adverse CV events (MACE) of less than 1.80 preapproval and 1.30 postapproval. Over 25 large, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials involving nearly 195,000 subjects thus far have been completed or are ongoing in accordance with this guidance. The results of seven trials have been presented so far-three with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, one with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and three with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA)...
July 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631762/-safety-and-tolerability-of-oral-hypoglycemic-therapies-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#20
REVIEW
Giuseppe Ambrosio, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Massimo Federici, Pasquale Perrone Filardi
Oral hypoglycemic drugs for type 2 diabetes aim at preventing the metabolic effects of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular (CV) events. The evidence of the possible CV risk related to the prescription of some antidiabetic drugs prompted regulatory agencies to require safety studies. This review provides an updated analysis of CV safety profiles for antidiabetic drugs used for the treatment of patients with high CV risk.The most recent studies analyze different aspects of CV morbidity, such as ischemic events, heart failure and arrhythmia, and their interactions with hyperglycemia...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
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