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lipids management

A M Rodrigues, R S Serralha, C Farias, G R Punaro, M J S Fernandes, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu Higa
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to high levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the activation of purinergic receptors (P2X7 ), which results in cell death. Klotho was recently described as a modulator of oxidative stress and as having anti-apoptotic properties, among others. However, the roles of P2X7 and klotho in the progression of diabetic nephropathy are still unclear. In this context, the aim of the present study was to characterize P2X7 and klotho in several stages of diabetes in rats...
March 14, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Tazeen H Jafar, Ngiap Chuan Tan, John C Allen, Eric A Finkelstein, Paul Goh, Peter Moey, Joanne Hui Min Quah, Siew Wai Hwang, Juliana Bahadin, Anandan Gerard Thiagarajah, Jason Chan, Gary Kang, Agnes Koong
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a serious public health problem in Singapore and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) with considerable implications for health-care resources. The goal of the trial is to compare a multicomponent intervention (MCI) to usual care to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the MCI for lowering blood pressure (BP) among adults with uncontrolled hypertension in Singapore primary-care clinics. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a cluster randomized trial in eight polyclinics in Singapore: four deliver a structured MCI and four deliver usual care...
March 14, 2018: Trials
Marilena Lepretti, Stefania Martucciello, Mario Alberto Burgos Aceves, Rosalba Putti, Lillà Lionetti
Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been suggested to play a key role in insulin resistance development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid accumulation due to mitochondrial dysfunction seemed to be important mechanisms leading to cellular insulin resistance. Moreover, mitochondria are functionally and structurally linked to ER, which undergoes stress in conditions of chronic overnutrition, activating the unfolded protein response, which in turn activates the principal inflammatory pathways that impair insulin action...
March 14, 2018: Nutrients
M Armeno, C Araujo, B Sotomontesano, R H Caraballo
INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet is a non-pharmacological treatment that has been used as a therapeutic alternative for the management of refractory epilepsy since 1921. It is a diet, high in fats and low in carbohydrates, which is used to treat paediatric refractory epilepsy, and is effective in around 50% of the patients that begin to follow it. It is a nutrition plan that is imbalanced in terms of both macro- and micro-nutrients, which can give rise to nutritional deficits in energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins, as well as an excess of lipids...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Joyjyoti Das, Somnath Maji, Tarun Agarwal, Suman Chakraborty, Tapas K Maiti
During metastatic dissemination, cancer cells experience shear stresses in narrow confinements of in vivo vasculature. Such stresses are currently known to influence a gamut of cellular processes. While a host of cells emanating from a primary tumor perish in circulation due to shear, some cells manage to migrate to distant niches and form secondary tumors. Current research focuses on how cancer cells avert such mechanical stresses and adapt themselves in order to survive. This study deals with the autophagic response of cervical cancer cells HeLa and its subline HeLa 229, exposed to physiological shear stresses in vitro, and evaluates its role as a pro-survival mechanism...
March 13, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
William Virgil Brown, Ira Goldberg, Barton Duell, Daniel Gaudet
Plasma triglyceride concentrations are normally below 150 mg/dL in the fasting state. However, these lipids can reach values of several thousand mg/dL. Elevations in this range are due to a massive retention of chylomicrons and usually result from multiple genetic variants with superimposed influences such as diabetes and immune disorders. Less commonly, major gene defects in lipoprotein metabolism can be the cause. These may present soon after birth with strong evidence of familial penetrance. The causes of this syndrome have been discussed in a Roundtable published in the most recent issue of this Journal...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Ana Claudia Pompeu Raminelli, Valeria Romero, Mohammad H Semreen, Gislaine Ricci Leonardi
The clinical efficacy of the topical tretinoin is widely studied and has been well established for many therapeutic interventions, among some, photoaging, acne, and melasma. However, the side effects, mainly cutaneous irritation, erythema, xerosis and peeling, remain major obstacle to the patient compliance. Besides, the insight regarding the drug delivery profile is essential to understand the therapeutic action of the drug. Herein we highlight further advances and an update on tretinoin delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrins, nanostructured polymers and other technological systems that reduce its side effects and improve the permeation profile to potentiate efficacy and drug safety on the skin...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Gamal A Shazly, Sultan Alshehri, Mohamed A Ibrahim, Hesham M Tawfeek, Jelan A Razik, Yasser A Hassan, Faiyaz Shakeel
Domperidone (DOP) is extensively applied orally in the management of nausea and vomiting. Upon oral administration, its bioavailability is very poor due to its poor solubility in alkaline media. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate DOP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DOP-SLNs) in order to sustain its release pattern and to enhance oral bioavailability. DOP-SLNs were prepared using four different lipids. Prepared DOP-SLNs were characterized for "polydispersity index (PDI), particle size, zeta potential, % entrapment efficiency (% EE), and drug release behavior...
March 12, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
C Vignesh, Madhan Kumar, Ramesh Venkataraman, Senthilkumar Rajagopal, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Babu K Abraham
Overdose of cardiovascular medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers cause impaired cardiac contractility, vasoplegia, and/or rhythm disturbances. In addition to conventional management of limiting absorption, increasing elimination and hemodynamic support intravenous (IV) calcium infusion, hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy, glucagon infusion, and IV lipid emulsion have been tried. Extracorporeal circulatory assist device support has been reported as a rescue therapy in overdose refractory to maximal medical therapy...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Anber Naqvi, Abdul Qadir, Adeel Mahmood, Mujtaba Baqar, Iqra Aslam, Farhan Sajid, Mehvish Mumtaz, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
The present study biomonitored the placental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in women from Punjab Province, Pakistan, that provides the pioneer data for occurrence and body burden of PCBs in placental tissues from South Asian women. The ∑34 PCB concentrations in placental tissues were ranged from 20.2 to 115.98 ng/g lipid weight (lip. wt.), with predominance of tetra-PCB (54.67%). The levels of ∑8 DL-PCBs and ∑6 -indicator PCBs were ranged from 2.03 to 27.64 ng/g (lip. wt.) and 1.71 to 30...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Katrin E Schimke, Frida Renström, Sandro Meier, Christoph Stettler, Michael Brändle
Objective: Tight glycemic control and aggressive treatment of additional cardiovascular risk factors can substantially reduce risk of diabetes-related complications. In 2013, the Swiss Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology (SSED) established national criteria on good disease management in diabetes, but little is known about compliance in clinical care. Here we assessed to what extent patients from two tertiary care centers in the German-speaking part of Switzerland enrolled in the Swiss Diabetes (SwissDiab) Registry adhere to the SSED criteria...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Kelsey H Collins, Walter Herzog, Graham Z MacDonald, Raylene A Reimer, Jaqueline L Rios, Ian C Smith, Ronald F Zernicke, David A Hart
Inflammation can arise in response to a variety of stimuli, including infectious agents, tissue injury, autoimmune diseases, and obesity. Some of these responses are acute and resolve, while others become chronic and exert a sustained impact on the host, systemically, or locally. Obesity is now recognized as a chronic low-grade, systemic inflammatory state that predisposes to other chronic conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although obesity has received considerable attention regarding its pathophysiological link to chronic cardiovascular conditions and type 2 diabetes, the musculoskeletal (MSK) complications (i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marcos Vinicius Antunes de Lemos, Elisa Peripolli, Mariana Piatto Berton, Fabiele Loise Braga Feitosa, Bianca Ferreira Olivieri, Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza, Rafael Lara Tonussi, Sabrina Kluska, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino Chiaia, Lenise Mueller, Adrielli Mathias Ferrinho, Angelica Simone Cravo Prereira, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque, Fernando Baldi
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the copy number variation regions (CNVRs) and fatty acid profile phenotypes for saturated (SFA), monosaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), ω6 and ω3 fatty acids, PUFA/SFA and ω6/ω3 ratios, as well as for their sums, in Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). A total of 963 males were finished in feedlot and slaughtered with approximately 2 years of age. Animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Veronica Tisato, Giovanni Zuliani, Marco Vigliano, Giovanna Longo, Eugenia Franchini, Paola Secchiero, Giorgio Zauli, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Ajay Vikram Singh, Maria Luisa Serino, Beatrice Ortolani, Amedeo Zurlo, Cristina Bosi, Antonio Greco, Davide Seripa, Rosanna Asselta, Donato Gemmati
Cognitive impairments of different aetiology share alterations in iron and lipid homeostasis with mutual relationships. Since iron and cholesterol accumulation impact on neurodegenerative disease, the associated gene variants are appealing candidate targets for risk and disease progression assessment. In this light, we explored the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the main iron homeostasis genes and in the main lipoprotein transporter gene (APOE) in a cohort of 765 patients with dementia of different origin: Alzheimer's disease (AD) n = 276; vascular dementia (VaD), n = 255; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), n = 234; and in normal controls (n = 1086)...
2018: PloS One
Kofi Deh, Gerald D Ponath, Zaki Molvi, Gian-Carlo T Parel, Kelly M Gillen, Shun Zhang, Thanh D Nguyen, Pascal Spincemaille, Yinghua Ma, Ajay Gupta, Susan A Gauthier, David Pitt, Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: The pathological processes in the first weeks of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion formation include myelin digestion that breaks chemical bonds in myelin lipid layers. This can increase lesion magnetic susceptibility, which is a potentially useful biomarker in MS patient management, but not yet investigated. PURPOSE: To understand and quantify the effects of myelin digestion on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of MS lesions. STUDY TYPE: Histological and QSM analyses on in vitro models of myelin breakdown and MS lesion formation in vivo...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Abhishek Mishra
Background: The genus Mycobacterium has an ability to persist in hostile environments for years before its reactivation in favorable conditions. The major bottleneck in decades of mycobacterial research is a poor understanding of molecular mechanism which assists bacteria to attain dormancy and reactivation later. Methods: In this study, hydroxyl radical was quantified in aerobically growing mycobacterial cells using 2-deoxy-D-ribose assay. Furthermore, extraneous addition of hydroxyl radical in Wayne's dormancy model induced reactivation of dormant cells...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Sobha Puppala, Cun Li, Jeremy P Glenn, Romil Saxena, Samer Gawrieh, Amy Quinn, Jennifer Palarczyk, Edward J Dick, Peter W Nathanielsz, Laura A Cox
Maternal obesity (MO) increases offspring cardiometabolic disease risk. Altered fetal liver development in response to the challenge of MO has metabolic consequences underlying adverse offspring life-course health outcomes. Little is known about molecular pathways and potential epigenetic changes regulating primate fetal liver responses to MO. We hypothesized that MO would induce fetal baboon liver epigenetic changes resulting in dysregulation of key metabolic pathways that impact lipid metabolism. MO was induced prior to pregnancy by a high fat, high sucrose diet...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Vanessa Andreu, Annabel Levert, Anaïs Amiot, Anaïs Cousin, Nicolas Aveline, Cédric Bertrand
Five plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming for pest control and antifungal (downy mildew) disease management were selected after a farmer survey and analyzed for their chemical composition in LC-PDA-MS-MS and using adapted analytical method from food chemistry for determination of class of component (e.g., protein, sugar, lipids…). Their antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis allii, brown rot causing agents (Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena), and grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was examined in vitro...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cori Russell, Samip Sheth, Douglas Jacoby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of our current understanding of combination lipid-lowering therapies intended for dyslipidemia treatment and cardiovascular disease prevention. First, we analyze recent statin and non-statin combination therapy guidelines and clinical studies since the publication of 2013 American College of Cardiology Cholesterol Guidelines. Second, we examine the clinical utility of non-statin agents alone and in combination in terms of LDL-C lowering and ASCVD risk reduction...
March 7, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
M A W Hermans, R Otten, A F Karim, M S van Maaren
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a major cause of hypersensitivity reactions. Several distinct clinical syndromes are described regarding NSAID hypersensitivity. Such a reaction is generally caused by a non-immunological mechanism. In susceptible patients, COX-1 inhibition leads to an imbalance in lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and prostaglandins. It is essential to distinguish multiple nonspecific NSAID hypersensitivity from single NSAID hypersensitivity, since the management of these respective syndromes is essentially different...
March 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
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