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lipids management

K Raafat, M Wurglics, M Schubert-Zsilavecz
Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) (PV) is a herbaceous plant traditionally utilized in management of diabetes and it has immunomodulatory activity. In this study, acute and subchronic antidiabetic, in-vivo antioxidant and antinociceptive effects of PV were evaluated in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a mouse model. Bio-guided fractionation, isolation, RP-HPLC, and (1)H and (13)C NMR identification of the active components responsible for PV effects were determined. RP-HPLC analysis showed that PV contained rosmarinic acid (RA) 4...
October 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Dilsher S Dhoot, Robert L Avery
The prevalence of diabetes is growing at epidemic rates in the USA. Diabetic retinopathy develops in a large proportion of patients and is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Systemic management of diabetic retinopathy has included glycemic, hypertension, and lipid control. Local ophthalmic treatment in the form of focal/grid or panretinal laser photocoagulation has been shown to prevent vision loss in diabetic edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, respectively. The introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema and retinopathy has provided clinicians with improved clinical outcomes with potentially less damaging effects than laser...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Anne M Murray, Fang-Chi Hsu, Jeff D Williamson, R Nick Bryan, Hertzel C Gerstein, Mark D Sullivan, Michael E Miller, Iris Leng, Laura L Lovato, Lenore J Launer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Memory in Diabetes (MIND) substudy of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study, a double 2x2 factorial parallel-group randomised clinical trial, tested whether intensive compared with standard management of hyperglycaemia, BP or lipid levels reduced cognitive decline and brain atrophy in 2977 people with type 2 diabetes. We describe the results of the observational extension study, ACCORDION MIND ( registration no. NCT00182910), which aimed to measure the long-term effects of the three ACCORD interventions on cognitive and brain structure outcomes approximately 4 years after the trial ended...
October 20, 2016: Diabetologia
Casey T Clark, Alyson H Fleming, John Calambokidis, Nicholas M Kellar, Camryn D Allen, Krista N Catelani, Michelle Robbins, Nicole E Beaulieu, Debbie Steel, James T Harvey
Understanding reproductive rates of wild animal populations is crucially important for management and conservation. Assessing pregnancy status of free-ranging cetaceans has historically been difficult; however, recent advances in analytical techniques have allowed the diagnosis of pregnancy from small samples of blubber tissue. The primary objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to test the efficacy of blubber progesterone assays as a tool for diagnosing pregnancy in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae); (ii) to estimate the pregnancy rate of humpback whales in Monterey Bay, California; and (iii) to investigate the relationship between stable isotopes and reproductive status of these whales...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Hui Yao, Guangchun He, Shichao Yan, Chao Chen, Liujiang Song, Thomas J Rosol, Xiyun Deng
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which accounts for 15-20% of all breast cancers, does not express estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) and lacks human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression or amplification. These tumors have a more aggressive phenotype and a poorer prognosis due to the high propensity for metastatic progression and absence of specific targeted treatments. Patients with TNBC do not benefit from hormonal or trastuzumab-based targeted therapies because of the loss of target receptors...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Michael B Boffa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are an independent and causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and calcific aortic valve stenosis. This review summarizes the rationale for Lp(a) lowering and surveys relevant clinical trial data using a variety of agents capable of lowering Lp(a). RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary guidelines and recommendations outline populations of patients who should be screened for elevated Lp(a) and who might benefit from Lp(a) lowering...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Shabnam Niroumand, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam, Babak Eghbali, Maryam Abrishami, Arash Gholoobi, Hamid Reza Bahrami Taghanaki, Mohammad Khajedaluee
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is assumed to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is frequently associated with other CVD risk factors. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of different patterns of dyslipidemia in individuals with diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects and evaluate other accompanied CVD risk factors between the two groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study on 230 participants, aged 28 - 66 years old, who were referred to different urban health centers of Khorasan Razavi province (north-east of Iran)...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Sedighe Moradi, Mohammad Javad Haji Ghanbari, Hedyeh Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, CVD accounts for primary cause of death among diabetic patients. Physicians, especially in the primary care setting, have effective role in the management of cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in Type 2 diabetic patients attending to an urban health center as a primary care center with Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism Diabetes Clinic (IEMDC) as a tertiary center...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Ajit Dash, Robert A Figler, Arun J Sanyal, B R Wamhoff
Drug induced steatohepatitis (DISH), a form of drug induced liver injury (DILI) is characterized by intracellular accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and subsequent inflammatory events, in some ways similar to the pathology seen with other metabolic, viral and genetic causes of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NAFLD and NASH). Areas covered: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the main underlying mechanisms by which various drugs cause DISH, and outlines existing preclinical tools to predict it and study underlying pathways involved...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sree Vamsee Chintapalli, Srinivas Jayanthi, Prema L Mallipeddi, Ravi Kumar Gundampati, Suresh Kumar Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy, Damian B van Rossum, Andriy Anishkin, Sean H Adams
Previous research has indicated that long-chain fatty acids can bind myoglobin (Mb) in an oxygen dependent manner. This suggests that Oxy-Mb may play an important role in fuel delivery in Mb-rich muscle fibers (e.g., type I fibers and cardiomyocytes), and raises the possibility that Mb also serves as an acylcarnitine binding protein. We report for the first time the putative interaction and affinity characteristics for different chain lengths of both fatty acids and acylcarnitines with Oxy-Mb using molecular dynamic simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sadegh Feizollahzadeh, Reza Ghiasvand, Abbas Rezaei, Hossein Khanahmad, Akram Sadeghi, Mitra Hariri
Probiotic therapies are going to be an effective alternative therapeutic strategy in the treatment and management of diabetes. The mechanism behind the essential effects of probiotic therapies in diabetic patients was not fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus planetarum A7 on inflammation, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, and serum adiponectin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty patients with type 2 diabetes, at the age of 35-68 years old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial...
October 18, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Mika A Brown, Michael G Potroz, Seoh-Wei Teh, Nam-Joon Cho
Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources...
October 16, 2016: Microorganisms
V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rakesh Sharma
OBJECTIVE: ·MADTP 2015 may suggest diet, exercise, behavior and positive attitude to bring normal blood lipid levels in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease among middle aged persons.LONGLIVE LIFESTYLE cholesterol lowering program may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease by diet, six month exercise prescription and modified habits of smoking, alcohol and behavior DESIGN AND METHOD:: LONGLIVE LIFESTYLE diet plan along with walking-running exercise and behavior for six months was tested to improve serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) appeared earliest; and the improvement of low density lipoprotein IV; cholesterol (LDL-C)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ganiyu Oboh, Omodesola O Ogunruku, Sunday I Oyeleye, Tosin A Olasehinde, Ayokunle O Ademosun, Aline Augusti Boligon
This study investigated the inhibitory effects of phenolic-rich extracts from Clerodendrum volubile leaves on cholinergic [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] and monoaminergic [monoamine oxidase (MAO)] enzymes' activities and pro-oxidants [Fe(2+) and quinolinic acid-(QA)] induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in vitro. Free phenolic extracts (FPE) and bound phenolic extracts (BPE) were obtained via solvent extraction, and the total phenol and flavonoid contents were evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Hiroki Yokoyama, Mariko Oishi, Hiroshi Takamura, Katsuya Yamasaki, Shin-Ichiro Shirabe, Daigaku Uchida, Hidekatsu Sugimoto, Yoshio Kurihara, Shin-Ichi Araki, Hiroshi Maegawa
OBJECTIVE: The fact that population with type 2 diabetes mellitus and bodyweight of patients are increasing but diabetes care is improving makes it important to explore the up-to-date rates of achieving treatment targets and prevalence of complications. We investigated the prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications and rates of achieving treatment targets through a large-scale multicenter-based cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide survey was performed on 9956 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who consecutively attended primary care clinics...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Sunjoo Boo, Erika S Froelicher, Ju-Hui Yun, Ye-Won Kim, Ju-Yang Jung, Chang-Hee Suh
The purposes of this study were to compare the perceived and actual 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to evaluate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on perceived CVD risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Korea. Additionally, the attainment of CVD prevention guideline goals by 3 levels of CVD risk (low, moderate, and high) was presented.For this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 208 patients with RA. Actual CVD risk was estimated with the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and goal attainment was assessed based on the European League Against Rheumatism guidelines...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maude St-Onge, Kurt Anseeuw, Frank Lee Cantrell, Ian C Gilchrist, Philippe Hantson, Benoit Bailey, Valéry Lavergne, Sophie Gosselin, William Kerns, Martin Laliberté, Eric J Lavonas, David N Juurlink, John Muscedere, Chen-Chang Yang, Tasnim Sinuff, Michael Rieder, Bruno Mégarbane
OBJECTIVE: To provide a management approach for adults with calcium channel blocker poisoning. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: Following the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II instrument, initial voting statements were constructed based on summaries outlining the evidence, risks, and benefits. DATA SYNTHESIS: We recommend 1) for asymptomatic patients, observation and consideration of decontamination following a potentially toxic calcium channel blocker ingestion (1D); 2) as first-line therapies (prioritized based on desired effect), IV calcium (1D), high-dose insulin therapy (1D-2D), and norepinephrine and/or epinephrine (1D)...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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