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Botanical library

Benjamin M Fontaine, Kate Nelson, James T Lyles, Parth B Jariwala, Jennifer M García-Rodriguez, Cassandra L Quave, Emily E Weinert
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. It is listed among the top "serious threats" to human health in the USA, due in large part to rising rates of resistance. Many S. aureus infections are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy due to their ability to form a biofilm, which acts not only as a physical barrier to antibiotics and the immune system, but results in differences in metabolism that further restricts antibiotic efficacy. Development of a modular strategy to synthesize a library of phenolic glycosides allowed for bioactivity testing and identification of anti-biofilm compounds within an extract of the elmleaf blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xirui He, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jiacheng Fang, Yu Chang, Ning Ning, Hao Guo, Linhong Huang, Xiaoqiang Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Achyranthes L. (Amaranthaceae), also known as Chaff Flower and Niuxi/, mainly includes two famous medicinal species namely A. bidentata and A. aspera. A. bidentata has been widely used as blood-activating and stasis-resolving medicine for the treatment of various diseases including amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, lumbago, gonalgia, paraplegia, edema, stranguria, headache, dizziness, odontalgia, oral ulcer, hematemesis, and epistaxis. A. aspera has been widely used to treat various diseases, including gynecological disorder, asthma, ophthalmia, odontalgia, haemorrhoids, and abdominal tumor, and has been applied to difficult labour, wound healing, insect and snake bites...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ya Yang, Michael J Moore, Samuel F Brockington, Alfonso Timoneda, Tao Feng, Hannah E Marx, Joseph F Walker, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We describe a field and laboratory workflow developed for plant phylotranscriptomic projects that involves cryogenic tissue collection in the field, RNA extraction and quality control, and library preparation. We also make recommendations for sample curation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 216 frozen tissue samples of Caryophyllales and other angiosperm taxa were collected from the field or botanical gardens. RNA was extracted, stranded mRNA libraries were prepared, and libraries were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq platforms...
March 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Paula N Brown, Jensen A Lund, Susan J Murch
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Mitragyna (Rubiacaeae) has been traditionally used in parts of Africa, Asia and Oceania. In recent years, there has been increased interest in species of Mitragyna with the introduction of products to western markets and regulatory uncertainty. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper reviewed the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of leaves for species belonging to the genus Mitragyna with reference to the botany and known chemistry in order to highlight areas of interest for products currently being sold as kratom...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Protus Arrey Tarkang, Regina Appiah-Opong, Michael F Ofori, Lawrence S Ayong, Alexander K Nyarko
There is an urgent need for new anti-malaria drugs with broad therapeutic potential and novel mode of action, for effective treatment and to overcome emerging drug resistance. Plant-derived anti-malarials remain a significant source of bioactive molecules in this regard. The multicomponent formulation forms the basis of phytotherapy. Mechanistic reasons for the poly-pharmacological effects of plants constitute increased bioavailability, interference with cellular transport processes, activation of pro-drugs/deactivation of active compounds to inactive metabolites and action of synergistic partners at different points of the same signaling cascade...
2016: Biomarker Research
Aaron D Gross, Kevin B Temeyer, Tim A Day, Adalberto A Pérez de León, Michael J Kimber, Joel R Coats
An outbreak of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Canestrini), in the United States would have devastating consequences on the cattle industry. Tick populations have developed resistance to current acaricides, highlighting the need to identify new biochemical targets along with new chemistry. Furthermore, acaricide resistance could further hamper control of tick populations during an outbreak. Botanically-based compounds may provide a safe alternative for efficacious control of the southern cattle tick...
February 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Xirui He, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jiacheng Fang, Zefeng Zhao, Linhong Huang, Hao Guo, Xiaohui Zheng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (Orchidaceae), also known as Hyacinth Orchid and Baiji (Simplified Chinese: ), not only has been widely used for the treatment of hematemesis, hemoptysis, and traumatic bleeding due to the efficacy of arresting bleeding with astringent action, but also has been applied topically to overcome ulcers, sores, swellings, and chapped skin due to the efficacy of dispersing swelling and promoting tissue regeneration. Additional medical applications include the treatment of tuberculosis, malignant ulcers, hemorrhoids, anthrax, eye diseases, and silicosis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Michael D Rush, Elisabeth M Walker, Tristesse Burton, Richard B van Breemen
To expedite the identification of active natural products in complex mixtures such as botanical extracts, a magnetic microbead affinity selection screening (MagMASS) procedure was developed. This technique utilizes target proteins immobilized on magnetic beads for rapid bioaffinity isolation of ligands from complex mixtures. A MagMASS method was developed and validated for 15-lipoxygenase. As a proof of concept, several North American prairie plants used medicinally by Native Americans were extracted with MeOH and screened...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Alfred Maroyi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crinum macowanii is a deciduous bulbous plant which grows in east, central and southern Africa. Crinum macowanii has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of east and southern Africa has for several centuries. The bulb, leaves and roots of C. macowanii are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments throughout its distributional range. Crinum macowanii is used traditionally as a remedy for boils, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, respiratory system problems, skin rashes, tuberculosis, wounds and urinary tract problems...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Maryam Mosaffa-Jahromi, Hossein Kiani
BACKGROUND: Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi, known as Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288 AD), was a Muslim Syrian physician primarily famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. The most voluminous of his books is Alshamel fi Sana'at tebbi'at, which is a comprehensive medical encyclopedia. It comprised 300 volumes of notes, from which only 80 volumes are published. His writings are cataloged in many libraries around the world. The aim of this review article, as a tribute to Ibn al-Nafis, was to introduce his valuable but neglected encyclopedia of Materia Medica...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
M F Geiger, J J Astrin, T Borsch, U Burkhardt, P Grobe, R Hand, A Hausmann, K Hohberg, L Krogmann, M Lutz, C Monje, B Misof, J Morinière, K Müller, S Pietsch, D Quandt, B Rulik, M Scholler, W Traunspurger, G Haszprunar, W Wägele
Biodiversity loss is mainly driven by human activity. While concern grows over the fate of hot spots of biodiversity, contemporary species losses still prevail in industrialized nations. Therefore, strategies were formulated to halt or reverse the loss, driven by evidence for its value for ecosystem services. Maintenance of the latter through conservation depends on correctly identified species. To this aim, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding the GBOL project, a consortium of natural history collections, botanic gardens, and universities working on a barcode reference database for the country's fauna and flora...
September 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Xiaojing Zhou, Yang Dong, Jiaojiao Zhao, Li Huang, Xiaoping Ren, Yuning Chen, Shunmou Huang, Boshou Liao, Yong Lei, Liying Yan, Huifang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Single-locus markers have many advantages compared with multi-locus markers in genetic and breeding studies because their alleles can be assigned to particular genomic loci in diversity analyses. However, there is little research on single-locus SSR markers in peanut. Through the de novo assembly of DNA sequencing reads of A. hypogaea, we developed single-locus SSR markers in a genomic survey for better application in genetic and breeding studies of peanut. RESULTS: In this study, DNA libraries with four different insert sizes were used for sequencing with 150 bp paired-end reads...
2016: BMC Genomics
Wen-Long Wei, Rui Zeng, Cai-Mei Gu, Yan Qu, Lin-Fang Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, known as Dang Gui (in Chinese), is a traditional medicinal and edible plant that has long been used for tonifying, replenishing, and invigorating blood as well as relieving pain, lubricating the intestines, and treating female irregular menstruation and amenorrhea. A. sinensis has also been used as a health product and become increasingly popular in China, Japan, and Korea. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This paper aims to provide a systemic review of traditional uses of A...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jay D Amsterdam, Alexander G Panossian
BACKGROUND: Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) is a botanical adaptogen with putative anti-stress and antidepressant properties. Evidence-based data supporting the effectiveness of R. rosea for depression in adults is limited, and therefore a comprehensive review of available animal and human studies suggesting a putative antidepressant action is warranted. PURPOSE: A review of the literature was undertaken to ascertain studies of possible antidepressant mechanisms of action and studies of the safety and effectiveness of R...
June 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Mesfin Yimam, Young-Chul Lee, Breanna Moore, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Eu-Jin Hyun, Min Chu, Lidia Brownell, Qi Jia
OBJECTIVE: Though the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share the prime complaints of the disease, pain. Here the authors assessed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a composite that contains a standardized blend of extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba, on rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. METHODS: A plant library was screened for bradykinin receptor antagonists...
January 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Subha Rastogi, Madan Mohan Pandey, A K S Rawat
BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency and arrhythmia since centuries. A recent increase in the popularity of alternative medicine and natural products has revived interest in traditional remedies that have been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. AIM: The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the history and traditional uses of some herbal medicines that affect the cardiovascular system in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities...
October 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Tony Heitkam, Stefan Petrasch, Falk Zakrzewski, Anja Kögler, Torsten Wenke, Stefan Wanke, Thomas Schmidt
Northern Europe's oldest and largest Camellia japonica growing at the Pillnitz Castle (Germany) for over 200 years is of botanical and cultural importance and is a reference for C. japonica molecular scale analysis. In order to provide a fundament for genome analysis of the genus Camellia, we characterize the C. japonica tandem repeat fraction, constituting 12.5 % of the Pillnitz camellia's genome. A genomic library of the Pillnitz C. japonica was produced and Illumina sequenced to generate 36 Gb of paired-end reads...
December 2015: Chromosome Research
Sharad Srivastava, Manjoosha Srivastava, Ankita Misra, Garima Pandey, Aks Rawat
Berberis is an important genus and well known in the Indian as well as European systems of traditional medicine. It is used since ancient times for curing eye disease, fever, jaundice, rheumatism, vomiting during pregnancy, kidney and gall balder stones and various other ailments due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid berberine. Action of the root extracts of few species are believed to be as powerful as quinine in the treatment of malarial fever. A plethora of literature pertaining to the taxonomy, biology, chemistry, traditional and ethnic uses of Berberis in different countries and indigenous cultures was collected by both offline (library, journals, textbooks etc...
2015: EXCLI journal
Piotr Köhler
In order to locate copies of the works of Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) located in Poland, 54 libraries were selected for inquiry, chosen on the basis of their history or of the nature or size of their collections. So far, 27 libraries have responded to the inquiry. There are works of J.E. Gilibert stored in 14 of them (Table 1). To date, 102 copies of different editions catalogued under Gilibert's name have been recorded in libraries in Poland. These books were placed in these libraries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, mainly as part of donations from private libraries...
2015: Kwartalnik Historii Nauki i Techniki: Kwartal'nyĭ Zhurnal Istorii Nauki i Tekhniki -
Sabrin R M Ibrahim, Gamal A Mohamed
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae) has been widely used in many cultures for the treatment of cough, flatulence, stomach ulcers, diabetes, obesity, testicular swelling, hernia-like conditions, and epigastric and neuralgic pains. The ethnopharmacologial history of L. chinensis indicated that it possesses hypoglycemic, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-platelet, anti-tussive, analgesic, antipyretic, hemostatic, diuretic, and antiviral activities...
November 4, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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