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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938771/comparative-estimation-of-inevitable-endogenous-ileal-flow-of-amino-acids-in-pekin-ducks-under-varying-dietary-or-physiological-conditions-and-their-significance-to-nutritional-requirements-for-amino-acids
#1
D O Akinde
In 2 experiments in Pekin ducks the inevitable endogenous ileal flow (IEIF) of AA was estimated at changing intake and source of crude fiber (CF) or soybean oil (SO) level. Also the roles of dry matter intake (DMI) and BW or age as well as the proportion of IEIF in the dietary requirement for AA were studied. In experiment 1 three basal CP (20, 60, or 100 g/kg) diets were formulated containing a low CF (LCF, 30 g/kg) or high (HCF, 80 g/kg) level; achieved with cellulose supplementation. All diets were similar in every other respect including having SO content of 40 g/kg...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936712/early-goal-directed-nutrition-versus-standard-of-care-in-adult-intensive-care-patients-the-single-centre-randomised-outcome-assessor-blinded-eat-icu-trial
#2
Matilde Jo Allingstrup, Jens Kondrup, Jørgen Wiis, Casper Claudius, Ulf Gøttrup Pedersen, Rikke Hein-Rasmussen, Mads Rye Bjerregaard, Morten Steensen, Tom Hartvig Jensen, Theis Lange, Martin Bruun Madsen, Morten Hylander Møller, Anders Perner
PURPOSE: We assessed the effects of early goal-directed nutrition (EGDN) vs. standard nutritional care in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: We randomised acutely admitted, mechanically ventilated ICU patients expected to stay longer than 3 days in the ICU. In the EGDN group we estimated nutritional requirements by indirect calorimetry and 24-h urinary urea aiming at covering 100% of requirements from the first full trial day using enteral and parenteral nutrition...
September 22, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935438/lipids-in-the-intensive-care-unit-recommendations-from-the-espen-expert-group
#3
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Michael Adolph, Nicolaas E Deutz, Teodoro Grau, Jacqueline K Innes, Stanislaw Klek, Shaul Lev, Konstantin Mayer, Adina T Michael-Titus, Lorenzo Pradelli, Mark Puder, Hester Vlaardingerbroek, Pierre Singer
This article summarizes the presentations given at an ESPEN Workshop on "Lipids in the ICU" held in Tel Aviv, Israel in November 2014 and subsequent discussions and updates. Lipids are an important component of enteral and parenteral nutrition support and provide essential fatty acids, a concentrated source of calories and building blocks for cell membranes. Whilst linoleic acid-rich vegetable oil-based enteral and parenteral nutrition is still widely used, newer lipid components such as medium-chain triglycerides and olive oil are safe and well tolerated...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935148/effect-of-physical-activity-and-age-on-plasma-copper-zinc-iron-and-magnesium-concentration-in-physically-active-healthy-males
#4
Gurseen Rakhra, Daisy Masih, Annu Vats, Saroj K Verma, Vijay K Singh, Rashmi Tomar Rana, Vandana Kirar, Som Nath Singh
OBJECTIVES: The concentration of nutritionally important minerals in circulation is under tight homeostatic control, however, physical activity and aging influence their body stores and nutritional requirement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both physical activity and age on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium. METHODS: Stratified cluster sampling was used for selection of study participants (N = 360) belonging to three physical activity groups: sedentary, moderately active, and highly active on the basis of their physical activity levels as 1...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933421/severe-childhood-malnutrition
#5
REVIEW
Zulfiqar A Bhutta, James A Berkley, Robert H J Bandsma, Marko Kerac, Indi Trehan, André Briend
The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children <5 years of age living in low-income and middle-income countries and include stunting, wasting and kwashiorkor, of which severe wasting and kwashiorkor are commonly referred to as severe acute malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933060/the-role-of-brain-in-energy-balance
#6
Paulo Matafome, Raquel Seiça
Energy homeostasis is regulated by homeostatic and nonhomeostatic reward circuits which are closely integrated and interrelated. Before, during, and after meals, peripheral nutritional signals, through hormonal and neuronal pathways, are conveyed to selective brain areas, namely the hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem, the main brain areas for energy balance regulation. These orexigenic and anorexigenic centers are held responsible for the integration of those signals and for an adequate output to peripheral organs involved in metabolism and energy homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932986/temperature-driven-plasticity-in-nutrient-use-and-preference-in-an-ectotherm
#7
Myung Suk Rho, Kwang Pum Lee
Environmental temperature has strong effects on the rate and efficiency of resource use in ectotherms, but little is known about how changes in temperature influence their diet selection patterns. Changes in temperature may alter the balance of nutrients required by ectotherms by affecting metabolism. In response to temperature changes, ectotherms are predicted to express a preference for a specific nutrient (protein or carbohydrate) to match their altered nutrient requirement. Here, we examined the nutritional consequences of mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor L...
September 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932003/quantitative-assessment-of-locomotive-syndrome-by-the-loco-check-questionnaire-in-older-japanese-females
#8
Sachiko Noge, Tatsuo Ohishi, Takuya Yoshida, Hiromichi Kumagai
[Purpose] Locomotive syndrome (LS) is a condition by which older people may require care service because of problems with locomotive organs. This study examined whether the loco-check, a 7-item questionnaire, is useful for quantitatively assessing the severity of LS. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-one community dwelling Japanese females aged 64-96 years (81.7 ± 8.0 years) participated in this study. The associations of the loco-check with thigh muscle mass measured by X-ray CT, physical performance, nutritional status, and quality of life (QOL) were investigated...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931495/a-review-of-sarcopenia-enhancing-awareness-of-an-increasingly-prevalent-disease
#9
REVIEW
Eric Marty, Yi Liu, Andre Samuel, Omer Or, Joseph Lane
Sarcopenia is defined as an age associated decline in skeletal muscle mass. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial, with decreased caloric intake, muscle fiber denervation, intracellular oxidative stress, hormonal decline, and enhanced myostatin signaling all thought to contribute. Prevalence rates are as high as 29% and 33% in community dwelling and long-term care populations, respectively, with advanced age, low body mass index, and low physical activity as significant risk factors. Sarcopenia shares many characteristics with other disease states typically associated with risk of fall and fracture, including osteoporosis, frailty, and obesity...
September 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931380/leaves-play-a-central-role-in-the-adaptation-of-nitrogen-and-sulfur-metabolism-to-ammonium-nutrition-in-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus
#10
Inmaculada Coleto, Marlon de la Peña, Jon Rodríguez-Escalante, Iraide Bejarano, Gaëtan Glauser, Pedro M Aparicio-Tejo, M Begoña González-Moro, Daniel Marino
BACKGROUND: The coordination between nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) assimilation is required to suitably provide plants with organic compounds essential for their development and growth. The N source induces the adaptation of many metabolic processes in plants; however, there is scarce information about the influence that it may exert on the functioning of S metabolism. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of N and S metabolism in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) when exposed to different N sources...
September 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931017/trends-in-medication-use-by-body-mass-index-and-age-between-1988-and-2012-in-the-united-states
#11
Arshdeep K Randhawa, Jash S Parikh, Jennifer L Kuk
OBJECTIVE: Whether the increase in prescription medication use over time differs by age and obesity status is unclear. METHOD: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1988 and 2012 was analyzed (n = 57,543). FINDINGS: Increased medication use over time was seen in older individuals of all body mass index (BMI) classes, with the most prominent increase in those with obesity (p<0.001). For example, older men (≥65y) with obesity took 3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930250/enrichment-of-animal-diets-with-essential-oils-a-great-perspective-on-improving-animal-performance-and-quality-characteristics-of-the-derived-products
#12
REVIEW
Panagiotis E Simitzis
Food industry operates in a competitive market and is continually facing challenges to retain or even increase its market share. Consistent high-quality animal products are required to maintain consumer confidence and consumption. Enrichment of foods with bioactive compounds such as the essential oils appears to improve quality characteristics of the derived products and protects consumers against oxidation and bacterial spoilage effects. Synthetic additives are nowadays questioned due to their suspected carcinogenic potential, and therefore extensive research has been undertaken to identify safe and efficient alternatives...
June 2, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929948/moderately-high-protein-enteral-formula-improved-retinol-binding-protein-in-tube-fed-patients-a-multicentre-open-study
#13
Veeradej Pisprasert, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai Shantavasinkul, Sornwichate Rattanachaiwong, Tanarat Lepananon, Surat Komindr
BACKGROUND: Long-term inadequate dietary consumption may increase the possibility of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition (EN) is a beneficial support that could help to maintain nutritional status and gut function. AIM: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of moderately high-protein enteral formula containing fibre on nutritional status, and its safety. METHOD: A total of 23 tube-feeding-dependent adult patients were included in this multicentre, open-label study...
September 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929218/percutaneous-gastric-remnant-gastrostomy-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-a-single-tertiary-center-s-13-year-experience
#14
Shehbaz Hasam Shaikh, Justin Jay Stenz, David W McVinnie, James J Morrison, Todd Getzen, Arthur M Carlin, Farhaan R Mir
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the indications, techniques, and outcomes for percutaneous gastrostomy placement in the gastric remnant following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in bariatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review and summary statistical analysis was performed on all RYGB patients that underwent attempted percutaneous remnant gastrostomy placement at our institution between April 2003 and November 2016. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients post-RYGB who underwent gastric remnant gastrostomy placement were identified, 32 women and 6 men, in which a total of 41 procedures were attempted...
September 19, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928509/osmotic-dehydration-effects-on-major-and-minor-components-of-chestnut-castanea-sativa-mill-slices
#15
Teresa Delgado, José Alberto Pereira, Elsa Ramalhosa, Susana Casal
The effect of osmotic dehydration (OD) conditions (temperature, time and sucrose concentration) on some nutritional parameters, soluble sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and vitamin E composition of chestnut slices was studied. Temperature at 60 °C and contact time of 7.5 h decreased significantly both protein (in 20 and 15%) and fat (in 25 and 20%) contents when compared to 30 °C and contact time of 2.5 h, simultaneously with the incorporation of sugars from the osmotic medium. An increase in temperature from 30 to 60 °C and contact time from 2...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927486/hplc-determination-of-total-tryptophan-in-infant-formula-and-adult-pediatric-nutritional-formula-following-enzymatic-hydrolysis-single-laboratory-validation-first-action-2017-03
#16
Jonathan Draher, Norman White
A method for tryptophan (Trp) analysis designed to comply with AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2014.013 is described. Unlike AOAC 988.15, which uses alkaline hydrolysis, this method uses enzymatic hydrolysis to release the Trp from the intact protein. The method achieves an LOQ of 0.18 mg/100 g Trp on a ready-to-feed basis with mean recoveries ranging from 93.8 to 104.9%. Repeatability ranged from 0.2 to 5.0%. Intermediate precision ranged from 1.0 to 6.9%. The analytical range was determined to be 0...
September 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927376/systematic-review-of-statistical-approaches-to-quantify-or-correct-for-measurement-error-in-a-continuous-exposure-in-nutritional-epidemiology
#17
Derrick A Bennett, Denise Landry, Julian Little, Cosetta Minelli
BACKGROUND: Several statistical approaches have been proposed to assess and correct for exposure measurement error. We aimed to provide a critical overview of the most common approaches used in nutritional epidemiology. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and CINAHL were searched for reports published in English up to May 2016 in order to ascertain studies that described methods aimed to quantify and/or correct for measurement error for a continuous exposure in nutritional epidemiology using a calibration study...
September 19, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926994/the-metabolic-response-to-stress-and-infection-in-critically-ill-children-the-opportunity-of-an-individualized-approach
#18
REVIEW
Valentina De Cosmi, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Veronica D'Oria, Marco Silano, Edoardo Calderini, Carlo Agostoni
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically-ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions...
September 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926960/genetic-and-hormonal-regulation-of-chlorophyll-degradation-during-maturation-of-seeds-with-green-embryos
#19
REVIEW
Galina Smolikova, Elena Dolgikh, Maria Vikhnina, Andrej Frolov, Sergei Medvedev
The embryos of some angiosperms (usually referred to as chloroembryos) contain chlorophylls during the whole period of embryogenesis. Developing embryos have photochemically active chloroplasts and are able to produce assimilates, further converted in reserve biopolymers, whereas at the late steps of embryogenesis, seeds undergo dehydration, degradation of chlorophylls, transformation of chloroplast in storage plastids, and enter the dormancy period. However, in some seeds, the process of chlorophyll degradation remains incomplete...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923236/emergency-nurses-knowledge-and-self-rated-practice-skills-when-caring-for-older-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#20
Helen Rawson, Paul N Bennett, Cherene Ockerby, Alison M Hutchinson, Julie Considine
BACKGROUND: Older adults are high users of emergency department services and their care requirements can present challenges for emergency nurses. Although clinical outcomes for older patients improve when they are cared for by nurses with specialist training, emergency nurses' knowledge and self-assessment of care for older patients is poorly understood. AIM: To assess emergency nurses' knowledge and self-rating of practice when caring for older patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional self-report survey of emergency nurses (n=101) in Melbourne, Australia...
September 8, 2017: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
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