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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#1
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231154/natural-chemical-composition-of-commercial-fish-species-characterisation-of-pangasius-wild-and-farmed-turbot-and-barramundi
#2
Monika Manthey-Karl, Ines Lehmann, Ute Ostermeyer, Ute Schröder
To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets...
August 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230929/investigation-of-p16-status-chemotherapy-regimen-and-other-nutrition-markers-for-predicting-gastrostomy-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#3
Teresa E Brown, Kym Wittholz, Mandy Way, Merrilyn D Banks, Brett G M Hughes, Charles Y Lin, Lizbeth M Kenny, Judith D Bauer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine if p16 status, chemotherapy regimen, or other nutrition markers could improve protocol accuracy in predicting proactive gastrostomy in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Patients who received curative treatment from July 2010 to June 2011 were included (n = 269). Associations among dependent variables (age, sex, tumor site, staging, treatment, p16 status, albumin, and Malnutrition Screening Tool [MST] score), the protocol risk rating, and requirement for proactive gastrostomy were examined...
February 23, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230804/calcium-intake-and-nutritional-adequacy-in-spanish-children-the-aniva-study
#4
Nuria Rubio-López, Agustín Llopis-González, María Morales-Suárez-Varela
Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian...
February 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230779/validity-and-reliability-of-general-nutrition-knowledge-questionnaire-for-adults-in-uganda
#5
Richard Bukenya, Abhiya Ahmed, Jeanette M Andrade, Diana S Grigsby-Toussaint, John Muyonga, Juan E Andrade
This study sought to develop and validate a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) for Ugandan adults. The initial draft consisted of 133 items on five constructs associated with nutrition knowledge; expert recommendations (16 items), food groups (70 items), selecting food (10 items), nutrition and disease relationship (23 items), and food fortification in Uganda (14 items). The questionnaire validity was evaluated in three studies. For the content validity (study 1), a panel of five content matter nutrition experts reviewed the GNKQ draft before and after face validity...
February 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230654/surgical-endoscopy-versus-endoscopic-surgery-for-obesity
#6
Bogdan Silviu Ungureanu, Ştefan Pătraşcu, Valeriu Şurlin, Adrian Săftoiu
BACKGROUND: Obesity treatment options are of great interest worldwide with major developments in the past 20 years. From general surgery to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery intervention nowadays, obesity surgical therapies have surely developed and are now offering a variety of possibilities. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Although surgery is the only proven approach for weight loss, a joint decision between the physician and patient is required before proceeding to such a procedure...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230608/specialized-imaging-and-procedures-in-pediatric-pancreatology-a-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-clinical-report
#7
Tom K Lin, David M Troendle, Daniel B Wallihan, Bradley Barth, Victor L Fox, Douglas S Fishman, Veronique D Morinville
OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of children are being diagnosed with pancreatitis and other pancreatic abnormalities. Dissemination of the information regarding existing imaging techniques and endoscopic modalities to diagnose and manage pancreatic disorders in children is sorely needed. METHODS: We conducted a review of the medical literature on the use of the following imaging and procedural modalities in pediatric pancreatology: transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229646/special-nutrition-intervention-is-required-for-muscle-protective-efficacy-of-physical-exercise-in-elderly-people-at-highest-risk-of-sarcopenia
#8
A Molnár, I Jónásné Sztruhár, Á A Csontos, Cs Ferencz, Sz Várbíró, B Székács
Progressive loss of muscle mass and strength is a physiological consequence of aging, and without interventions, it usually deteriorates into sarcopenia. In this study, the hypothesis that combined special nutritional-physiotherapeutical intervention to prevent or reverse this biological deterioration in elderly people was tested. The effects of the regular resistance muscle training (PT, n = 17) alone and the combined exercise + special nutrition therapy containing whey protein and vitamin D (PT + NT, n = 17) were monitored for 3 months in 34 elderly patients (12 men and 22 women; mean age: 66...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#9
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228464/current-uses-of-dietary-therapy-for-patients-with-far-advanced-ckd
#10
REVIEW
Norio Hanafusa, Bereket Tessema Lodebo, Joel D Kopple
For several decades, inquiry concerning dietary therapy for nondialyzed patients with CKD has focused mainly on its capability to retard progression of CKD. However, several studies published in recent years indicate that, independent of whether diet can delay progression of CKD, well designed low-protein diets may provide a number of benefits for people with advanced CKD who are close to requiring or actually in need of RRT. Dietary therapy may both maintain good nutritional status and safely delay the need for chronic dialysis in such patients, offering the possibility of improving quality of life and reducing health care costs...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226414/methylene-blue-for-the-treatment-of-intractable-pain-associated-with-oral-mucositis
#11
Carlos J Roldan, Kent Nouri, Thomas Chai, Billy Huh
Oral mucositis is a common and often debilitating complication among cancer patients receiving radiation therapy to the head and neck or chemotherapy agents, or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pain and decreased oral function associated with oral mucositis may persist long after the conclusion of therapy. Although most patients respond to conservative management, a subset of patients develop intractable pain with severe consequences. For some, the use of total parenteral nutrition with insertion of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes is the only alternative...
February 22, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225201/edible-insects-in-china-utilization-and-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Ying Feng, Xiao-Ming Chen, Min Zhao, Zhao He, Long Sun, Cheng-Ye Wang, Wei-Feng Ding
The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than two thousand years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last twenty years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species, and some medicinal insects...
February 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225054/nutritional-adequacy-of-diets-for-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity-considerations-for-dietetic-practice
#13
N B Lister, M L Gow, K Chisholm, A Grunseit, S P Garnett, L A Baur
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adolescents have unique nutrient requirements due to rapid growth and development. High rates of obesity in adolescents require a variety of diet interventions to achieve weight loss under clinical supervision. The aim of this study is to examine the nutritional adequacy of energy-restricted diets for adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Three popular diets were modelled for 7 days and assessed by comparing the nutrient profile to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224103/management-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-patients
#14
REVIEW
Paolo Cotogni
Artificial nutrition (AN) is necessary to meet the nutritional requirements of critically ill patients at nutrition risk because undernutrition determines a poorer prognosis in these patients. There is debate over which route of delivery of AN provides better outcomes and lesser complications. This review describes the management of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill patients. The first aim is to discuss what should be done in order that the PN is safe. The second aim is to dispel "myths" about PN-related complications and show how prevention and monitoring are able to reach the goal of "near zero" PN complications...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224090/vitamin-d-deficiency-insufficiency-from-childhood-to-adulthood-insights-from-a-sunny-country
#15
REVIEW
Motti Haimi, Richard Kremer
Vitamin D is known to be a key regulator of bone metabolism and is associated with muscle strength. Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent worldwide. In adults, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in numerous health conditions including osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Considerable changes have occurred in lifestyles and childhood activities in the past years. Studies have shown that the children population is at high risks of vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this study was to learn about the extent of vitamin D deficiency in children worldwide and especially in sunny country like Israel...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223838/factors-associated-with-body-mass-index-among-slum-dwelling-women-in-india-an-analysis-of-the-2005-2006-indian-national-family-health-survey
#16
Maya Laxmi Patel, Raywat Deonandan
BACKGROUND: Urbanization is increasing around the world, and in India, this trend has translated into an increase in the size of slum dwellings whose environments are suspected of being associated with poor health outcomes, particularly those relating to women's nutritional status. With this study, we sought to determine the factors associated with Indian women's body mass index (BMI) in slum environments, with special attention paid to women with tribal status. METHODS: A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on data from the Indian National Family Health Survey (2005-2006), modeling demographic and behavioral factors suspected of being associated with BMI, with additional focus on the measures of social class, specifically caste and tribal status...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223413/transcriptional-activation-of-lipogenesis-by-insulin-requires-phosphorylation-of-med17-by-ck2
#17
Jose A Viscarra, Yuhui Wang, Il-Hwa Hong, Hei Sook Sul
De novo lipogenesis is precisely regulated by nutritional and hormonal conditions. The genes encoding various enzymes involved in this process, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN), are transcriptionally activated in response to insulin. We showed that USF1, a key transcription factor for FASN activation, directly interacted with the Mediator subunit MED17 at the FASN promoter. This interaction recruited Mediator, which can bring POL II and other general transcription machinery to the complex. Moreover, we showed that MED17 was phosphorylated at Ser(53) by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in the livers of fed mice or insulin-stimulated hepatocytes, but not in the livers of fasted mice or untreated hepatocytes...
February 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222833/invited-review-impact-of-specific-nutrient-interventions-during-mid-to-late-gestation-on-physiological-traits-important-for-survival-of-multiple-born-lambs
#18
S A McCoard, F A Sales, Q L Sciascia
To improve production efficiency, the sheep meat industry has increased flock prolificacy. However, multiple-born lambs have lower birth weights, increased mortality and reduced growth rate compared with single-born lambs. Lamb mortality is a major issue for livestock farming globally and solutions are required to increase survival to realise the value of increased flock fecundity. Nutrition during gestation can influence maternal-foetal placental nutrient transfer and thus foetal growth and organ/tissue development, as well as improve postnatal productivity...
February 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222819/reliability-of-thyroglobulin-in-serum-compared-with-urinary-iodine-when-assessing-individual-and-population-iodine-nutrition-status
#19
Stig Andersen, Paneeraq Noahsen, Louise Westergaard, Peter Laurberg
The occurrence of thyroid disorders relies on I nutrition and monitoring of all populations is recommended. Measuring I in urine is standard but thyroglobulin in serum is an alternative. This led us to assess the reliability of studies using serum thyroglobulin compared with urinary I to assess the I nutrition level and calculate the number of participants needed in a study with repeated data sampling in the same individuals for 1 year. Diet, supplement use and life style factors were assessed by questionnaires...
February 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222817/livestock-and-feed-water-productivity-in-the-mixed-crop-livestock-system
#20
M Bekele, A Mengistu, B Tamir
Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP)...
February 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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