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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217277/absence-of-hybridization-with-the-wild-type-and-mutant-rpob-probes-in-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-detects-disputed-rifampicin-mutations
#1
Ngu Njei Abanda, Josiane Yvonne Djieugoué, Vedbar S Khadka, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Guy Vernet, Veronique Mbeng Penlap, Youping Deng, Sara Irene Eyangoh, Diane Wallace Taylor, Rose Gana Fomban Leke
OBJECTIVE: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that fail to hybridize to at least one rpoB wildtype or any mutation probe on the Genotype MTBDRplus strip are assumed Rifampicin-resistant. However, the precise mutation(s) are unknown. We sought to identify the mutations in isolates with such hybridization patterns and determine if the mutations are associated with resistance to Rifampicin. METHODS: In this study, 275 M. tuberculosis isolates were screened with the Genotype MTBDRplus assay to identify isolates with the hybridization pattern...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212699/rapid-microarray-based-detection-of-rifampicin-isoniazid-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-a-single-cartridge
#2
Juliane Havlicek, Beatrice Dachsel, Peter Slickers, Sönke Andres, Patrick Beckert, Silke Feuerriegel, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, Ines Labugger
Rapid and robust identification of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains mediating multidrug and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) phenotypes is crucial to combat the MDR tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Currently available molecular TB drug susceptibility tests are either restricted to single targets/drugs (i.e. Xpert MTB/RIF) or aid the risk of cross-contaminations due to the design limitations of the open platform (i.e. line probe assays).With a good understanding of the technical and commercial boundaries we designed a test cartridge with an introduction of dried reagents, based on an oligonucleotide array, which has the ability to identify MTBC strains resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin and the fluoroquinolones...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203102/antimicrobial-resistance-and-underlying-mechanisms-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#3
Ebru Şebnem Yılmaz, Özkan Aslantaş
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 97 clinical Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains against 14 antimicrobials and corresponding resistance mechanisms. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined using a disk diffusion method and antimicrobial resistance genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction. Mutations responsible for ciprofloxacin and rifampicin resistance were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191227/performance-of-mtbdrplus-assay-in-detecting-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-at-hospital-level
#4
Abebaw Kebede, Daniel Demisse, Meazashwork Assefa, Zerihun Getachew, Bazezew Yenew, Yared Tedla, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) case finding progressively increased in Ethiopia mainly as a result of the utilization of World Health Organization (WHO)-endorsed rapid technologies including MTBDRplus assay. However, there is inadequate data on routine testing performance of the MTBDRplus assay. Consequently, the aim of the study was to assess the routine performance of the MTBDRplus assay in detecting MDR-TB at St. Peter's TB Specialized Hospital. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of MTBDRplus in detecting isoniazid (INH) resistance were 96...
December 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188195/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-two-clonally-related-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing
#5
Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung, Gilman Kit-Hang Siu, Kingsley King-Gee Tam, Sabrina Wai-Chi To, Rahim Rajwani, Pak-Leung Ho, Samson Sai-Yin Wong, Wei W Zhao, Oliver Chiu-Kit Ma, Wing-Cheong Yam
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a major threat to global TB control. In this study, we focused on two consecutive MDR-TB isolated from the same patient before and after the initiation of anti-TB treatment. To better understand the genomic characteristics of MDR-TB, Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and comparative genomic analyses was performed to identify mutations that contributed to the stepwise development of drug resistance and growth fitness in MDR-TB under in vivo challenge of anti-TB drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185859/the-burden-of-rifampicin-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-italy
#6
Dafne Bongiorno, Gino Mongelli, Stefania Stefani, Floriana Campanile
Rifampicin is one of the major drugs used on its own and also in combination to treat numerous infections sustained by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In Italy, rifampicin resistance (RIF-R) is increasing in multidrug-resistant-MRSA isolates (16.4%), with respect to Europe (5.7%). In our study, the relationship between clones, rpoB mutations, and susceptibility profiles in 50 RIF-R MRSA isolated from hospitalized patients was evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171560/mutation-analysis-for-detection-of-drug-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan
#7
Bashir Ahmad, Muhammad Idrees, Kafeel Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir, Sajjad Ahmad, Huang Lin-Fang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and distribution of mutations in the 'hot spot regions' of drug-resistant genes. METHODS: The study was conducted at Provincial Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Peshawar, Pakistan, from April 2015 to March 2016, and comprised sputum samples. Isolates were tested for drug susceptibility and resistant isolates were investigated for mutations analysis in the 'hot spot regions' of rpoB, rpsL, embB, pncA, gyrA and gyrB genes. RESULTS: Of the 163 isolates, 47(28...
November 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168600/molecular-characterization-of-helicobacter-pylori-resistance-to-rifamycins
#8
Constantin Hays, Christophe Burucoa, Philippe Lehours, Cong Tri Tran, Anaïs Leleu, Josette Raymond
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is a major contributing factor in treatment failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication. Rifabutin (RB) is a rescue treatment and rifampicin (RP) is used to screen RB resistance in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of rifamycins resistance and to determine the mutations in the rpoB gene conferring resistance to discuss the current break point. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility to RP was first determined by E-test for 1015 H...
November 23, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145601/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-potential-prophage-derived-recombinases-for-genome-editing-in-lactobacillus-casei
#9
Yongping Xin, Tingting Guo, Yingli Mu, Jian Kong
Numerous LAB bacteriophage genomes have been sequenced, while the functional genes are yet to be exploited. In this study, a λ Red-like recombinase operon LCABL_13040-50-60 was identified from a prophage PLE3 in Lactobacillus casei BL23 genome, and its recombination function was confirmed by replacement of a 167 bp galK fragment with chloramphenicol-resistant gene (cat) in the L. casei BL23 genome. Further functional analysis showed that LCABL_13040 and LCABL_13060 were analogs to the host nuclease inhibitor (Redγ) and 5'-3' exonuclease (Redα/RecE), respectively...
November 14, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127051/genomic-analysis-of-in-vivo-acquired-resistance-to-colistin-and-rifampin-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#10
Nadia Jaidane, Thierry Naas, Wejdene Mansour, Bechir Ben Radhia, Sofiene Jerbi, Noureddine Boujaafar, Olfa Bouallegue, Rémy A Bonnin
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen in health-care facilities responsible for nosocomial infections mostly in immune-compromised patients. Colistin resistance is increasingly reported worldwide in that species. We describe here in vivo selection of colistin and rifampin resistance in a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (Ab). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid analysis, and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) were performed to fully characterize the resistome of AbS1 and AbS2 clinical isolates...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097343/molecular-detection-of-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-leprae-from-indian-leprosy-patients
#11
Mallika Lavania, Itu Singh, Ravindra P Turankar, Madhvi Ahuja, Vinay Pathak, Utpal Sengupta, Loretta Das, Archana Kumar, Joydeepa Darlong, Rajeev Nathan, Asha Maseey
OBJECTIVE: Emergence of multi drug resistant (MDR) organism for any infectious disease is a public health concern. Global efforts to control leprosy by intensive chemotherapy have led to a significant decrease in the number of registered patients. Currently recommended control measures for treating leprosy with MDT was designed to prevent the spread of dapsone resistant strains of Mycobacterium leprae. We report here the identification of MDR strains of M. leprae from relapsed leprosy patients from endemic regions in India...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092043/emerging-resistant-clones-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-spatiotemporal-context
#12
Anna Vyazovaya, Klavdia Levina, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Piret Viiklepp, Marge Kütt, Igor Mokrousov
Objectives: We assessed the genetic structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Estonia with a special focus on major epidemic/endemic clones and drug resistance determinants. We investigated the hypothesis of the decisive impact of massive human influx on the locally circulating genotypes. Estonia received a mass immigration from Russia during 1945-90 followed by enhanced interaction with the EU since 1991. Methods: The study sample included M. tuberculosis isolates from patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2014 in North Estonia (including the capital Tallinn)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091186/antimicrobial-resistance-in-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-isolated-from-patients-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-at-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-taiwan
#13
Ming-Chun Lee, Pei-Lun Sun, Tsu-Lan Wu, Li-Hsin Wang, Chih-Hsun Yang, Wen-Hung Chung, An-Jing Kuo, Tsui-Ping Liu, Jang-Jih Lu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Hsin-Chih Lai, Nan-Yu Chen, Jeng-How Yang, Ting-Shu Wu
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) is the most common non-tuberculous mycobacterium that causes complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs). The selection of antimycobacterial agents for successful treatment of such infections is a critical issue. Objectives: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MABC isolates from skin and soft tissue to a variety of antimycobacterial agents. Methods: Sixty-seven MABC isolates were collected and partial gene sequencing of secA1, rpoB and hsp65 was used to classify them into three subspecies: M...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082727/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-daptomycin-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
REVIEW
N Gómez Casanova, M Siller Ruiz, J L Muñoz Bellido
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide active against multidrug-resistant Gram-positives, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. It is 4-8 fold as active as vancomycin against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA, and retains most of this activity against S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. The mechanism of action of daptomycin is not fully understood. Daptomycin binds to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, leading to depolarization due to the loss of potassium ions from the cytoplasm...
October 25, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052602/mtbdrplus-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-ocular-tuberculosis-and-screening-of-drug-resistance
#15
K Sharma, A Gupta, M Sharma, A Sharma, R Singh, K Aggarwal, R Bansal, A Thakur, S Prakash, V Gupta
PurposeTimely diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis (IOTB) along with detection of drug resistance can save many eyes from visual impairment. With the growing incidence of IOTB and rising drug resistance, a reliable diagnostic platform for simultaneous detection of the agent and mutated gene is urgently needed. The MTBDRplus assay was evaluated directly on vitreous fluid samples for the same.Patients and methodsIn a prospective study, The MTBDRplus assay was performed on 127 vitreous fluid samples (77 'study group' comprising cases of presumed ocular tuberculosis and 50 'control group' cases of disease controls (n=25) and non-uveitic controls (n=25))...
October 20, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031637/molecular-epidemiology-of-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-ireland-2001-2014
#16
E Roycroft, R F O'Toole, M M Fitzgibbon, L Montgomery, M O'Meara, P Downes, S Jackson, J O'Donnell, I F Laurenson, A M McLaughlin, J Keane, T R Rogers
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this work was to examine the acquisition and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in Ireland. METHODS: All available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates (n = 42), from MDR-TB cases diagnosed in Ireland between 2001 and 2014, were analysed using phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing, Mycobacterial-Interspersed-Repetitive-Units Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993300/analysis-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-morocco-using-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay
#17
Wifak Ennassiri, Sanae Jaouhari, Radia Sabouni, Wafa Cherki, Reda Charof, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Ouafae Lahlou
OBJECTIVES: The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is rising worldwide. The present investigation aims to evaluate, using the GenoType(®) MTBDRplus, the most common mutations associated with rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) resistance within the resistant strains in Morocco. METHODS: 319M. tuberculosis isolates referred to the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, between 2013 and 2015, were subjected to GenoType(®) MTBDRplus for detecting M...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961910/adaptive-mutations-in-rna-polymerase-and-the-transcriptional-terminator-rho-have-similar-effects-on-escherichia-coli-gene-expression
#18
Andrea González-González, Shaun M Hug, Alejandra Rodríguez-Verdugo, Jagdish Suresh Patel, Brandon S Gaut
Modifications to transcriptional regulators play a major role in adaptation. Here, we compared the effects of multiple beneficial mutations within and between Escherichia coli rpoB, the gene encoding the RNA polymerase β subunit, and rho, which encodes a transcriptional terminator. These two genes have harbored adaptive mutations in numerous E. coli evolution experiments but particularly in our previous large-scale thermal stress experiment, where the two genes characterized alternative adaptive pathways. To compare the effects of beneficial mutations, we engineered four advantageous mutations into each of the two genes and measured their effects on fitness, growth, gene expression and transcriptional termination at 42...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959248/rifabutin-resistance-associated-with-double-mutations-in-rpob-gene-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#19
Wei Jing, Yu Pang, Zhaojing Zong, Jing Wang, Ru Guo, Fengmin Huo, Guanglu Jiang, Yifeng Ma, Hairong Huang, Naihui Chu
The objective of this study was to investigate the cross-resistance between rifampin (RIF) and rifabutin (RFB) among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates, and the correlations between specific rpoB mutations and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of RIF and RFB. A total of 256 RIF-resistant isolates were included from the National Tuberculosis Clinical Laboratory in China. The MICs of MTB isolates against RIF and RFB were determined by using a microplate alamarBlue assay. In addition, all the MTB isolates were sequenced for mutations in rpoB gene...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931561/genetic-mimetics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-as-verification-standards-for-molecular-diagnostics
#20
Edith Erika Machowski, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Molecular diagnostics have revolutionized the management of health care through enhanced detection of disease or infection and effective engagement into care. In recognition of this, the World Health Organization approved the rollout out of nucleic acid amplification technologies for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using platforms such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, the GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay and more recently, GeneXpert MTB/RIF Ultra. These assays can simultaneously detect tuberculosis infection and assess rifampicin resistance...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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