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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903459/true-rifampicin-resistance-missed-by-the-mgit-prevalence-of-this-pheno-genotype-in-the-uk-and-ireland-after-18-month-surveillance
#1
Ximena Gonzalo, Pauline Claxton, Tim Brown, Lorraine Montgomery, Margaret Fitzgibbon, Ian Laurenson, Francis Drobniewski
OBJECTIVES: To characterise rifampicin resistant strains missed by the MGIT 960 system but not by egg-based media in the UK and Ireland and to ascertain their prevalence. METHODS: All strains sent for second line susceptibility testing were prospectively collected. Drug Susceptibility Testing was performed by Resistance Ratio (RR), Proportion Method (PM), MGIT 960 and MIC determination by microdilution. Rifampicin resistance conferring mutations were detected with line probe assays and sequencing...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902737/a-comparison-of-the-sensititre-mycotb-plate-the-bactec-mgit-960-and-a-microarray-based-molecular-assay-for-the-detection-of-drug-resistance-in-clinical-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-moscow-russia
#2
Elena Y Nosova, Danila V Zimenkov, Anastasia A Khakhalina, Alexandra I Isakova, Ludmila Y Krylova, Marina V Makarova, Ksenia Y Galkina, Maria A Krasnova, Svetlana G Safonova, Vitaly I Litvinov, Dmitry A Gryadunov, Elena M Bogorodskaya
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to compare the consistency of three assays for the determination of the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains with various resistance profiles isolated from the Moscow region. METHODS: A total of 144 MTB clinical isolates with a strong bias toward drug resistance were examined using Bactec MGIT 960, Sensititre MycoTB, and a microarray-based molecular assay TB-TEST to detect substitutions in the rpoB, katG, inhA, ahpC, gyrA, gyrB, rrs, eis, and embB genes that are associated with resistance to rifampin, isoniazid, fluoroquinolones, second-line injectable drugs and ethambutol...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895008/de-novo-emergence-of-genetically-resistant-mutants-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-the-persistence-phase-cells-formed-against-antituberculosis-drugs-in-vitro
#3
Jees Sebastian, Sharmada Swaminath, Rashmi Ravindran Nair, Kishor Jakkala, Atul Pradhan, Parthasarathi Ajitkumar
Bacterial persisters are a subpopulation of cells that can tolerate lethal concentrations of antibiotics. However, the possibility of the emergence of genetically resistant mutants from antibiotic persister cell population, upon continued exposure to lethal concentrations of antibiotics, remained unexplored. In the present study, we found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cells exposed continuously to lethal concentrations of rifampicin (RIF) or moxifloxacin (MXF) for prolonged durations showed killing, RIF/MXF persistence, and regrowth phases...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810467/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-testing-challenges-recent-developments-and-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
T Schön, P Miotto, C U Köser, M Viveiros, E Böttger, E Cambau
Drug-resistance testing, or antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), is mandatory for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cases of failure on standard therapy. We reviewed the different methods and techniques of phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Although multiresistant and extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) tuberculosis is present worldwide, AST for M. tuberculosis (AST-MTB) is still mainly performed according to the resources available rather than the drug-resistance rates. Phenotypic methods, i.e. culture-based AST, are commonly used in high-income countries to confirm susceptibility of new cases of tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790199/molecular-events-for-promotion-of-vancomycin-resistance-in-vancomycin-intermediate-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
REVIEW
Qiwen Hu, Huagang Peng, Xiancai Rao
Vancomycin has been used as the last resort in the clinical treatment of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) was discovered almost two decades ago. Aside from the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, VISA strains from the clinic or laboratory exhibited common characteristics, such as thickened cell walls, reduced autolysis, and attenuated virulence. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for the reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA are varied. The comparative genomics of vancomycin-susceptible S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784282/mechanisms-of-first-line-antimicrobial-resistance-in-multi-drug-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#6
Navisha Dookie, A Willem Sturm, Prashini Moodley
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, drug resistant tuberculosis is a major public health crisis in the face of the colossal HIV pandemic. METHODS: In an attempt to understand the distribution of drug resistance in our setting, we analysed the rpoB, katG, inhA, pncA and embB genes associated with resistance to key drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the KwaZulu-Natal province. RESULTS: Classical mutations were detected in the katG, inhA and embB genes associated with resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706165/leprosy-drug-resistance-surveillance-in-colombia-the-experience-of-a-sentinel-country
#7
Camilo Beltrán-Alzate, Fernando López Díaz, Marcela Romero-Montoya, Rama Sakamuri, Wei Li, Miyako Kimura, Patrick Brennan, Nora Cardona-Castro
An active search for Mycobacterium leprae drug resistance was carried out, 243 multibacillary patients from endemic regions of Colombia were included from 2004 to 2013 in a surveillance program. This program was a World Health Organization initiative for drug resistance surveillance in leprosy, where Colombia is a sentinel country. M. leprae DNA from slit skin smear and/or skin biopsy samples was amplified and sequenced to identify mutations in the drug resistance determining region (DRDR) in rpoB, folP1, gyrA, and gyrB, the genes responsible for rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin drug-resistance, respectively...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704008/clinical-impact-on-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-of-discordance-between-molecular-and-growth-based-assays-for-rifampin-resistance-california-2003-2013
#8
Neha S Shah, S Y Grace Lin, Pennan M Barry, Yi-Ning Cheng, Gisela Schecter, Ed Desmond
Background.  Data from international settings suggest that isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with rpoB mutations testing phenotypically susceptible to rifampin (RIF) may have clinical significance. We analyzed treatment outcomes of California patients with discordant molecular-phenotypic RIF results. Methods.  We included tuberculosis (TB) patients, during 2003-2013, whose specimens tested RIF susceptible phenotypically but had a rpoB mutation determined by pyrosequencing. Demographic data were abstracted from the California TB registry...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701423/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-large-isoniazid-resistant-tuberculosis-outbreak-in-london-a-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Nicola Casali, Agnieszka Broda, Simon R Harris, Julian Parkhill, Timothy Brown, Francis Drobniewski
BACKGROUND: A large isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis outbreak centred on London, United Kingdom, has been ongoing since 1995. The aim of this study was to investigate the power and value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to resolve the transmission network compared to current molecular strain typing approaches, including analysis of intra-host diversity within a specimen, across body sites, and over time, with identification of genetic factors underlying the epidemiological success of this cluster...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667026/development-and-characterisation-of-highly-antibiotic-resistant-bartonella-bacilliformis-mutants
#10
Cláudia Gomes, Sandra Martínez-Puchol, Lidia Ruiz-Roldán, Maria J Pons, Juana Del Valle Mendoza, Joaquim Ruiz
The objective was to develop and characterise in vitro Bartonella bacilliformis antibiotic resistant mutants. Three B. bacilliformis strains were plated 35 or 40 times with azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin discs. Resistance-stability was assessed performing 5 serial passages without antibiotic pressure. MICs were determined with/without Phe-Arg-β-Napthylamide and artesunate. Target alterations were screened in the 23S rRNA, rplD, rplV, gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE and rpoB genes. Chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin resistance were the most difficult and easiest (>37...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664776/consensus-numbering-system-for-the-rifampicin-resistance-associated-rpob-gene-mutations-in-pathogenic-mycobacteria
#11
Emmanuel Andre, Léonie Goeminne, Andrea M Cabibbe, Patrick Beckert, Benoît Kabamba Mukadi, Vanessa Mathys, Sébastien Gagneux, Stefan Niemann, Jakko Van Ingen, Emmanuelle Cambau
The rpoB gene codes for the RNA polymerase β subunit, which is the target of rifampicin, an essential drug in the treatment of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. This gene is present in all bacteria, but its length and nucleotide sequence vary between bacterial species, including mycobacteria Mutations in the rpoB gene alter the structure of this protein and cause drug resistance. To describe the resistance-associated mutations, the scientific and medical communities have been using since 1993, a numbering system based on the Escherichia coli sequence annotation...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641092/performance-of-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-v2-0-and-a-new-extended-genotype-mtbdrsl-assay-v2-0-for-the-molecular-detection-of-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-isolates-primarily-from-lithuania
#12
Didi Bang, Siri Rytcher Andersen, Edita Vasiliauskienė, Erik Michael Rasmussen
The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) hampers infection control. To assess the performance of an extended rapid novel molecular analysis for the detection of resistance conferring mutations to fluoroquinolones (gyrA, gyrB genes) and aminoglycosides/cyclic peptides (16S rRNA rrs gene, eis promotor region) compared to phenotypic susceptibility and sequencing, 43 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 10 susceptible clinical isolates were analyzed. Results were compared to a previous version...
August 31, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637930/molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-high-prevalence-tuberculosis-states-in-mexico
#13
Dulce Maria Juarez-Eusebio, Daniela Munro-Rojas, Raquel Muñiz-Salazar, Rafael Laniado-Laborín, Jose Armando Martinez-Guarneros, Carlos A Flores-López, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas
Mexico is one of the most important contributors of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Latin-America, however little is known about the molecular characteristics of these strains. For this reason, the objective of this work was to determine the genotype and characterize polymorphisms in genes associated with resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, and second-line drugs in isolates from two regions of Mexico with high prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Clinical isolates from individuals with confirmed MDR-TB were genotyped using MIRU-VNTR 12 loci...
September 13, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621175/ciprofloxacin-selects-for-rna-polymerase-mutations-with-pleiotropic-antibiotic-resistance-effects
#14
Franziska Pietsch, Jessica M Bergman, Gerrit Brandis, Linda L Marcusson, Anna Zorzet, Douglas L Huseby, Diarmaid Hughes
OBJECTIVES: Resistance to the fluoroquinolone drug ciprofloxacin is commonly linked to mutations that alter the drug target or increase drug efflux via the major AcrAB-TolC transporter. Very little is known about other mutations that might also reduce susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. We discovered that an Escherichia coli strain experimentally evolved for resistance to ciprofloxacin had acquired a mutation in rpoB, the gene coding for the β-subunit of RNA polymerase. The aim of this work was to determine whether this mutation, and other mutations in rpoB, contribute to ciprofloxacin resistance and, if so, by which mechanism...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576542/shedding-light-on-the-performance-of-a-pyrosequencing-assay-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#15
Sophia B Georghiou, Marva Seifert, Shou-Yean Lin, Donald Catanzaro, Richard S Garfein, Roberta L Jackson, Valeriu Crudu, Camilla Rodrigues, Thomas C Victor, Antonino Catanzaro, Timothy C Rodwell
BACKGROUND: Rapid molecular diagnostics, with their ability to quickly identify genetic mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical specimens, have great potential as tools to control multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). The Qiagen PyroMark Q96 ID system is a commercially available pyrosequencing (PSQ) platform that has been validated for rapid M/XDR-TB diagnosis. However, the details of the assay's diagnostic and technical performance have yet to be thoroughly investigated in diverse clinical environments...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572404/molecular-epidemiology-of-mutations-in-antimicrobial-resistance-loci-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#16
Leonie Greipel, Sebastian Fischer, Jens Klockgether, Marie Dorda, Samira Mielke, Lutz Wiehlmann, Nina Cramer, Burkhard Tümmler
The chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) are treated with aerosolized antibiotics, oral fluoroquinolones and/or intravenous combination therapy with aminoglycosides and β-lactam antibiotics. An international strain collection of 361 P. aeruginosa isolates from 258 CF patients seen at 30 CF clinics was examined for mutations in 17 antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance loci that had been identified as hot spots of mutation by genome sequencing of serial isolates from a single CF clinic...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542334/using-whole-genome-sequencing-to-identify-resistance-determinants-and-predict-antimicrobial-resistance-phenotypes-for-year-2015-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-isolates-recovered-in-the-united-states
#17
B J Metcalf, S Chochua, R E Gertz, Z Li, H Walker, T Tran, P A Hawkins, A Glennen, R Lynfield, Y Li, L McGee, B Beall
Our whole genome sequence (WGS) pipeline was assessed for accurate prediction of antimicrobial phenotypes. For 2316 invasive pneumococcal isolates recovered during 2015 we compared WGS pipeline data to broth dilution testing (BDT) for 18 antimicrobials. For 11 antimicrobials categorical discrepancies were assigned when WGS-predicted MICs and BDT MICs predicted different categorizations for susceptibility, intermediate resistance or resistance, ranging from 0.9% (tetracycline) to 2.9% (amoxicillin). For β-lactam antibiotics, the occurrence of at least four-fold differences in MIC ranged from 0...
December 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540322/genotypic-detection-of-rpob-and-katg-gene-mutations-associated-with-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-a-local-scenario-kelantan
#18
Nurul-Ain Ismail, Mohd Fazli Ismail, Siti Suraiya Md Noor, Siti Nazrina Camalxaman
BACKGROUND: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a public health issue that is of major concern on a global scale. The characterisation of clinical isolates may provide key information regarding the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance, and helps to augment therapeutic options. This study aims to evaluate the frequency of gene mutations associated with Rifampicin (RIF) and Isoniazid (INH) resistance among nine clinical isolates. METHODS: A total of nine drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates were screened for genetic mutations in rpoB and katusing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing...
January 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519406/rifampicin-resistance-mutations-in-the-81%C3%A2-bp-rrdr-of-rpob-gene-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-using-xpert-mtb-rif-in-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan-a-retrospective-study
#19
Irfan Ullah, Aamer Ali Shah, Anila Basit, Mazhar Ali, Afsar Khan, Ubaid Ullah, Muhammad Ihtesham, Sumaira Mehreen, Anita Mughal, Arshad Javaid
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem especially in developing countries. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay to simultaneously detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency of MDR-TB in patients suspected to have drug resistance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The frequency of probes for various rpoB gene mutations using Xpert MTB/RIF assay within 81 bp RRDR (Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region) was the secondary objective...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459848/genotypic-characterization-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-quebec-2002-2012
#20
Joanna Spinato, Élyse Boivin, Émilie Bélanger-Trudelle, Huguette Fauchon, Cécile Tremblay, Hafid Soualhine
BACKGROUND: The increasing emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis presents a threat to the effective control of tuberculosis (TB). Rapid detection of drug-resistance is more important than ever to address this scourge. The purpose of this study was to genotypically characterize the first-line antitubercular drug-resistant isolates collected over 11 years in Quebec. RESULTS: The main mutations found in our resistant strains collection (n = 225) include: the S315T substitution in katG (50...
2016: BMC Microbiology
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