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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416362/enriched-whole-genome-sequencing-identified-compensatory-mutations-in-the-rna-polymerase-gene-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-leprae-strains
#1
Mallika Lavania, Itu Singh, Ravindra P Turankar, Anuj Kumar Gupta, Madhvi Ahuja, Vinay Pathak, Utpal Sengupta
Despite more than three decades of multidrug therapy (MDT), leprosy remains a major public health issue in several endemic countries, including India. The emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is a cause of concern and poses a threat to the leprosy-control program, which might ultimately dampen the achievement of the elimination program of the country. Rifampicin resistance in clinical strains of M. leprae are supposed to arise from harboring bacterial strains with mutations in the 81-bp rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413885/differences-in-rpob-katg-and-inha-mutations-between-new-and-previously-treated-tuberculosis-cases-using-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay
#2
Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Raghuprakash Reddy
Drug resistance in new cases reflects primary transmission of resistant strains, while drug resistance in previously treated patients is more likely to reflect acquired resistance during previous tuberculosis (TB) treatment. In this study from a rural hospital in South India, we compared molecular differences between new and previously treated TB patients who had isoniazid or rifampicin resistance-conferring mutations using the GenoType MTBDRplus assay. Out of 2112 TB patients, 245 (11.6%) had rpoB mutations and 338 (16%) had isoniazid resistance-conferring mutations...
January 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405982/simultaneous-detections-of-genetic-fragment-and-single-nucleotide-mutation-with-a-three-tiered-output-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#3
Shih-Ying Huang, Jia-Ru Chang, Yu-Chieh Liao, Horng-Yunn Dou, Min-Chieh Chuang
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the major infectious diseases worldwide. The pathogenic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), continuously evolves strains carrying drug-resistance genes, thus posing a growing challenge to TB prevention and treatment. We report a diagnostic system that uses a molecular beacon probe and an assistant strand as the core to simultaneously interact with an M.tb-specific fragment (in IS6110) and a single nucleotide substitution (SNS)-encoded segment (in rpoB) associated with drug resistance...
May 12, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404415/convergent-evolution-driven-by-rifampin-exacerbates-the-global-burden-of-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Romain Guérillot, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Ian Monk, Stefano Giulieri, Takehiro Tomita, Eloise Alison, Jessica Porter, Sacha Pidot, Wei Gao, Anton Y Peleg, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden
Mutations in the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RpoB) cause resistance to rifampin (Rifr), a critical antibiotic for treatment of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro studies have shown that RpoB mutations confer decreased susceptibility to other antibiotics, but the clinical relevance is unknown. Here, by analyzing 7,099 S. aureus genomes, we demonstrate that the most prevalent RpoB mutations promote clinically relevant phenotypic plasticity resulting in the emergence of stable S...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396866/genetic-and-phenotypic-characterizations-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-cheonan-korea
#5
Jae-Sik Jeon, Jae Kyung Kim, Qute Choi, Jong Wan Kim
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) causes tuberculosis (TB), which is a fatal disease. Cases of drug-resistant MTB have increased in recent years. In this study, we analyzed 7 sites of MTB DNA sequences, including the rpoB and inhA gene, to investigate the relationship between gene mutations and drug resistance in MTB. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis liquid culture samples (197 specimens from 74 cases) were collected between June 2015 and May 2016 and sequenced...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396746/ribosome-engineering-and-fermentation-optimization-leads-to-overproduction-of-tiancimycin-a-a-new-enediyne-natural-product-from-streptomyces-sp-cb03234
#6
Ling Liu, Jian Pan, Zilong Wang, Xiaohui Yan, Dong Yang, Xiangcheng Zhu, Ben Shen, Yanwen Duan, Yong Huang
Tiancimycin (TNM) A, a recently discovered enediyne natural product from Streptomyces sp. CB03234, showed rapid and complete killing of cancer cells and could be used as a payload in antibody drug conjugates. The low yield of TNM A in the wild-type strain promoted us to use ribosome engineering and fermentation optimization for its yield improvement. The Streptomyces sp. CB03234-R-16 mutant strain with a L422P mutation in RpoB, the RNA polymerase β-subunit, was obtained from the rifamycin-resistant screening...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378712/increasing-prevalence-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-is-associated-with-the-transmission-of-strains-harboring-compensatory-mutations-in-china-a-10-year-comparative-analysis
#7
Fengmin Huo, Jingjing Luo, Jin Shi, Zhaojing Zong, Wei Jing, Wenzhu Dong, Lingling Dong, Yifeng Ma, Qian Liang, Yuanyuan Shang, Hairong Huang, Yu Pang
In this report, we conducted bacterial population profile studies to assess trends of rifampicin (RIF) resistance from 2005 to 2015 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates collected across China. A total of randomly selected 273 and 269 MTB isolates from 2005 and 2015, respectively, were analyzed. The rates of RIF resistance (36.4%), isoniazid resistance (39.0%), and levofloxacin resistance (25.7%) in 2015 were significantly higher than in 2005 (28.2%, 30.0%, and 15.4%, respectively; P < 0.05). Genotypic data revealed 256 (95...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358295/orientia-tsutsugamushi-is-highly-susceptible-to-the-rna-polymerase-switch-region-inhibitor-corallopyronin-a-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Fredericke Kock, Matthias Hauptmann, Anke Osterloh, Till F Schäberle, Sven Poppert, Hagen Frickmann, Klaus-Dieter Menzel, Gundela Peschel, Kenneth Pfarr, Andrea Schiefer, Gabriele M König, Achim Hoerauf, Bernhard Fleischer, Christian Keller
Scrub typhus is a potentially lethal infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia (O.) tsutsugamushi Reports on the emergence of doxycycline-resistant strains highlight the urgent need to develop novel anti-infectives against scrub typhus.Corallopyronin A (CorA) is a novel α-pyrone compound synthesized by the myxobacterium Corallococcus coralloides and was characterized as a non-competitive inhibitor of the "switch region" of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). We investigated the antimicrobial action of CorA against the human-pathogenic Karp strain of O...
January 22, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348523/antibiotic-resistance-mutations-induced-in-growing-cells-of-bacillus-related-thermophiles
#9
Hirokazu Suzuki, Tatsunari Taketani, Jyumpei Kobayashi, Takashi Ohshiro
Stress-induced mutagenesis can assist pathogens in generating drug-resistant cells during antibiotic therapy; however, if and how antibiotics induce mutagenesis in microbes remains poorly understood. A non-pathogenic thermophile, Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426, efficiently produces derivative cells resistant to rifampicin and streptomycin via rpoB and rpsL mutations, respectively. Here, we examined this phenomenon to suggest a novel mutagenic mode induced by antibiotics. Fluctuation analysis indicated that mutations occurred via spontaneous mutations during culture...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342270/whole-genome-analysis-reveals-the-evolution-and-transmission-of-an-mdr-dh-nap11-106-clostridium-difficile-clone-in-a-paediatric-hospital
#10
Larry K Kociolek, Egon A Ozer, Dale N Gerding, David W Hecht, Sameer J Patel, Alan R Hauser
Background: Clostridium difficile strain DH/NAP11/106, a relatively antibiotic-susceptible strain, is now the most common cause of C. difficile infection (CDI) among adults in the USA. Objectives: To identify mechanisms underlying the evolution and transmission of an MDR DH/NAP11/106 clone. Methods: WGS (Illumina MiSeq), restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed on 134 C. difficile isolates collected from paediatric patients with CDI over a 2 year period...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339632/identification-of-rifampicin-resistance-mutations-in-escherichia-coli-including-an-unusual-deletion-mutation
#11
Eugene Y Wu, Angela K Hilliker
Rifampicin is an effective antibiotic against mycobacterial and other bacterial infections, but resistance readily emerges in laboratory and clinical settings. We screened Escherichia coli for rifampicin resistance and identified numerous mutations to the gene encoding the β-chain of RNA polymerase (rpoB), including an unusual 9-nucleotide deletion mutation. Structural modeling of the deletion mutant indicates locations of potential steric clashes with rifampicin. Sequence conservation in the region near the deletion mutation suggests a similar mutation may also confer resistance during the treatment of tuberculosis...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338693/in-vitro-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-human-brucella-melitensis-isolates-from-ulanqab-of-inner-mongolia-china
#12
Zhi-Guo Liu, Dong-Dong Di, Miao Wang, Ri-Hong Liu, Hong-Yan Zhao, Dong-Ri Piao, Zhong-Zhi Zhao, Yong-Qing Hao, Ya-Nan Du, Hai Jiang, Bu-Yun Cui, Xian-Zhu Xia
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China and Ulanqab exhibits the highest prevalence of brucellosis in this region. Due to the complex nature of Brucellosis, a cure for this disease has proven to be elusive. Furthermore, the reduced susceptibility of Brucella spp. to antimicrobial agents has been reported as a potential cause of therapeutic failure. However, detailed in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns pertaining to Brucella isolates from this region have not yet been published...
January 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310751/multi-clonal-evolution-of-multi-drug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-high-prevalence-setting-of-papua-new-guinea-for-over-three-decades
#13
Arnold Bainomugisa, Evelyn Lavu, Stenard Hiashiri, Suman Majumdar, Alice Honjepari, Rendi Moke, Paison Dakulala, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Sushil Pandey, Ben J Marais, Chris Coulter, Lachlan Coin
An outbreak of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported on Daru Island, Papua New Guinea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains driving this outbreak and the temporal accrual of drug resistance mutations have not been described. Whole genome sequencing of 100 of 165 clinical isolates referred from Daru General Hospital to the Supranational reference laboratory, Brisbane, during 2012-2015 revealed that 95 belonged to a single modern Beijing sub-lineage strain. Molecular dating suggested acquisition of streptomycin and isoniazid resistance in the 1960s, with potentially enhanced virulence mediated by an mycP1 mutation...
January 4, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287710/rifampin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-molecular-characterization-and-fitness-cost-of-rpob-mutations
#14
Yu Mi Wi, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Cassandra L Brinkman, Jean Y H Lee, Benjamin P Howden, Robin Patel
Molecular mechanisms and characteristics of rifampin resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis are poorly characterized, even though S. epidermidis is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens associated with indwelling medical device-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of rifampin resistance and to characterize the associated molecular mechanisms in S. epidermidis. Rifampin-resistant mutants from two rifampin-susceptible S. epidermidis strains, RP62A and IDRL-8883, were selected through in vitro and in vivo exposure to rifampin...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242075/molecular-drug-resistance-profiles-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-sputum-specimens-using-ion-semiconductor-sequencing
#15
Joonhong Park, Woori Jang, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, So Youn Shin, Kuhn Park, Myung Sook Kim, Soyoung Shin
The increasing burden of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB, defined by resistance to rifampin (RFP) and isoniazid (INH), and extensively drug resistant-TB, defined by MDR-TB with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and more than one second-line injectable drug, is a serious impediment to global TB control. We evaluated the feasibility of full-length gene analysis including inhA, katG, rpoB, pncA, rpsL embB, eis, and gyrA using a semiconductor NGS with the Ion AmpliSeq TB panel to directly analyse 34 sputum specimens confirmed by phenotypic DST: INH, RFP, ethambutol (EMB), pyrazinamide (PZA), amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin (SM), FQs including ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230198/commentary-rifabutin-resistance-associated-with-double-mutations-in-rpob-gene-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#16
COMMENT
Sandeep Sharma, Noton K Dutta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225973/molecular-epidemiology-of-rifampicin-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-the-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-from-a-rural-setting-in-india
#17
Raghuprakash Reddy, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay can detect mutations in rpoB gene that confer rifampicin resistance (RR) using five overlapping probes (A, B, C, D, and E). In this study, we described our experience with the Xpert assay in a rural setting in India. During the study period, 3250 samples were processed. The result was unsuccessful in 5.7% of cases. For extrapulmonary specimens, the risk of unsuccessful result was higher in tissue biopsy and stool samples. Among samples positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rifampicin resistance was indeterminate in 1...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217277/absence-of-hybridization-with-the-wild-type-and-mutant-rpob-probes-in-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-detects-disputed-rifampicin-mutations
#18
Ngu Njei Abanda, Josiane Yvonne Djieugoué, Vedbar S Khadka, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Guy Vernet, Veronique Mbeng Penlap, Youping Deng, Sara Irene Eyangoh, Diane Wallace Taylor, Rose Gana Fomban Leke
OBJECTIVE: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that fail to hybridize to at least one rpoB wildtype or any mutation probe on the Genotype MTBDRplus strip are assumed Rifampicin-resistant. However, the precise mutation(s) are unknown. We sought to identify the mutations in isolates with such hybridization patterns and determine if the mutations are associated with resistance to Rifampicin. METHODS: In this study, 275 M. tuberculosis isolates were screened with the Genotype MTBDRplus assay to identify isolates with the hybridization pattern...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212699/rapid-microarray-based-detection-of-rifampicin-isoniazid-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-a-single-cartridge
#19
Juliane Havlicek, Beatrice Dachsel, Peter Slickers, Sönke Andres, Patrick Beckert, Silke Feuerriegel, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, Ines Labugger
Rapid and robust identification of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains mediating multidrug and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) phenotypes is crucial to combat the MDR tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Currently available molecular TB drug susceptibility tests are either restricted to single targets/drugs (i.e. Xpert MTB/RIF) or aid the risk of cross-contaminations due to the design limitations of the open platform (i.e. line probe assays).With a good understanding of the technical and commercial boundaries we designed a test cartridge with an introduction of dried reagents, based on an oligonucleotide array, which has the ability to identify MTBC strains resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin and the fluoroquinolones...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203102/antimicrobial-resistance-and-underlying-mechanisms-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#20
Ebru Şebnem Yılmaz, Özkan Aslantaş
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 97 clinical Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains against 14 antimicrobials and corresponding resistance mechanisms. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined using a disk diffusion method and antimicrobial resistance genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction. Mutations responsible for ciprofloxacin and rifampicin resistance were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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