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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792506/testing-the-validity-of-criminal-risk-assessment-tools-in-sexually-abusive-youth
#1
Steffen Barra, Cornelia Bessler, Markus A Landolt, Marcel Aebi
Although accurate risk appraisals are mandatory to provide effective treatment to juveniles who have sexually offended (JSOs), the current knowledge on the validity of risk assessment instruments for JSOs is inconclusive. We compared the predictive validities of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP II), the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR), and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide-Revised (VRAG-R) scores concerning sexual, nonsexual-violent, and general criminal recidivism (based on both official and nonregistered reoffenses) in a consecutive sample of 597 male JSOs (Mage = 14...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791433/the-belfast-youth-development-study-byds-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-the-initiation-persistence-and-desistance-of-substance-use-from-adolescence-to-adulthood-in-northern-ireland
#2
Kathryn Higgins, Aisling McLaughlin, Oliver Perra, Claire McCartan, Mark McCann, Andrew Percy, Julie-Ann Jordan
BACKGROUND: Substance misuse persists as a major public health issue worldwide with significant costs for society. The development of interventions requires methodologically sound studies to explore substance misuse causes and consequences. This Cohort description paper outlines the design of the Belfast Youth Development (BYDS), one of the largest cohort studies of its kind in the UK. The study was established to address the need for a long-term prospective cohort study to investigate the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use, alongside life course processes in adolescence and adulthood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739846/childhood-obesity-dental-hygienists-beliefs-attitudes-and-barriers-to-patient-education
#3
Doreen Dawn M Cole, Linda D Boyd, Jared Vineyard, Lori J Giblin-Scanlon
Purpose: Increasing childhood obesity rates present a significant threat to public health. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygienists' (DH) beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, current practices, and barriers for assessing and educating patients about childhood obesity. Methods: A random sample of DHs (n=13,357) was selected and emailed a link to the validated survey. Of the 1046 respondents who accessed the survey, 919 completed the survey for a completion rate of 89%. Results: A majority of the respondents understood the risk of chronic disease and obesity (99%), role sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) play as added sugar content in the diet (76%), and the amount of SSBs consumed by youth (91%)...
April 2018: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730313/exploring-detection-of-contact-vs-fantasy-online-sexual-offenders-in-chats-with-minors-statistical-discourse-analysis-of-self-disclosure-and-emotion-words
#4
Ming Ming Chiu, Kathryn C Seigfried-Spellar, Tatiana R Ringenberg
This exploratory study is the first to identify content differences between youths' online chats with contact child sex offenders (CCSOs; seek to meet with youths) and those with fantasy child sex offenders (FCSOs; do not meet with youths) using statistical discourse analysis (SDA). Past studies suggest that CCSOs share their experiences and emotions with targeted youths (self-disclosure grooming tactic) and encourage them to reciprocate, to build trust and closer relationships through a cycle of self-disclosures...
May 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693299/how-does-juvenile-offending-relate-to-mothers-aspirations-and-expectations-for-their-sons
#5
Caitlin Cavanagh, Alissa Mahler, Elizabeth Cauffman
Mothers of 317 first-time juvenile offenders (M = 15.35 years old) were interviewed over 2.5 years about their expectations and aspirations for their sons' futures. Mothers' expectations were lower than their aspirations, reflecting a discrepancy between what mothers felt was important for their child's future and what they considered likely to happen. As their children continued to engage in delinquent acts, mothers' expectations for their sons' future success diminished. Youth age moderated the association between delinquency and maternal expectations, such that when perceived delinquency was high, expectations were lower for mothers of young sons compared to mothers of older sons...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598432/childhood-trauma-and-psychopathic-features-among-juvenile-offenders
#6
Anne S J Farina, Katherine J Holzer, Matt DeLisi, Michael G Vaughn
Despite growing interest in psychopathic personality features in juvenile offenders, few studies have examined the relationship between childhood trauma and psychopathy. The present study utilized two datasets: 253 adolescents in a residential facility for juvenile offenders in Pennsylvania and 723 institutionalized delinquents in Missouri. Zero-order correlations and linear regression techniques were employed for boys and girls to examine the relationships between trauma, assessed using the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument Version 2 (MAYSI-2) Traumatic Experiences Scale and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and psychopathy as measured by the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548504/the-effects-of-temperament-psychopathy-and-childhood-trauma-among-delinquent-youth-a-test-of-delisi-and-vaughn-s-temperament-based-theory-of-crime
#7
Matt DeLisi, Bryanna H Fox, Matthew Fully, Michael G Vaughn
Recent interest among criminologists on the construct of temperament has been fueled by DeLisi and Vaughn's (2014) temperament-based theory of antisocial behavior. Their theory suggests that core self-regulation capacity and negative emotionality are the most salient temperament features for understanding the emergence and maintenance of antisocial and violent behavior, even among offending populations. The present study tests the relative effects of these temperamental features along with psychopathic traits and trauma in their association with violent and non-violent delinquency in a sample of 252 juvenile offenders...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498094/trouble-at-teens-fingertips-youth-sexting-and-the-law
#8
Brian Holoyda, Jacqueline Landess, Renee Sorrentino, Susan Hatters Friedman
The last decade has seen a rapid increase in the use of smartphones among young children and adolescents. One consequence of this phenomenon is sexting. Although researchers of sexting have yet to arrive at a single, cohesive definition for the behavior, it generally involves the transmission of text, pictures, or videos containing sexual material. Different definitions of the behavior have led to widely varying estimates of its prevalence, although some studies have documented relatively high rates of sexting among teenagers...
March 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294862/family-violence-pathways-and-externalizing-behavior-in-youth
#9
Melanie L Bozzay, Lendi N Joy, Edelyn Verona
While studies suggest that youth who experience violence in the home are more likely to engage in externalizing behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance use, rule breaking), research is needed to understand factors that may explain how family violence is linked to externalizing, and whether there may be gender-specific trajectories to this outcome. The present study used a cross-sectional design and multigroup, path analytic modeling to test the degree to which personality traits (negative emotionality, constraint) in boys and girls (Model 1), as well as status offending primarily in girls (Model 2), may help explain relationships between exposure to familial adversity (witnessing family violence and child abuse) and adolescent externalizing behaviors in a mixed-gender, community sample with both caregiver and youth reports ( N = 237, 57% female, 10-17 years old)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294704/holding-the-child-and-practitioner-in-mind-youth-justice-practitioners-experiences-supervising-young-people-displaying-sexually-harmful-behavior
#10
Andrew Myles-Wright, Claire Nee
This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of youth justice practitioners supervising young people (below 18 years old) displaying sexually harmful behavior within the Youth Justice System (YJS) in the United Kingdom, as little is currently known about the challenges faced when working with this vulnerable group. Five practitioners from two Youth Offending Services (YOS) participated in individual semistructured interviews, which were subjected to thematic analysis while also analyzing the performative function of language used...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294703/viewing-the-cycle-of-violence-through-a-gendered-pathways-lens-perceived-parental-tolerance-of-violence-peer-influence-and-child-aggressive-behavior
#11
Glenn D Walters
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a child's perception of adult tolerance of violence interfaced with peer associations and violent offending. It was hypothesized that a child's perception of his or her parents' tolerance for violence would predict the peer influence effect for aggressive behavior in boys but not girls. Control variables included the parent's stated tolerance of violence, the child's personal attitude toward violence, recent parental divorce or separation, and child maltreatment within the past 12 months...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288950/safeguarding-child-rights-and-enhancing-caregiver-responsibilities-among-canadian-parents-of-youth-who-sexually-offend
#12
Christine L M Gervais, Elisa Romano
Research on youth sexual offending has focused primarily on its prevalence. However, recent efforts have begun to consider the collateral consequences for the relatives of offending youth, although little has been done in this regard toward exploring caregiver accountability. This study presents qualitative data on parents' sense of responsibility in situations where their child engaged in sexual offending behaviour against another child. We analyzed interview data among 16 parents from 10 families in Canada using thematic coding procedures...
February 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238825/association-of-cumulative-childhood-adversity-and-adolescent-violent-offending-with-suicide-in-early-adulthood
#13
Emma Björkenstam, Anders Hjern, Charlotte Björkenstam, Kyriaki Kosidou
Importance: Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with an increased risk of suicide in young adulthood that might be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. Although adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, little is known about its role in the association between CA and suicide. Objective: To examine whether adolescent violent offending mediates the association between CA and suicide in early adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, longitudinal cohort study with a follow-up time spanning 5 to 9 years included 476 103 individuals born in Sweden between 1984 and 1988...
February 1, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175278/animal-cruelty-as-an-indicator-of-family-trauma-using-adverse-childhood-experiences-to-look-beyond-child-abuse-and-domestic-violence
#14
Melissa A Bright, Mona Sayedul Huq, Terry Spencer, Jennifer W Applebaum, Nancy Hardt
Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White...
February 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159847/more-or-less-likely-to-offend-young-adults-with-a-history-of-identified-developmental-language-disorders
#15
Maxine Winstanley, Roger T Webb, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: There is now substantial literature demonstrating that a disproportionate number of young people who come into contact with youth justice services evidence unidentified language difficulties. These young people, therefore, have received little or no professional input in this area. Conversely, there is a dearth of research pertaining to criminality outcomes among those individuals with identified developmental language disorders (DLD) who have received such interventions. AIMS: To examine police-initiated contact and substance use outcomes of young adults with a history of identified DLD versus age-matched peers (AMP)...
March 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127914/the-differential-influence-of-absent-and-harsh-fathers-on-juvenile-delinquency
#16
Cortney Simmons, Laurence Steinberg, Paul J Frick, Elizabeth Cauffman
Researchers have identified father absence as a contributor to juvenile delinquency. Consequently, politicians and community leaders are making efforts to re-engage fathers. However, it is possible that the presence of fathers is not, in itself, a substantial protective factor and, in some cases, can even be more detrimental than father absence. Employing a diverse sample of male juvenile offenders in the U.S. (ages 13-17), the present study examined the differential effects of absent fathers and harsh fathers on delinquency...
January 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977753/the-manitoba-youth-justice-program-empowering-and-supporting-youth-with-fasd-in-conflict-with-the-law
#17
S Longstaffe, A E Chudley, M K Harvie, T Markesteyn, D Neault, T Brown
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes a constellation of physical, cognitive, neurologic, and behavioral impairments resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol. FASD is recognized as being one of the most common causes of preventable brain injury in children. There had long been concerns that some youth in conflict with the law may be affected with FASD given repetitive patterns of offending and apparent lack of understanding of the consequences of their actions. In 2004, funding was received from Justice Canada for a pilot project with a cross-departmental steering committee working together to determine a best way of working across systems to provide FASD assessments to these youth...
April 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863730/the-challenges-of-identifying-and-classifying-child-sexual-abuse-material
#18
Juliane A Kloess, Jessica Woodhams, Helen Whittle, Tim Grant, Catherine E Hamilton-Giachritsis
The aim of the present study was to (a) assess the reliability with which indecent images of children (IIOC) are classified as being of an indecent versus nonindecent nature, and (b) examine in detail the decision-making process engaged in by law enforcement personnel who undertake the difficult task of identifying and classifying IIOC as per the current legislative offense categories. One experienced researcher and four employees from a police force in the United Kingdom coded an extensive amount of IIOC ( n = 1,212-2,233) to determine if they (a) were deemed to be of an indecent nature, and (b) depicted a child...
February 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843081/cumulative-childhood-trauma-emotion-regulation-dissociation-and-behavior-problems-in-school-aged-sexual-abuse-victims
#19
Martine Hébert, Rachel Langevin, Essaïd Oussaïd
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse is associated with a plethora of devastating repercussions. A significant number of sexually abused children are likely to experience other forms of maltreatment that can seriously affect their emotion regulation abilities and impede on their development. The aim of the study was to test emotion regulation and dissociation as mediators in the association between cumulative childhood trauma and internalized and externalized behavior problems in child victims of sexual abuse...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760088/race-and-victim-age-matter-sexual-behaviors-and-experiences-among-confined-african-american-and-european-american-youth-with-sexual-and-nonsexual-offenses
#20
Rebecca L Fix, John Michael Falligant, Apryl A Alexander, Barry R Burkhart
Previous research has found differences in sexual behavior and types of sexual offending by offense category and racial/ethnic group. The present study examined effects of offense category, victim age, and race/ethnicity on sexual behavior. Data from 561 confined adolescents adjudicated for illegal sexual behavior (AISBs) and adolescents adjudicated for illegal nonsexual behavior (AINBs) were included in the present study. A hierarchical multinomial logistic regression was run to test whether sexual experiences and behaviors differentially predicted AINBs, AISBs with child victims, and AISBs with peer/adult victims...
July 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
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