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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220742/meta-analyses-of-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-as-adjunct-for-treatment-of-focal-epilepsy-in-children
#1
Nurul-Ain Mohd-Tahir, Shu-Chuen Li
AIM: This study conducted a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (namely, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, topiramate, vigabatrin, zonisamide, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, gabapentin, and stiripentol) as add-on for treatment of focal epilepsy in children. METHODS: Articles were retrieved from EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Library from inception to January 2016. Treatment outcomes were analysed based on responder, seizure-free, withdrawal and adverse event rates...
November 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220715/getting-to-know-you-the-development-of-mechanisms-underlying-face-learning
#2
Claire M Matthews, Emily E Davis, Catherine J Mondloch
Nearly every study investigating the development of face recognition has focused on the ability to tell people apart using one or two tightly controlled images to represent each identity. Such research ignores the challenge of recognizing the same person despite variability in appearance. Whereas natural variation in appearance makes unfamiliar faces difficult to recognize, by 6 years of age people easily recognize multiple images of familiar faces. Two mechanisms are proposed to underlie the process by which adults become familiar with newly encountered faces...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220711/association-between-water-fluoride-and-the-level-of-children-s-intelligence-a-dose-response-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Q Duan, J Jiao, X Chen, X Wang
OBJECTIVES: Higher fluoride concentrations in water have inconsistently been associated with the levels of intelligence in children. The following study summarizes the available evidence regarding the strength of association between fluoridated water and children's intelligence. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically analyzed from November 2016. Observational studies that have reported on intelligence levels in relation to high and low water fluoride contents, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were included...
December 4, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220707/hunter-gatherer-health-and-development-policy-how-the-promotion-of-sedentism-worsens-the-agta-s-health-outcomes
#4
Abigail E Page, Tessa Minter, Sylvain Viguier, Andrea Bamberg Migliano
Many hunter-gatherer groups live on the outskirts of wider society, experiencing poor health outcomes with little access to medical care. From a development perspective, key interventions include the sedentarisation of these mobile peoples into camps nearby larger towns with sanitation infrastructure and medical care, as increased access to services is assumed to improve outcomes. However, recent research in the Agta (Philippine foragers from North-east Luzon) has demonstrated that individuals residing in more 'developed' communities suffer from increased morbidity and mortality...
December 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220704/how-do-peers-influence-bmi-evidence-from-randomly-assigned-classrooms-in-south-korea
#5
Jaegeum Lim, Jonathan Meer
Obesity among children is an important public health concern, and social networks may play a role in students' habits that increase the likelihood of being overweight. We examine data from South Korean middle schools, where students are randomly assigned to classrooms, and exploit the variation in peer body mass index. We use the number of peers' siblings as an instrument to account for endogeneity concerns and measurement error. Heavier peers increase the likelihood that a student is heavier; there is no spurious correlation for height, which is unlikely to have peer contagion...
December 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220645/the-value-of-a-learning-needs-analysis-to-establish-educational-priorities-in-a-new-clinical-workforce
#6
Adrienne Hudson, Elayne Ellis-Cohen, Shari Davies, Desley Horn, Alison Dale, Lorelle Malyon, Rachel Edwards, Jane Harnischfeger, Glenda Radel, Rebecca Bundy, Jacqueline Jauncey-Cooke
A learning needs analysis was undertaken in a newly formed workforce. The goal of the learning needs analysis was to establish both the skill set and educational needs in the nursing workforce prior to moving to a new purpose built facility. The results would then enable nurse educators to develop, plan and deliver appropriate educational strategies. Staff (73%) completed an online survey; the results were collated and analysed. The results of the learning needs analysis suggested an experienced workforce that had great capacity to care for children across a wide spectrum of acute clinical needs...
November 27, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220634/justification-suppression-and-normative-window-of-prejudice-as-determinants-of-bias-toward-lesbians-gays-and-bisexual-adoption-applicants
#7
Alicia DeVault, Monica K Miller
Despite gains in equality for lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGB), these couples still face discrimination in adoption scenarios. Guided by the normative window of prejudice and the justification-suppression model, participants read about a suitable or unsuitable couple applying to adopt a child. Participants indicated whether the couple should be allowed to adopt the child and how committed the couple is to being parents. Heterosexuals were perceived as less committed parents compared to LGB parents; sexual orientation was not related to adoption decisions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220616/interventions-to-improve-or-maintain-lower-limb-function-among-ambulatory-adolescents-with-cerebral-palsy-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-current-practice-in-the-uk
#8
Gerasimos Taflampas, Cherry Kilbride, Wendy Levin, Grace Lavelle, Jennifer M Ryan
OBJECTIVES: To describe physiotherapy management to improve or maintain lower-limb function among adolescents with cerebral palsy, classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III, in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: A list of interventions was identified using a nominal group technique and developed into a survey, which was distributed to approximately 2,100 pediatric physiotherapists in the UK through the Association of Pediatric Chartered Physiotherapists and a private physiotherapy clinic in London between April and June 2015...
December 8, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220600/strategies-for-collaborating-with-children-creating-partnerships-in-occupational-therapy-and-research-1st-edition-2017-by-clare-curtin-phd-otr-422-pp-soft-cover-isbn-978-1-63091-104-1-slack-incorporated-thorofare-nj-price-59-95
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220598/hope-for-the-future-but-fear-the-risk-of-stigma-ethiopian-family-caregivers-lived-experience-of-caring-for-their-hiv-positive-child-two-years-after-starting-antiretroviral-treatment
#10
Mulatu Biru, Pia Lunqvist, Mitikie Molla, Degu Jerene, Inger Hallström
Family caregivers are believed to be the primary source of support for HIV-affected children. There is limited evidence about practices of support for caregivers, to strengthen them and to enhance the welfare of HIV positive children, especially in African settings. Our aim was therefore to illuminate caregivers' lived experiences of caring for a child in Ethiopia 2 years after the child was enrolled in antiretroviral therapy. Qualitative interviews with 18 family caregivers of 18 children were performed and analyzed using an inductive design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach...
December 8, 2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220543/skin-cancer-prevention-campaign-in-childhood-survey-based-on-3-676-children-in-brazil
#11
Paulo Ricardo Criado, Jorge Ocampo-Garza, Anne Lise Dias, Walter Belda Junior, Nilton Di Chiachio, Aparecida Machado de Moraes, Meire Brasil Parada, Fátima de Oliveira Rabay, Octavio Moraes Junior, Renato Sau Rios, Cristiana Silveira da Silva, Francisco C S Ferreira, Samuel Henrique Mandeulbaum, Cidia Vasconcellos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary skin cancer prevention campaigns are essential and more effective among children, not only because of the importance of sun exposure effects during this period, but also because at this age is when individuals are developing behaviors. The Brazilian Society of Dermatology - Regional State of Sao Paulo developed and conducted, the program named "The Sun, Friend of Childhood", a school health education and disease prevention project for children and parents...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220528/maternal-thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-and-neuropsychological-performance-of-the-child-at-5-years-of-age
#12
Stine Linding Andersen, Stig Andersen, Zeyan Liew, Peter Vestergaard, Jørn Olsen
Context: Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. Objective: To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Design: Follow-up study. Participants: A cohort of 1,153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220369/can-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-be-eliminated-without-addressing-the-issue-of-stigma-modeling-the-case-for-a-setting-in-south-africa
#13
Holly J Prudden, Matthew Hamilton, Anna M Foss, Nicole Dzialowy Adams, Melissa Stockton, Vivian Black, Laura Nyblade
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination ontinue to undermine the effectiveness of the HIV response. Despite a growing body of evidence of the negative relationship between stigma and HIV outcomes, there is a paucity of data available on the prevalence of stigma and its impact. We present a probabilistic cascade model to estimate the magnitude of impact stigma has on mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT). METHODS: The model was parameterized using 2010 data from Johannesburg, South Africa, from which loss-to-care at each stage of the antenatal cascade were available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220347/assessing-the-benefits-of-five-years-of-different-approaches-to-treatment-of-urogenital-schistosomiasis-a-score-project-in-northern-mozambique
#14
Anna E Phillips, Pedro H Gazzinelli-Guimaraes, Herminio O Aurelio, Josefo Ferro, Rassul Nala, Michelle Clements, Charles H King, Alan Fenwick, Fiona M Fleming, Neerav Dhanani
BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, schistosomiasis is highly endemic across the whole country. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) coordinates a five-year study that has been implemented in various African countries, including Mozambique. The overall goal of SCORE was to better understand how to best apply preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) for schistosomiasis control by evaluating the impact of alternative treatment approaches. METHODS: This was a cluster-randomised trial that compared the impact of different treatment strategies in study areas with prevalence among school children of ≥21% S...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220310/direct-and-indirect-relationships-of-physical-fitness-weight-status-and-learning-duration-to-academic-performance-in-japanese-schoolchildren
#15
Toru Ishihara, Noriteru Morita, Toshihiro Nakajima, Koichi Okita, Koji Yamatsu, Masato Sagawa
The purpose of this study was to determine, using structural equation modelling (SEM), the direct and indirect influence of daily behaviours (i.e. exercise/learning durations), weight status, and physical fitness on academic performance among seventh-grade schoolchildren, after controlling for socioeconomic status. We analysed cross-sectional data from 274 schoolchildren (159 males and 115 females; 12-13 years old). Academic performance was assessed using the total grade points in eight academic subjects. Physical fitness was evaluated using the total score of eight physical fitness tests and weight status using body mass index...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220292/rhabdomyosarcoma-ewing-sarcoma-and-other-round-cell-sarcomas
#16
Alberto S Pappo, Uta Dirksen
Several recent advances have been made in the diagnosis and therapy of malignant small round cell tumors that affect children, particularly in rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and other round cell sarcomas. These advances have provided new insights into the pathologic, histologic, and genomic characterization of specific tumor subtypes, which has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and improved stratification of risk. This has, in turn, led to improved efficacy in clinical trials of new drug combinations, thereby increasing the survival of patients with newly diagnosed and refractory or recurrent round cell sarcomas...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220206/aerobic-training-but-no-resistance-training-increases-sirt3-in-skeletal-muscle-of-sedentary-obese-male-adolescents
#17
Katya Vargas-Ortiz, Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo Figueroa, Francisco J Díaz, Paulina G Montaño-Ascencio, Maciste H Macías-Cervantes
In recent years, prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased. A strategy for prevention and management of obesity is aerobic training (AT) due to its effectiveness to decrease fat mass. AT increases the content of SIRT3, a mitochondrial protein that increases the expression of PGC-1α and NFR1, thereby enhances mitochondrial function and metabolic health. Resistance training (RT) provides metabolic benefits but its effect on SIRT3 content is unknown. To compare the effect of AT and RT on SIRT3, PGC-1α and NRF-1 protein levels in skeletal muscle of sedentary obese adolescents...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218659/single-site-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-in-children-and-adolescents-a-report-of-20-cases
#18
Peter Mattei
BACKGROUND: Single-site laparoscopy is increasingly popular for straightforward operations like appendectomy. Due to limited triangulation and maneuverability, single-site cholecystectomy is riskier and more difficult. Robotics offer to make it easier and safer. METHODS: Twenty children and adolescents underwent robotic-assisted single-site cholecystectomy at a large academic children's hospital. Patients were not randomized; patients were offered the option of robotic-assisted single-site (SSR) or standard four-incision laparoscopic (LAP) cholecystectomy...
December 7, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218646/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-complications-diagnosis-and-management-in-obese-children
#19
REVIEW
Naval K Vikram
The world at present is facing a burden of rising prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. The developing countries are particularly facing the dual burden on under-nutrition and obesity. This is associated with appearance and clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities at an early age with development of chronic complications early and possible decrease in life span of these children and adolescents. In adults this clustering has been termed as 'metabolic syndrome' with definitions that can be used universally...
December 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218645/trajectories-of-italian-children-s-peer-rejection-associations-with-aggression-prosocial-behavior-physical-attractiveness-and-adolescent-adjustment
#20
Laura Di Giunta, Concetta Pastorelli, Eriona Thartori, Anna Silvia Bombi, Emma Baumgartner, Richard A Fabes, Carol Lynn Martin, Craig K Enders
In the present study, the predictors and outcomes associated with the trajectories of peer rejection were examined in a longitudinal sample of Italian children (338 boys, 269 girls) ages 10 to 14 years. Follow-up assessments included 60% of the original sample at age 16-17. Low, medium, and high rejection trajectory groups were identified using growth mixture models. Consistent with previous studies, we found that (a) being less prosocial and more physically aggressive at age 10 was characteristic of those children with the high rejection trajectory; (b) being less attractive was related to higher peer rejection from age 10 to 14; and (c) boys with a high rejection trajectory showed high levels of delinquency and anxiety-depression and low levels of academic aspiration at age 16-17, whereas girls with a high rejection trajectory showed low levels of academic aspiration and social competence at age 16-17...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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