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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633695/how-should-discordance-between-molecular-and-growth-based-assays-for-rifampicin-resistance-be-investigated
#1
S Hofmann-Thiel, H Hoffmann, D Hillemann, L Rigouts, A Van Deun, K Kranzer
Molecular tests to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and genetic polymorphisms in the rpoB gene conferring resistance to rifampicin (RMP) have become integral parts of tuberculosis diagnostics worldwide. These assays are often performed sequentially or in parallel to phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Discordances between molecular and phenotypic tests invariably occur. Root causes range from pre-, post- and analytic errors to co-existence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria, silent mutations, mutations outside the 81 base-pair RMP resistance-determining region, non-canonical mutations conferring increased minimal inhibitory concentrations below the critical concentration in some phenotypic drug susceptibility tests, and heteroresistance...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631643/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-and-characterization-of-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-genotype-mtbdrplus
#2
Rajneesh Tripathi, Shampa Anupurba
Detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing methods requires several weeks. Therefore, molecular diagnostic tests for rapid detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are urgently needed. Early diagnosis helps in initiating optimal treatment which would not only enable cure of an individual patient but also will curb the transmission of drug resistance in the community. Line probe assay (LPA) has shown great promises in the diagnosis of MDR-TB...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629501/mycobacterium-persicum-sp-nov-a-novel-species-closely-related-to-mycobacterium-kansasii-and-mycobacterium-gastri
#3
Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Alberto Trovato, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Emanuele Borroni, Parvin Heidarieh, Mohamad Hashemzadeh, Narges Shahbazi, Daniela M Cirillo, Enrico Tortoli
Four strains isolated in Iran from pulmonary specimens of unrelated patients are proposed as representative of a novel Mycobacterium species. Similarity, at the phenotypic level, with Mycobacterium kansasii is remarkable with the photochromogenic yellow pigmentation of the colonies being the salient feature. They differ, however, genotypically from this species and present unique sequences in 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes. The average nucleotide identity and the genome-to-genome distance fully support the status of an independent species...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629498/rodentibacter-gen-nov-including-rodentibacter-pneumotropicus-comb-nov-rodentibacter-heylii-sp-nov-rodentibacter-myodis-sp-nov-rodentibacter-ratti-sp-nov-rodentibacter-heidelbergensis-sp-nov-rodentibacter-trehalosifermentans-sp-nov-rodentibacter-rarus-sp-nov
#4
Sadhana Adhikary, Werner Nicklas, Magne Bisgaard, Ron Boot, Peter Kuhnert, Torsten Waberschek, Bent Aalbæk, Bozena Korczak, Henrik Christensen
Rodentibacter gen. nov. is proposed based on isolation and phenotypic characterization of strains, predominantly from rodents. The strains showed 86 % or higher rpoB gene sequence similarity and indicated a genus-level relationship within Pasteurellaceae. The strains compared at 16S rRNA gene sequence level showed 93.8 % or higher similarity, and their genus-level relationship within Pasteurellaceae was confirmed by phenotypic analysis. The type species Rodentibacter pneumotropicus comb. nov. is reclassified from [Pasteurella] pneumotropica with type strain NCTC 8141T (=CCUG 12398T)...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627495/disease-and-mortality-among-yesso-scallops-patinopecten-yessoensis-putatively-caused-by-infection-with-francisella-halioticida
#5
Gary R Meyer, Geoffrey J Lowe, Scott R Gilmore, Susan M Bower
During the fall of 2015, up to 40% mortality occurred in juvenile Yesso scallops Patinopecten yessoensis at an aquaculture site in Baynes Sound, British Columbia, Canada. Macroscopic lesions were present in 11% of the scallops, and histopathology consisting of multifocal and diffuse haemocyte infiltration was observed in 44% of the specimens examined. Histologically, small Gram-negative intracellular bacteria-like particles were observed within necrotic haemocytes of the lesions, suggesting a bacterial aetiology...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627432/high-diversity-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-central-asian-strain-isolates-in-nepal
#6
Yogendra Shah, Bhagwan Maharjan, Jeewan Thapa, Ajay Poudel, Hassan Mahmoud Diab, Basu Dev Pandey, Eddie Solo, Norikazu Isoda, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Chie Nakajima
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) poses a major public health problem in Nepal. Although it has been reported as one of the dominant genotypes of MTB in Nepal, little information on the Central Asian Strain (CAS) family is available, especially isolates related to multidrug resistance (MDR) cases. Here, we aimed to elucidate the genetic and epidemiological characteristics of MDR CAS isolates in Nepal. METHODS: A total of 145 MDR CAS isolates collected in Nepal from 2008 to 2013 were characterized by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis and drug resistance-associating gene sequencing...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627431/evaluation-of-the-quantamatrix-multiplexed-assay-platform-system-for-simultaneous-detection-of-mycobacteirum-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-gene-using-culture-positive-mycobacteria
#7
Hye-Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Tae-Sun Shim, Hyeyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: The differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is of primary importance for infection control and choice of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Prevailing data on rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB is essential for early management of multidrug resistant-TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform; QMAP) for the rapid differentiation of 23 Mycobacterium species including MTBC and RIF-resistant strains...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625989/rapid-high-throughput-identification-of-anthrax-causing-and-emetic-bacillus-cereus-group-genome-assemblies-using-btyper-a-computational-tool-for-virulence-based-classification-of-bacillus-cereus-group-isolates-using-nucleotide-sequencing-data
#8
Laura M Carroll, Jasna Kovac, Rachel A Miller, Martin Wiedmann
The Bacillus cereus group comprises nine species, several of which are pathogenic. Differentiating between isolates that may cause disease and those that do not is a matter of public health and economic importance, but can be particularly challenging due to the high genomic similarity of the group. To this end, we have developed BTyper, a computational tool that employs a combination of (i) virulence gene-based typing, (ii) multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), (iii) panC clade typing, and (iv) rpoB allelic typing to rapidly classify B...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623123/screening-mutations-in-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-in-yunnan-china
#9
Daoqun Li, Yuzhu Song, Cheng-Lin Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Xueshan Xia, A-Mei Zhang
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a serious medical and societal problem in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutation characteristics of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates in Yunnan, China. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed in 523 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. Six drug resistance genes (katG, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, embB, and pncA) were selected to screen for mutations. In total, 54 clinical M...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610794/molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resistance-detection-to-the-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-rifampicin-and-pyrazinamide-in-the-post-whole-genome-sequencing-era
#10
REVIEW
Ameeruddin Nusrath Unissa, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Recent studies in addition to studies based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from diverse geographical regions have provided useful insights into the mechanisms of drug resistance. Of importance, are some of the findings pertaining to mechanisms of resistance to two of the first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, namely, rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PZA). For example, the implication of mutations in rpoA and rpoC genes that act as compensatory mutations for those in the rpoB gene with respect to RIF resistance is noteworthy...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604829/phylogenetic-analysis-of-mycobacterium-massiliense-strains-having-recombinant-rpob-gene-laterally-transferred-from-mycobacterium-abscessus
#11
Byoung-Jun Kim, Ga-Na Kim, Bo-Ram Kim, Tae-Sun Shim, Yoon-Hoh Kook, Bum-Joon Kim
Recent multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and genome based studies indicate that lateral gene transfer (LGT) events in the rpoB gene are prevalent between Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains. To check the prevalence of the M. massiliense strains subject to rpoB LGT (Rec-mas), we applied rpoB typing (711 bp) to 106 Korean strains of M. massiliense infection that had already been identified by hsp65 sequence analysis (603 bp). The analysis indicated 6 smooth strains in M. massiliense Type I (10.0%, 6/60) genotypes but no strains in M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604333/performance-of-the-quantamatrix-multiplexed-assay-platform-system-for-the-differentiation-and-identification-of-mycobacterium-species
#12
Hye-Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Hyeyoung Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new diagnostic multiplexed bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform; QMAP) system with shape-encoded silica microparticles for the rapid and accurate detection and identification of 23 mycobacterial species/groups, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). METHODOLOGY: A total of 295 mycobacterial clinical isolates cultured from respiratory specimens were used for identification of MTBC and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) using the QMAP system and the results were confirmed with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the rpoB gene, rpoB sequence analysis and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595277/genetic-alterations-responsible-for-reduced-susceptibility-to-vancomycin-in-community-associated-mrsa-strains-of-st72
#13
Jin Yang Baek, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kwan Soo Ko, So Hyun Kim, Soo-Jin Yang, Cheol-In Kang, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
Objectives: We previously reported the first case of vancomycin treatment failure due to development of vancomycin-intermediate resistance in a patient with an MRSA of ST72, a community genotype in Korea. We investigated two isogenic MRSA strains from this patient, who experienced treatment failure with vancomycin and rifampicin. Methods: We tracked the genetic alterations that confer reduced susceptibility to vancomycin on those two isogenic MRSA strains by WGS...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591399/detection-of-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-a-comparison-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mlpa-assay-versus-genotype%C3%A2-mtbdrplus
#14
Paula Fernanda Gonçalves Dos Santos, Elis Regina Dalla Costa, Daniela M Ramalho, Maria Lucia Rossetti, Regina Bones Barcellos, Luciana de Souza Nunes, Leonardo Souza Esteves, Rodrigo Rodenbusch, Richard M Anthony, Indra Bergval, Sarah Sengstake, Miguel Viveiros, Afrânio Kritski, Martha M Oliveira
BACKGROUND: To cope with the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), new molecular methods that can routinely be used to screen for a wide range of drug resistance related genetic markers in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of multiplex ligaton-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) against Genotype® MTBDRplus to detect resistance to isoniazid (INHr) and rifampicin (RIFr). METHOD: 96 culture isolates characterised for identification, drug susceptibility testing (DST) and sequencing of rpoB, katG, and inhA genes were evaluated by the MLPA and Genotype®MTBDRplus assays...
June 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589129/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-streptococcus-uberis-and-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-isolates-from-canadian-dairy-herds
#15
Julián Reyes Vélez, Marguerite Cameron, Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Lecompte, Fangfang Xia, Luke C Heider, Matthew Saab, J Trenton McClure, Javier Sánchez
The objectives of this study are to determine the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes using whole-genome sequence (WGS) of Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae) isolates, recovered from dairy cows in the Canadian Maritime Provinces. A secondary objective included the exploration of the association between phenotypic AMR and the genomic characteristics (genome size, guanine-cytosine content, and occurrence of unique gene sequences). Initially, 91 isolates were sequenced, and of these isolates, 89 were assembled...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570560/qpcr-high-resolution-melt-analysis-for-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-leprae-directly-from-clinical-specimens-of-leprosy-patients
#16
Sergio Araujo, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Richard W Truman, Isabela Maria B Goulart, Varalakshmi Vissa, Wei Li, Masanori Matsuoka, Philip Suffys, Amanda B Fontes, Patricia S Rosa, David M Scollard, Diana L Williams
BACKGROUND: Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melting (qPCR-HRM) analysis has been recently described for rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium leprae. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the validity, reliability, and accuracy of this assay for M. leprae DST in clinical specimens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The specificity and sensitivity for determining the presence and susceptibility of M. leprae to dapsone based on the folP1 drug resistance determining region (DRDR), rifampin (rpoB DRDR) and ofloxacin (gyrA DRDR) was evaluated using 211 clinical specimens from leprosy patients, including 156 multibacillary (MB) and 55 paucibacillary (PB) cases...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569148/diagnostic-accuracy-and-usefulness-of-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-in-diagnosing-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Ngu Njei Abanda, Josiane Yvonne Djieugoué, Eunjung Lim, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Guy Vernet, Veronique Mbeng Penlap, Sara Irene Eyangoh, Diane Wallace Taylor, Rose Gana Fomban Leke
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis, especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a major public health problem. Effective management of MDR-TB relies on accurate and rapid diagnosis. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Genotype MTBDRplus assay in diagnosing MDR-TB in Cameroon, and then discuss on its utility within the diagnostic algorithm for MDR-TB. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 225 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured from sputum samples collected from new and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Cameroon were used to determine the accuracy of the Genotype MTBDRplus assay...
May 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565846/use-of-dna-microarray-chips-for-the-rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistance-to-rifampicin-and-isoniazid
#18
Peijun Tang, Xiafang Wang, Xinghua Shen, Meihua Shi, Xuefeng Zhu, Xin Yu, Jia Liu, Chunhua Ling, Meiying Wu
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential development of DNA microarray chips to detect rifampicin (RFP) and isoniazid (INH) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), using samples from clinical tuberculosis (TB) patients in Soochow City, China. The sputum samples of 42 patients with TB in the Affiliated Hospital of Infectious Diseases of Soochow University (Soochow, China) were collected. The conventional Lowenstein-Jensen culture medium (Gold Standard) was used to assess drug sensitivity using the absolute concentration method...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559332/rifamycin-action-on-rna-polymerase-in-antibiotic-tolerant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-results-in-differentially-detectable-populations
#19
Kohta Saito, Thulasi Warrier, Selin Somersan-Karakaya, Lina Kaminski, Jianjie Mi, Xiuju Jiang, Suna Park, Kristi Shigyo, Ben Gold, Julia Roberts, Elaina Weber, William R Jacobs, Carl F Nathan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounters stresses during the pathogenesis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) that can suppress replication of the bacteria and render them phenotypically tolerant to most available drugs. Where studied, the majority of Mtb in the sputum of most untreated subjects with active TB have been found to be nonreplicating by the criterion that they do not grow as colony-forming units (cfus) when plated on agar. However, these cells are viable because they grow when diluted in liquid media...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545050/prevalence-and-extent-of-heteroresistance-by-next-generation-sequencing-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#20
Darwin J Operario, Alexander F Koeppel, Stephen D Turner, Yongde Bao, Suporn Pholwat, Sayera Banu, Suporn Foongladda, Stellah Mpagama, Jean Gratz, Oleg Ogarkov, Svetlana Zhadova, Scott K Heysell, Eric R Houpt
Amplicon-based Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is an emerging method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (DST) but has not been well described. We examined 158 clinical multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates via NGS of 11 resistance-associated gene regions covering 3519 nucleotides. Across these gene regions, complete resistance or heteroresistance (defined as 1%-99% mutation) was present in at least one isolate in 6.3% of loci. The number of isolates with heteroresistance was highest for gyrA codon 94, rpoB codons 526 and 531, and embB codons 306, 372 and 406 (range 11-26% of isolates exhibited heteroresistance)...
2017: PloS One
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