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Nox, lung disease

Natalia D Magnani, Timoteo Marchini, Mariana Garcés, Andrea Mebert, Lourdes Cáceres, Luis Diaz, Martín Desimone, Pablo A Evelson
Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive correlation between daily increases in airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration and the occurrence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Transition metals present in air PM were associated with adverse health effects after PM exposure. The aim of this work was to study lung O2 metabolism after an acute exposure to transition metal-coated nanoparticles (NPs). Female Swiss mice (25g) were intranasally instilled with a suspension of silica NP containing Ni (II), Cd (II), Fe (III), or Cr (VI) at 0, 0...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Pei-Chen Lee, Li-Ling Liu, Yu Sun, Yu-An Chen, Chih-Ching Liu, Chung-Yi Li, Hwa-Lung Yu, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with many health conditions, but little is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the influence of ambient air pollution on PD in a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan. METHODS: We identified 11,117 incident PD patients between 2007 and 2009 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database and selected 44,468 age- and gender-matched population controls from the longitudinal health insurance database...
September 8, 2016: Environment International
Daniel Hernández-Saavedra, Linda Sanders, Mario J Perez, Beata Kosmider, Lynelle P Smith, John D Mitchell, Toshinori Yoshida, Rubin M Tuder
Tobacco smoke (TS) causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease including, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. Rtp801, an inhibitor of mTORC1, is induced by oxidative stress triggered by TS. Its upregulation drives lung susceptibility to TS injury by means of enhancing inflammation and alveolar destruction. We postulated that Rtp801 is not only increased by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TS, but it is instrumental in creating a feedforward process leading to amplification of endogenous ROS generation...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Feng Chen, Xueyi Li, Emily Aquadro, Stephen Haigh, Jiliang Zhou, David W Stepp, Neal L Weintraub, Scott A Barman, David J R Fulton
Excessive levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) have been proposed to contribute to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Nox enzymes are major sources of ROS but the mechanisms regulating changes in Nox expression in disease states remain poorly understood. Epigenetics encompasses a number of mechanisms that cells employ to regulate the ability to read and transcribe DNA. Histone acetylation is a prominent example of an epigenetic mechanism regulating the expression of numerous genes by altering chromatin accessibility...
August 3, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Borja Ocón, Carlos J Aranda, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, María Dolores Suárez, Antonio Zarzuelo, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
Glucocorticoids are widely used for the management of inflammatory bowel disease, albeit with known limitations for long-term use and relevant adverse effects. In turn, they have harmful effects in experimental colitis. We aimed to explore the mechanism and possible implications of this phenomenon. Regular and microbiota depleted C57BL/6 mice were exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis and treated with budesonide. Colonic inflammation and animal status were compared. In vitro epithelial models of wound healing were used to confirm the effects of glucocorticoids...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Himanshu Meghwani, Pankaj Prabhakar, Soheb A Mohammed, Sandeep Seth, Milind P Hote, Sanjay K Banerjee, Sudheer Arava, Ruma Ray, Subir Kumar Maulik
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) is widely used in Ayurveda in various cardiovascular diseases. Many animal and clinical studies have validated its anti-ischemic, antihypertensive, antihypertrophic and antioxidant effects. Pulmonary hypertension (pH) is a fatal disease which causes right ventricular hypertrophy and right heart failure. Pulmonary vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy and increased oxidative stress are major pathological features of pH...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Zarrin Basharat, Abdelmonaem Messaoudi, Sehrish Ruba, Azra Yasmin
Gene-environment interaction studies have led to the identification of genetic mutations in individuals with increased susceptibility to pollution related diseases. rs1800566 polymorphism of NQO1, leading to P187S missense mutation in the transcribed antioxidant protein, causes individuals carrying this mutation more prone to NO2 induced lung inflammatory injury. Here, we report significant structural and functional changes incurred by NQO1 antioxidant protein as a result of alteration in its nucleotide (C609T) and hence, protein sequence...
October 10, 2016: Gene
Ana Beatriz Gobbo Luz, Carlos Henrique Blum da Silva, Marcus Vinicius P S Nascimento, Bruno Matheus de Campos Facchin, Bruna Baratto, Tânia Silvia Fröde, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Eduardo Monguilhott Dalmarco
Ilex paraguariensis is a native plant from Southern America, where it is used as a beverage. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat many diseases including inflammation. However, we do not yet know precisely how this effect occurs. We therefore evaluated its anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model of pleurisy. The standardized CE, BF and ARF fractions, Caf, Rut and CGA were able to reduce leukocyte migration, exudate concentration, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels. Moreover, I. paraguariensis also inhibited the release of Th1/Th17 pro-inflammatory cytokines, while increasing IL-10 production and improving the histological architecture of inflamed lungs...
May 4, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Armen N Akopian, E Robert Fanick, Edward G Brooks
Environmental pollutant exposures are major risk factors for adverse health outcomes, with increased morbidity and mortality in humans. Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the major harmful components of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure to DE affects several physiological systems, including the airways, and pulmonary diseases are increased in highly populated urban areas. Hence, there are urgent needs to (1) create newer and lesser polluting fuels, (2) improve exhaust aftertreatments and reduce emissions, and (3) understand mechanisms of actions for toxic effects of both conventional and cleaner diesel fuels on the lungs...
May 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
Chuen-Mao Yang, Chih-Chung Lin, Hsi-Lung Hsieh
An elevated level of glucose has been found in the blood of hyperglycemia and diabetes patients associated with several central nervous system (CNS) complications. These disorders may be due to the up-regulation of many neurotoxic mediators by host cells triggered by high glucose (HG). Moreover, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a crucial role in tissue pathological changes such as brain injuries. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HG-induced HO-1 expression in brain cells remain poorly defined. Thus, we use the rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1) as a model to investigate the signaling mechanisms of HO-1 induction by HG and its effects on neuronal cells...
January 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Hsi-Lung Hsieh, Sien-Hung Yang, Tsong-Hai Lee, Jia-You Fang, Chwan-Fwu Lin
Phytochemicals present in vegetables, fruits, and herbs are believed to reduce the risk of several major diseases including cardiovascular or neurodegenerative disorders. The roots of the fern Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook. (Ophioglossaceae) have been used for centuries in the treatment of inflammation and as a folk medicine in several countries. The plant has been shown to possess an array of medicinal properties, including antioxidants and anti-inflammatory activities. Moreover, a rising level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been found in blood fluid of these patients suffering from brain inflammatory diseases, which may be considered an inflammatory biomarker in several inflammatory diseases including the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation...
November 2, 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
Tien-Hung Huang, Yen-Ta Chen, Pei-Hsun Sung, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Yung-Lung Chen, Han-Tan Chai, Sheng-Ying Chung, Tzu-Hsien Tsai, Chih-Chao Yang, Chih-Hung Chen, Yi-Ling Chen, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that peripheral blood-derived endothelial progenitor cell (PBDEPC) therapy can impede the deterioration of chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult-male rats (n = 30) were equally categorized into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (CKD only) and group 3 [CKD + PBDEPC (left intra-arterial (3.3 × 10(5)) and penile vein (6.7 × 10(5)) injections by day 14 after CKD induction]...
2015: American Journal of Translational Research
Sara E Hartmann, Xavier Waltz, Christine K Kissel, Lian Szabo, Brandie L Walker, Richard Leigh, Todd J Anderson, Marc J Poulin
Acute hypoxia increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) and ventilation (V̇e). It is unknown if these responses are impacted with normal aging, or in patients with enhanced oxidative stress, such as (COPD). The purpose of the study was to 1) investigate the effects of aging and COPD on the cerebrovascular and ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia, and 2) to assess the effect of vitamin C on these responses during hypoxia. In 12 Younger, 14 Older, and 12 COPD, we measured peak cerebral blood flow velocity (V̄p; index of CBF), and V̇e during two 5-min periods of acute isocapnic hypoxia, under conditions of 1) saline-sham; and 2) intravenous vitamin C...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Cheryl Pirozzi, Anne Sturrock, Hsin-Yi Weng, Tom Greene, Mary Beth Scholand, Richard Kanner, Robert Paine
This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution...
May 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Krishnendu Roy, Yongzhong Wu, Jennifer L Meitzler, Agnes Juhasz, Han Liu, Guojian Jiang, Jiamo Lu, Smitha Antony, James H Doroshow
The mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by tumour cells remained incompletely understood until the discovery over the last 15 years of the family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs 1-5 and dual oxidases DUOX1/2) which are structural homologues of gp91phox, the major membrane-bound component of the respiratory burst oxidase of leucocytes. Knowledge of the roles of the NOX isoforms in cancer is rapidly expanding. Recent evidence suggests that both NOX1 and DUOX2 species produce ROS in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of chronic inflammatory stress; cytokine induction (by interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor α, and interleukins IL-4 and IL-13) of NOX1 and DUOX2 may contribute to the development of colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis, respectively...
June 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
Emmanuelle Charrin, Emeline Aufradet, Aymeric Douillard, Aymen Romdhani, Genevieve De Souza, Amine Bessaad, Camille Faes, Erica N Chirico, Vincent Pialoux, Cyril Martin
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sickle cell disease (SCD) physiopathology. Given that chronic physical activity is known to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in healthy subjects and in patients with cardiovascular or inflammatory pathologies, modulating these factors involved in the severity of the pathology could also be beneficial in SCD. This study aimed to determine if 8 weeks of increased physical activity (PA) by voluntary wheel running affects the hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) responses by reducing oxidative stress and increasing NO synthesis in sickle SAD mice...
March 2015: British Journal of Haematology
Elizabeth R Jarman, Valerie S Khambata, Li Yun Ye, Kenneth Cheung, Matthew Thomas, Nicholas Duggan, Gabor Jarai
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive interstitial lung disease, in which a decline in patient prognosis is frequently associated with the onset of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Animal models exhibiting principle pathophysiological features of IPF and PH could provide greater insight into mechanistic pathways underlying disease progression and a means for evaluating novel therapeutic approaches for intervention. Here, we describe an in vivo disease model, in which animals develop progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and associated PH, as defined by the presence of fibrotic foci adjacent to areas of alveolar injury and remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature...
September 1, 2014: Physiological Reports
Philip L Ballard, Roberta L Keller, Dennis M Black, David J Durand, Jeffrey D Merrill, Eric C Eichenwald, William E Truog, Mark C Mammel, Robin Steinhorn, Rita M Ryan, Sherry E Courtney, Hart Horneman, Roberta A Ballard
OBJECTIVE: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been tested to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants, however, the role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is not known. We hypothesized that levels of NO metabolites (NOx) and cGMP in urine, as a noninvasive source for biospecimen collection, would reflect the dose of iNO and relate to pulmonary outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Studies were performed on 125 infants who required mechanical ventilation at 7 to 14 days and received 24 days of iNO at 20-2 ppm...
February 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
Fayong Luo, Yan Zhuang, Mark D Sides, Cecilia G Sanchez, Bin Shan, Eric S White, Joseph A Lasky
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease of insidious onset, and is responsible for up to 30,000 deaths per year in the U.S. Excessive production of extracellular matrix by myofibroblasts has been shown to be an important pathological feature in IPF. TGF-β1 is expressed in fibrotic lung and promotes fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation (FMD) as well as matrix deposition. METHODS: To identify the mechanism of Arsenic trioxide's (ATO)'s anti-fibrotic effect in vitro, normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs) were treated with ATO for 24 hours and were then exposed to TGF-β1 (1 ng/ml) before harvesting at multiple time points...
2014: Respiratory Research
Jeremy A Scott, MyLinh Duongh, Aaron W Young, Padmaja Subbarao, Gail M Gauvreau, Hartmut Grasemann
L-arginine metabolism including the nitric oxide (NO) synthase and arginase pathways is important in the maintenance of airways function. We have previously reported that accumulation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in airways, resulting in changes in L-arginine metabolism, contributes to airways obstruction in asthma and cystic fibrosis. Herein, we assessed L-arginine metabolism in airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung function testing, measurement of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) and sputum NO metabolites, as well as quantification of L-arginine metabolites (L-arginine, L-ornithine, L-citrulline, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were performed...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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