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Xianghong Arakaki, Michael Shoga, Lianyang Li, George Zouridakis, Thao Tran, Alfred N Fonteh, Jessica Dawlaty, Robert Goldweber, Janice M Pogoda, Michael G Harrington
Diagnosing and monitoring recovery of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is challenging because of the lack of objective, quantitative measures. Diagnosis is based on description of injuries often not witnessed, subtle neurocognitive symptoms, and neuropsychological testing. Since working memory (WM) is at the center of cognitive functions impaired in mTBI, this study was designed to define objective quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) measures of WM processing that may correlate with cognitive changes associated with acute mTBI...
2018: PloS One
Matthias Griese
Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD) are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD) has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Tsukasa Kamakura, Mitsuru Wada, Kohei Ishibashi, Yuko Y Inoue, Koji Miyamoto, Hideo Okamura, Satoshi Nagase, Takashi Noda, Takeshi Aiba, Satoshi Yasuda, Wataru Shimizu, Shiro Kamakura, Kengo Kusano
BACKGROUND: Previously described patients with early repolarization syndrome (ERS) may have experienced silent coronary artery spasm (CAS) because the diagnosis of CAS was mainly based on symptoms or coronary angiography findings, without performing a spasm provocation test. This study investigated the significance of CAS diagnosis and evaluated the incidence of silent CAS in patients with possible ERS (ie, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation [VF] and inferolateral J wave). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 34 patients with idiopathic VF and inferolateral J wave...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Joao Henrique Neves Soares, Alysson Roncally Carvalho, Bruno Curty Bergamini, Maria Alice Kuster Gress, Frederico Caetano Jandre, Walter Araujo Zin, Antonio Giannella-Neto
PURPOSE: We compared respiratory mechanics between the positive end-expiratory pressure of minimal respiratory system elastance (PEEP minErs ) and three levels of PEEP during low-tidal-volume (6 mL/kg) ventilation in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Airway pressure (P aw ), flow (F), and volume (V) were fitted by a linear single compartment model (LSCM) P aw (t) = E rs × V(t) + R rs × F(t) + PEEP or a volume- and flow-dependent SCM (VFDSCM) P aw (t) = (E 1 + E 2 × V(t)) × V(t) + (K 1 + K 2 × |F(t)|) × F(t) + PEEP, where E rs and R rs are respiratory system elastance and resistance, respectively; E 1 and E 2 × V are volume-independent and volume-dependent E rs , respectively; and K 1 and K 2 × F are flow-independent and flow-dependent R rs , respectively...
February 12, 2018: Lung
Adil Deniz Duru, Moataz Assem
Neural efficiency is proposed as one of the neural mechanisms underlying elite athletic performances. Previous sports studies examined neural efficiency using tasks that involve motor functions. In this study we investigate the extent of neural efficiency beyond motor tasks by using a mental subtraction task. A group of elite karate athletes are compared to a matched group of non-athletes. Electroencephalogram is used to measure cognitive dynamics during resting and increased mental workload periods. Mainly posterior alpha band power of the karate players was found to be higher than control subjects under both tasks...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Dragana Škiljić, Anne Petersen, Jan-Olof Karlsson, Anders Behndig, Staffan Nilsson, Madeleine Zetterberg
PURPOSE: Protective effects of estradiol against H2O2-induced oxidative stress have been demonstrated in lens epithelial cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the different superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes, SOD-1, SOD-2, and SOD-3, as well as estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, in primary cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HLECs were exposed to 0.1 µM or 1 µM E2 for 1...
February 12, 2018: Current Eye Research
Jian-Hui Li, Jun-Jun Jia, Wen Shen, Sha-Sha Chen, Li Jiang, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) causes postoperative complications and influences the outcome of the patients undergoing liver surgery and transplantation. Postconditioning (PostC) is a known manual conditioning to decrease the hepatic IRI. Here we aimed to optimize the applicable PostC protocols and investigate the potential protective mechanism. METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the sham group (n = 5), standard orthotopic liver transplantation group (OLT, n = 5), PostC group (OLT followed by clamping and re-opening the portal vein for different time intervals, n = 20)...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Masahiro Hata, Ryu Kurimoto, Hiroaki Kazui, Ryouhei Ishii, Leonides Canuet, Yasunori Aoki, Shunichiro Ikeda, Shingo Azuma, Takashi Suehiro, Shunsuke Sato, Yukiko Suzuki, Hideki Kanemoto, Kenji Yoshiyama, Masao Iwase, Manabu Ikeda
BACKGROUND: The electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities found in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are conflicting. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography, which has higher spatial resolution than electroencephalography, to explore neurophysiological features of DLB that may aid in the differential diagnosis. METHODS: Six patients with DLB, 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 11 age-matched normal subjects were recruited. We investigated alterations in the ratio of event-related synchronization (ERS) in the alpha band after eye-closing...
February 8, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Donglin Xia, Hong He, Ying Wang, Kaiyu Wang, Huaqin Zuo, Haiying Gu, Peipei Xu, Yong Hu
Insulin (INS) delivery system that can mimic normal insulin secretion to maintain the blood glucose level (BGL) in the normal range is an ideal treatment for diabetes. However, most of the existing closed-loop INS delivery systems respond slowly to the changes in BGL, resulting in a time lag between the abnormal BGL and the release of INS, which is not suitable for practical application. In this study, glucose oxidase (GOx)-modified erythrocytes are used as INS carriers (GOx-INS-ER) that can rapidly self-regulate the release of INS upon the changes in BGL...
February 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Milan Hano, Lenka Tomášová, Mário Šereš, Lucia Pavlíková, Albert Breier, Zdena Sulová
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenotype of cancer cells with reduced sensitivity to a wide range of unrelated drugs. P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-a drug efflux pump (ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter gene family)-is frequently observed to be a molecular cause of MDR. The drug-efflux activity of P-gp is considered as the underlying mechanism of drug resistance against P-gp substrates and results in failure of cancer chemotherapy. Several pathological impulses such as shortages of oxygen and glucose supply, alterations of calcium storage mechanisms and/or processes of protein N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to ER stress (ERS), characterized by elevation of unfolded protein cell content and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
February 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kangmao Huang, Yanyan Chen, Rui Zhang, Yizheng Wu, Yan Ma, Xiangqian Fang, Shuying Shen
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, the long-term survival of which has stagnated in the past several decades. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effect of honokiol (HNK), an active component isolated and purified from the magnolia officinalis on human osteosarcoma cells. Our results showed that honokiol caused dose-dependent and time-dependent cell death in human osteosarcoma cells. The types of cell death induced by honokiol were primarily autophagy and apoptosis...
February 6, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Y R Li, C C Xiao, J Li, J Tang, X Y Geng, L J Cui, J X Zhai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between air pollution and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children aged 0-14 years in Hefei, China in 2014-2015. STUDY DESIGN: An ecological method (i.e. generalised additive model [GAM]) was used to explore the effects of air pollutants on paediatric hospital outpatients with URTI. METHODS: GAM was used to evaluate the lag effects (including lag0 to lag6, lag01 and lag06) between daily changes in particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2...
February 2, 2018: Public Health
Yun Zhang, Saiyu Li, Juanjuan Li, Liwen Han, Qiuxia He, Rongchun Wang, Ximin Wang, Kechun Liu
The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and provide a more thorough understanding of the toxicity of PM2.5 in an ecological environment. Zebrafish embryos at 4 h post-fertilization were exposed to PM2.5 at doses of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 μg/mL for 120 h. The mortality, hatching rate, morphology score, body length, locomotor capacity, histological changes, antioxidant defense system, leukocyte migration, inflammation-related gene mRNA expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and autophagy were evaluated to study PM2...
January 25, 2018: Chemosphere
Catherine B Stroud, Effua E Sosoo, Sylia Wilson
Nolen-Hoeksema proposed that rumination increases stressful events and circumstances; however, few studies have examined this question. Thus, we explored whether (a) rumination predicted increases in the generation of chronic and acute stress, (b) excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) mediated links between rumination and stress generation, (c) rumination increased exposure to acute independent (uncontrollable) stress, and (d) rumination predicted chronic stress generation in certain domains, but not others. These questions were examined in a 1-year study of 126 early adolescent girls ( M age = 12...
February 2018: Journal of Early Adolescence
Mostafa M Elkholy, Asmaa M Ebraheim, Neveen M ElFayoumy
OBJECTIVE: Variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction have been reported in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS). Our aim was to perform quantitative analyses of the brain responses to cognitive tasks using event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) and correlating the results with the scores of neuropsychological tests in patients with BCECTS. METHODS: This case control study included 30 patients with BCECTS and 20 controls...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Xiaoyu Song, Bo Liu, Lingyu Cui, Biao Zhou, Lu Liu, Weiwei Liu, Guodong Yao, Mingyu Xia, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shunji Hattori, Yuko Ushiki-Kaku, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takashi Ikejima
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a cascade of pathologic changes. A widely discussed theory indicates that amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are the causative agents of AD. Silibinin, a flavonoid derived from milk thistle, is well known for its hepato-protective activities and we have reported the neuroprotective effects of silibinin. In this study, we investigated the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in silibinin's neuroprotective effect on Aβ1-42-injected rats...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Hao Yao, Cheng-Cheng Ji, Yun-Jiu Cheng, Xu-Miao Chen, Li-Juan Liu, Jun Fan, Su-Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that mutation in KCNE1, β-subunits of cardiac potassium channel, involved in ventricular fibrillation. Whereas its role in early repolarization syndrome (ERS) is less well understood. OBJECTIVE: To study whether mutant in KCNE1 is associated with ERS and explore the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Whole genome from four unrelated families with ERS was amplified and sequenced. Wild-type (WT) KCNE1 and/or KCNE1-S38G (S38G) were expressed in HEK293 cells with KCNQ1...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Emmanuelle Charpentier
Emmanuelle Charpentier is a French microbiologist, geneticist and biochemist. She is a Director at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin, Honorary Professor at Humboldt University, Visiting Professor at Umeå University and recipient of an Alexander von Humboldt Professorship. Prior to her current appointments, she worked at several other institutions in Germany, Sweden, Austria, the US and France. Emmanuelle Charpentier's research on a bacterial immune system laid the foundation for the ground-breaking CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering technology...
January 30, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Chenxi Lu, Wei Hu, Ting Ji, Mengzhen Han, Yang Yang, Zhenxiao Jin
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle present in most eukaryotic cells and plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. ER dysfunction, specifically ER stress (ERS), is a pathophysiological response involved in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular lesions. Therefore, suppression of ERS may improve lipid metabolic disorders and reduce cardiovascular risk. Herein, we focus on novel breakthroughs regarding the roles of ERS in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as the internal mechanisms of ERS and its status as a potential therapeutic target...
February 1, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Sicong Tian, Baolong Li, Peng Lei, Xiuli Yang, Xiaohong Zhang, Yongping Bao, Yujuan Shan
SCOPE: To investigate the effect of sulforaphane (SFN) on the abnormal lipid metabolism and underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Models with abnormal lipid metabolism were established both in rats and human hepatocytes. Hepatic steatosis was detected by H&E and oil red O staining. The structure of endoplasmic reticulum was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and lipogenic enzymes were determined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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