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Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Cedric Le May, Joseph P Tiano, Suhuan Liu, Gamze Kilic-Berkmen, Jun Ho Kim
In rodent models of insulin-deficient diabetes, 17β-estradiol (E2) protects pancreatic insulin-producing β-cells against oxidative stress, amyloid polypeptide toxicity, gluco-lipotoxicity, and apoptosis. Three estrogen receptors (ERs)-ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled ER (GPER)-have been identified in rodent and human β-cells. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of the role of ERs in islet β-cell function, nutrient homeostasis, survival from pro-apoptotic stimuli, and proliferation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fei Feng, Qian Ren, Song Wu, Muhammad Saeed, Chao Sun
Homeobox A5(Hoxa5), a member of the Hox family, plays a important role in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in cancer cells. The dysregulation of the adipocyte apoptosis in vivo leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. However, the effects of Hoxa5 on adipocyte apoptosis are still unknown. In this study, palmitic acid (PA) significantly increased the mRNA level of Hoxa5 and triggered white adipocyte apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Further analysis revealed that Hoxa5 enhanced the early and late apoptotic cells and fragmentation of genomic DNA in adipocytes from inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) of mice...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Carlotta Granchi, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Filippo Minutolo
The Warburg effect describes how most cancer cells exhibit higher-than-normal glucose consumption, not only under hypoxic conditions, but also when normal oxygen levels are present. Although glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) has been found to play a key role in the cellular uptake of glucose, especially in cancer cells, where it is generally overexpressed, it has not been given consideration as a suitable target for the development of anticancer drugs. In this chapter, an example of molecular design and realization of novel GLUT1 inhibitors, including in silico modeling, chemical synthesis, and biological characterization, is provided...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Athanasios G Kaditis, Maria Luz Alonso Alvarez, An Boudewyns, Francois Abel, Emmanouel I Alexopoulos, Refika Ersu, Koen Joosten, Helena Larramona, Silvia Miano, Indra Narang, Hui-Leng Tan, Ha Trang, Marina Tsaoussoglou, Nele Vandenbussche, Maria Pia Villa, Dick Van Waardenburg, Silke Weber, Stijn Verhulst
The present statement was produced by a European Respiratory Society Task Force to summarise the evidence and current practice on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children aged 1-23 months. A systematic literature search was completed and 159 articles were summarised to answer clinically relevant questions. SDB is suspected when symptoms or abnormalities related to upper airway obstruction are identified. Morbidity (pulmonary hypertension, growth delay, behavioural problems) and coexisting conditions (feeding difficulties, recurrent otitis media) may be present...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Jee-Ae Kim, Min Kyoung Lim, Kunil Kim, JuHee Park, Chin Kook Rhee
BACKGROUND: Adherence to inhaled medication regimens affects chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis and quality of life, and reduces the use of healthcare services, resulting in cost savings. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of adherence to inhaled medication regimens on healthcare utilization and costs in high-grade COPD patients. METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective cohort study using a longitudinal data set from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (2008-2013) containing healthcare services' information for 50 million beneficiaries...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
(no author information available yet)
ERS Publications Chair, Andy Bush, gives an insight into his life
December 2017: Breathe
Isaac Almendros, Sabine Bartel, Clementine Bostantzoglou, Jamil Jubrail, Mareike Lehmann, Darcy Wagner
.@EarlyCareerERS looks back on #LSC2017
December 2017: Breathe
Wei Hao, Rui Yang, Yang Yang, Sheng Jin, Yanqing Li, Fang Yuan, Qi Guo, Lin Xiao, Xin Wang, Fuwei Wang, Yuming Wu, Xu Teng
AIMS: Vascular calcification (VC) underlies substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. No clinically therapies have emerged presently. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is one of the most often used sympathetic blockade procedure, and regulates vascular dilation. However, the effect of SGB on VC is still unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify the ameliorative effect of SGB on VC. KEY FINDING: In vivo VC was induced in rats by administering vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN), and in vitro calcification of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was induced by β-glycerophosphate...
December 2, 2017: Life Sciences
Lei Jing, Xue-Wen Jia
Palmitate (PA) has been identified to induce cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. The c‑Jun NH2‑teminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) were found to be important contributors. Therefore, natural or synthetic agents may antagonize PA‑induced apoptosis in osteoblasts, and demonstrate the potential application to reverse osteoporosis. The present study demonstrated that the Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is as a major active ingredient of Lycium barbarum and that it can reduce the fatty acid toxicity of PA...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiaotong Meng, Yue Zhu, Lin Tao, Sichao Zhao, Shui Qiu
The present study aimed to investigate the role of periostin (POSTN) and high melatonin concentrations in the apoptosis of hFOB 1.19 human normal fetal osteoblastic cells. hFOB 1.19 human osteoblastic cells were stably cultured and treated in different concentrations of melatonin for different durations of action. Apoptosis was assessed quantitatively using flow cytometric analysis. The results of western blot analysis demonstrated that the treatment of cells with different concentrations of melatonin for different durations of action revealed a positive association between melatonin and the expression levels of glucose‑regulated protein (GRP)78, GRP94, phosphorylated (p‑) eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), activating transcription factor (ATF)4, CCAAT/enhanced binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase‑3, p‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and POSTN...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Dorota Jędroszka, Magdalena Orzechowska, Raneem Hamouz, Karolina Górniak, Andrzej K Bednarek
INTRODUCTION: Prostate carcinoma (PRAD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies amongst men worldwide. It is well-known that androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in a vast majority of prostate tumors. However, recent evidence emerged stating that estrogen receptors (ERs) may also contribute to prostate tumor development. Moreover, progression and aggressiveness of prostate cancer may be associated with differential expression genes of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
2017: PloS One
Qian Jiang, Jiashun Chen, Shaojuan Liu, Gang Liu, Kang Yao, Yulong Yin
Intestinal absorption and barrier malfunctions are associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in the intestine. We induced ERS by exposing the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) to tunicamycin (TUNI) to explore the potential of l-glutamine to reduce ERS-induced apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrated that exposing cells to TUNI results in spontaneous ERS and encourages the upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Prolonged TUNI-induced ERS was found to increase apoptosis mediated by C/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), accompanied by GRP78 downregulation...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sofia Chatzidou, Evangelos Repasos, Sotiris Plastiras, Christos Kontogiannis, Marinos Kosmopoulos, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Ioannis Paraskevaidis, Stelios Rokas
Early repolarization syndrome (ERS) was originally considered a normal variant with benign outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that it can be linked to a considerable risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We report a case with an extraordinary, extremely malignant clinical expression of ERS refractory to all antiarrhythmic drugs including quinidine. This case demonstrates real-time changes of dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG) preceding a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT)-ventricular fibrillation (VF) and possible external factors triggering arrhythmia onset...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Seung Suk Kang, Angus W MacDonald, Matthew V Chafee, Chang-Hwan Im, Edward M Bernat, Nicholas D Davenport, Scott R Sponheim
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the origins of working memory (WM) impairment in schizophrenia we investigated cortical oscillatory activity in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) while they performed a WM task requiring encoding, maintenance, and retrieval/manipulation processes of spatial information. METHODS: We examined time-frequency synchronous energy of cortical source signals that were derived from magnetoencephalography (MEG) localized to cortical regions using WM-related hemodynamic responses and individualized structural head-models...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Andreas Bloch, Corina Tomaschett, Stephan Jakob, Andreas Schwinghammer, Timo Schmid
INTRODUCTION: Compression ultrasound is a non-invasive technique allowing for qualitative visualization and quantitative measurements of mechanical tissue properties. In acute compartment syndrome (ACS), cadaver studies have proven that the intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) measured by compression sonography correlates with the ICP measured invasively. This study aimed to evaluate compression sonography for compartment pressure measurements in an animal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The pressure in the anterior tibial compartment of 6 domestic pig legs was increased from baseline to 40mmHg in 5mmHg steps...
November 27, 2017: Injury
Amanda J Cox, Ping Zhang, Donald W Bowden, Benedict Devereaux, Peter M Davoren, Allan W Cripps, Nicholas P West
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The contribution of gut-derived factors to the mechanisms linking obesity and metabolic disease remain under-investigated. The aim of the current study was examine the associations between glucagon and enteroendocrine signaling and type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a derived risk score approach. To compare the relative importance of the enteroendocrine system, associations between adipokine measures and T2D were also investigated METHODS: A total of 130 individuals with T2D and 161 individuals without T2D were included in the study...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sijie Lu, R A Nand, J S Yang, Gang Chen, A S Gross
PURPOSE: The aim of this analysis is to compare the pharmacokinetics of drug substrates in healthy Chinese and European subjects of aligned CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP2D6 enzyme activity, providing further insight into drivers of interethnic differences in pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Following identification of appropriate drug substrates, a comprehensive and structured literature search was conducted to identify single-dose pharmacokinetic data in healthy Chinese or European subjects with reported CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP2D6 activity (genotype or phenotype)...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jiaxin Liu, Shuai Zhou, Xiying Qian, Yueting Zhang, Jianhua Zhao
Objective To investigate the protective effect of lentivirus-mediated BI-1 overexpression on hippocampal neurons in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum IRE1-JNK signaling pathway. Methods The lentivirus solution of BI-1 over-expression was injected into the brain of rats 24 hours before SAH rat model was established by intravascular puncture method. At 24 hours after modeling, the brain water content and neurological score of the rats were measured. The apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was detected by TUNEL assay...
October 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Maarten Olivier Kok, Roland Bal, Caspar David Roelefs, Albertine Jantine Schuit
BACKGROUND: In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert committees rate available health promotion interventions as 'theoretically sound', 'probably effective' or 'proven effective'. The aim of this study is to explore the functioning of the ERS and the perspective of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners regarding its contribution to improvement...
November 23, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
Wei Ding, Tingyan Liu, Xiao Bi, Zhiling Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Growing evidence suggests mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) and the Nlrp3 inflammasome play critical roles in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. We previously reported that Aldosterone (Aldo)-induced renal injury in vitro is directly caused by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS)-mediated activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Here we aimed to determine whether a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (Mito-Tempo) could prevent Aldo-induced kidney damage in vivo...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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